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Title: Creative Problem Solving Workshop: International Conference on Creativity Education


1
Creative Problem Solving Workshop
International Conference on Creativity Education
  • Gerard J. Puccio, Ph.D.
  • International Center for Studies in Creativity
  • State University of New York, Buffalo State

2
Please feel free to contact our graduate student,
contest expert, ???.(Go to Yahoo and enter
???, you will find the introduction in Chinese.
)???????????????E-mailkuokie_at_gmail.comWebh
ttp//kevinfu.blog.youthwant.com.tw/(?yahoo?????
?????? ?????????????????)
3
Workshop Objectives
  • Learn to separate divergent from convergent
    thinking
  • Learn and apply tools for clarifying problems
  • Learn and apply tools for generating ideas
  • Learn and apply tools to transform ideas into
    solutions
  • Identify specific ways to transfer Creative
    Problem Solving tools into the classroom other
    areas of use within the educational context

4
Why should educators be concerned about
promoting student creativity?.
5
Workplace Basics
Carnevale, A. P., Gainer, L. J., Meltzer, A. S.
Workplace basics.
  • The Foundation
  • Knowing how to learn
  • Competence
  • Reading, writing, and computation
  • Communication
  • Listening and oral communication
  • Adaptability
  • Creative thinking and problem solving
  • Personal Management
  • Self esteem, goal setting, motivation, personal
    and career development
  • Group Effectiveness Interpersonal skills,
    negotiation, team work
  • Influence Organizational
    effectiveness and leadership

6
Beyond Workplace 2000
  • Effective performance in the workplace beyond
    2000 requires three foundational skills
  • Basic Skills (Reading, writing, arithmetic and
    mathematics, speaking and listening)
  • Thinking Skills (Thinking creatively, making
    decisions, solving problems, seeing things in the
    minds eye, knowing how to learn, and reasoning)
  • Personal Qualities (Individual responsibility,
    self-esteem, sociability, self-management, and
    integrity).

(Boyett Boyett, 1994 based on SCANS report)
7
Wall Street Journal Report
  • What Recruiters Expect from
  • B-School Grads
  • Original and Visionary Thinking
  • Analytic and Problem Solving Skills
  • Strategic Thinking
  • Adaptability (ability to deal with ambiguity)

Alsop (2001, 2002, 2003)
8
21st Century Skills, Education
CompetitivenessA Resource Policy Guide
  • All Americans, not just the elite, need 21st
    century skills that will increase their
    marketability, employability and readiness for
    citizenship, such as
  • Thinking critically and making judgments
  • Solving complex, multidisciplinary, open-ended
    problems
  • Creativity and entrepreneurial thinking
  • Communicating and collaborating
  • Making innovative use of knowledge, information
    and opportunities
  • Taking charge of financial, health and civic
    responsibilities

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008
9
Everyday Creativity
  • To live is to have problems and to solve
    problems is to grow creatively.
  • J. P. Guilford (1968, p. 12)

10
Creative Capital
  • Human creativity is the ultimate economic
    resource. The ability to come up with new ideas
    and better ways of doing things is ultimately
    what raises productivity and thus living
    standards
  • (Florida, 2002, p. xiii).

11
Introduction to Creative Problem Solving
Creative Process
12
Creativity Exercise
  • Come up with three interesting creative
    sentences that contain these three words
  • Round
  • Yellow
  • Sour

13
Dynamic Balance The Core to the CPS Process
Diverge
Diverge
Area of Familiarity
Area of Discovery
Area of Discovery
Converge
Converge
14
Dynamic Balance The Core to the CPS Process
  • Divergent Thinking
  • Guidelines
  • Suspend Judgment
  • Strive for Quantity
  • Allow for Combinations
  • Seek Novel Associations

Diverge
Diverge
Area of Familiarity
Area of Discovery
Area of Discovery
Converge
Converge
15
Dynamic Balance The Core to the CPS Process
Diverge
Diverge
Area of Familiarity
  • Convergent Thinking
  • Guidelines
  • Use Affirmative Judgment
  • Consider Novelty
  • Check Your Objectives
  • Be Deliberate

Area of Discovery
Area of Discovery
Converge
Converge
16
Divergent Thinking Guidelines
  • Suspend Judgment
  • Go for Quantity
  • Allow for Combinations
  • Seek Novel Associations

17
Divergent Thinking Activity
How to improve a bathtub?
18
Realistic Problem
  • How might we better promote the creative thinking
    skills of our students?

19
Creative Problem Solving The Thinking Skills
Model
Creative Leadership Skills That Drive Change
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2007)
Puccio, Murdock Mance (2007)
20
Thinking Skills Associated with CPS
21
Sample Tools within Creative Problem Solving
22
Creative Problem Solving The Thinking Skills
Model
Creative Leadership Skills That Drive Change
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2007)
Puccio, Murdock Mance (2007)
23
Visionary Thinking
  • Articulating a vivid image of what you desire
    to create

24
Cartoon Storyboard
  • A visual tool designed to develop a vision of a
    desired outcome and to identify the potential
    blocks that need to be overcome in order to
    achieve the goal.

25
Cartoon Storyboard - Purpose
  • Using the imaginative power of drawing, Cartoon
    Storyboard is a visual tool that can help
  • Develop a vivid image of a goal / desired
    outcome (personal or for the organization)
  • Clarify the route to achieve it and
  • Identify key-challenges (potential blocks) that
    need to be overcome to attain the goal.
  • It can be applied individually as well as within
    a
  • group (by building on the images/stories provided
    by
  • each individual).

26
Cartoon Storyboard- Directions
  • Preparation Draw six square boxes on a sheet of
    paper/ flipchart (landscape position) and label
    them 1 to 6.
  • Where are your going?
  • Relax and get an image in your mind of a goal
    that you are trying to achieve transport
    yourself forward in time to the point where you
    have achieved your goal successfully (What does
    it feel like? What is happening?). Draw in Box 6
    a picture that conveys to you this situation.
  • Where are you now?
  • Bring your imagination back to present.
    Form a mental image that summarizes the major
    elements of the current situation and draw it in
    Box 1.
  • Intermediate turning points.
  • Depict a sequence of four key-intermediate steps
    that lead you to successfully move from the
    current reality to the desired situation draw
    the four key-scenes of the drama in Boxes 2-5.
  • Potential Blocks.
  • Spend some time to look at the sequence of
    pictures and think of what must be overcome in
    order to make this progression and achieve the
    desired goal. Write a word or brief phrase under
    each picture to show what might block the
    progression at that point these are the key
    challenges you must overcome.

27
Cartoon Storyboard- Dianes Example
Current Reality
How to develop an open attitude towards feedback?
How to create a space that inspires writing?
Graduation
How to sustain energy and focus?
In what ways might I gain support in working on
the final details?
Desired Future
28
Source
  • Cartoon Storyboard is a technique developed by
    Jane Henry, who chairs the course in Creativity,
    Innovation and Change at the Open University
    Business School (UK).
  • The tool has been retrieved in the Open
    University website.
  • .

29
Creative Problem Solving The Thinking Skills
Model
Creative Leadership Skills That Drive Change
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2007)
Puccio, Murdock Mance (2007)
30
Strategic Thinking
  • Identifying the critical issues that must be
    addressed and pathways needed to move toward the
    desired future

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Sample Problem Statements
Before
After
  • Can we improve our performance?
  • How to develop a new health care product that we
    can get to the market quickly and costs less to
    produce than our last venture?
  • In what ways might we enhance our teams
    performance on long-term projects?
  • What might be some new product ideas within our
    health care line for seniors?

43
Characteristics of a Good Problem Statement
  • Begins with a statement starter
  • Free from criteria
  • Specific focus or action

44
Statement Starters forClarifying the Problem
  • How to...? (H2)
  • How might...? (HM)
  • In what ways might...? (IWWM)
  • What might...? (WM)

45
Webbing
  • A problem analysis tool designed to go beyond the
    initial definition of the problem and to assist
    you in defining the problem at an appropriate
    level of abstraction.

46
Webbing
  • Identify initial problem statement.
  • Ask the question Why? to broaden the view of
    the problem. Convert response to this question
    into a problem statement with a statement starter
    (e.g., How to, What might, In what ways might,
    etc).
  • Ask Why Else? to continue to identify other
    more general views of the situation.
  • Extend your redefinition of the situation by
    asking Why? and Why Else? of the newly
    created problem statements.
  • Create more concrete views of the situation by
    asking Whats stopping you? of the original
    problem statement. Convert the answer to the
    question into a problem statement.
  • Ask What else is stopping you? to create
    alternative views of the situation.
  • Show connections whenever a response to Why or
    Whats stopping you links to a statement already
    included in your Web.

47
Webbing Basics
Why?
Why Else?
Why Else?
Original Problem Statement
Whats stopping you?
What else Is stopping you?
What else Is stopping you?
48
How to
How to
How to
How to
How to
How to
Why?
Why?
Why?
Why?
Why?
Why?
How to
How to
Why?
Webbing Worksheet
Why?
Initial Problem Statement
How to
What is stopping you?
What is stopping you?
How to
How to
What is Stopping you?
What is stopping you?
What is stopping you?
What is stopping you?
What is stopping you?
What is stopping you?
How to
How to
How to
How to
How to
How to
49
Webbing An Example
How to create more products?
How to engage in mentorship rels.?
How to build community?
How to write more books?
How to enhance reputation?
How to make more money?
How to achieve self-satisfaction?
How might I get promoted to full professor?
How to publish more?
How to keep CV up-to-date?
How to secure letters of support?
How to find time to write?
How to network more?
How to participate in more conferences?
50
Creative Problem Solving The Thinking Skills
Model
Creative Leadership Skills That Drive Change
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2007)
Puccio, Murdock Mance (2007)
51
Ideational Thinking
  • Producing original mental images and thoughts
    that respond to important challenges

52
Brainwriting
  • Each team member receives a blank worksheet with
    one extra sheet placed in center of group.
  • Individuals silently complete the first row by
    writing in suggested options.
  • When a row of options has been completed the team
    member swaps his/her worksheet with the one in
    the center.
  • Previously written options are read to stimulate
    new options.

53
Creative Problem Solving The Thinking Skills
Model
Creative Leadership Skills That Drive Change
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2007)
Puccio, Murdock Mance (2007)
54
Evaluative Thinking
  • Assessing the reasonableness and quality of
    ideas in order to develop workable solutions

55
Comments on a new wheelbarrow design?
56
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PPC
o
  • 1. Plusses
  • Strengths, Good Points, Positives, Pluses
  • 2. Potentials
  • Future Spin-offs, Possibilities, Novel
    Aspects
  • What if thinking
  • 3. Concerns
  • Weaknesses, Trouble Spots, Minuses
  • Phrased in "How to..., How mightWhat
    might statements
  • 4. Overcome Concerns Through Brainstorming
  • Generate Ideas to Overcome Main Concerns

(Miller, Vehar Firestien, 2001)
58
PPC
o
  • Plusses
  • The hopper has a lot of space
  • The handle seems reinforced
  • The wheelbarrow wont tip over
  • The wheels gives it more stability
  • Its easy to maneuver
  • The leg gives it more balance
  • Potentials
  • It might make gardening easier
  • It might reduce the number of trips
  • It might reduce the number of accidents
  • It might replace the traditional wheelbarrow
  • It might cost less to produce
  • It might be used for storage
  • Concerns
  • How to make wheelbarrow easier to
  • maneuver?
  • How to make it more attractive?
  • What might be ways to make
  • the grip more comfortable?
  • How to improve traction?
  • How to identify buyers?
  • How to strengthen center of gravity?
  • Overcoming Concerns
  • How to strengthen center of gravity?
  • Make it a longer handle
  • Push down instead of lift up
  • Attach and extend braces on sides of barrow
  • Attach Segway technology to it
  • Make it heavier near the handles
  • Create a rail system for it

59
Convergent Thinking Guidelines
  • Use Affirmative Judgment
  • Consider Novelty
  • Check Your Objectives
  • Be Deliberate

(Based on Isaksen, Dorval, Treffinger, 1994)
60
PPCo PracticeEvaluate Improve an Internal
Communication Vehicle
  • Plusses
  • Generate 8
  • Potentials
  • Generate 8
  • Concerns
  • Identify 8 (phrased in the form of question,
    e.g., How to, How might, In what ways might)
  • Overcome
  • Select the main concern and generate 20 ideas to
    address the concern

61
Some Sample Uses for PPCo
  • Evaluating a proposed idea
  • Providing feedback (i.e. student papers,
    assignments, projects, portfolios, etc.)
  • Capturing lessons learned from a project,
    assignment or event
  • Conducting performance reviews
  • Developing a product concept or an idea

62
The CPS Thinking Skills
  • Visionary Thinking
  • Strategic Thinking
  • Ideational Thinking
  • Evaluative Thinking
  • Contextual Thinking
  • Tactical Thinking

Diagnostic Thinking
63
Taking It Forward
  • Interesting
  • Intriguing
  • Professional Applications
  • Personal Applications
  • Other Uses

64
we are done!
65
Thank You Good Luck!!
  • Puccio, G. J., Murdock, M. C., Mance, M. (2007)
    Creative Leadership Skills that Drive Change.
    Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
  • www.buffalostate.edu/creativity

66
Please feel free to contact our graduate student,
contest expert, ???.(Go to Yahoo and enter
???, you will find the introduction in Chinese.
)???????????????E-mailkuokie_at_gmail.comWebh
ttp//kevinfu.blog.youthwant.com.tw/(?yahoo?????
?????? ?????????????????)
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