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Higher Education and Training in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Vision 2020

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Title: Higher Education and Training in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Vision 2020


1
Higher Education and Trainingin the Kingdom of
Saudi ArabiaVision 2020
Khaled Saleh Al-Sultan Rector, King Fahd
University of Petroleum Minerals
Vision of Education and Training of Royal
Commission For Jubail and Yanbu October 29, 2007
2
Contents
Higher Education and TrainingVision 2020
1
2
3
4
Current Status Facts
Challenges Opportunities
Trends
The 2020 Vision
  • Local and Global Challenges Opportunities
  • Global trends shaping the future of HET
  • How do we envision the Future of HE?
  • Structure Current Status
  • Growth Achievements

HET Higher Education and Training
3
Introduction
  • Education in the Kingdom has gone through major
    developments and several reforms and receives the
    highest attention support from the government.
  • Recently, The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
    has provided a SR 9 billion for the Public
    Education Development Project (TATWEER).
  • Another ambitious project to develop a future
    strategy for University Education (AAFAQ) is in
    the final stages was also directed by the King
  • A strategic plan is recently developed by the
    General Organization for Technical Vocational
    Training which also receives great support from
    the government

4
Role of Education
  • Develop human capital as engine of economic
    growth and driver of market productivity
  • Improve learning and teaching from pre-school
    through graduate school
  • Provide lifelong learning opportunities
  • Respond to the needs of business and industry
  • Play a leading role in national initiatives
  • Disseminate RD and promoting technology transfer
  • Enhance the technology infrastructure

5
Role of Education
  • To succeed in todays workplace young people
    need more than basic reading and math skills.
    They need substantial content knowledge and
    information technology skills, advanced thinking
    skills, flexibility to adapt to change, and
    interpersonal skills to succeed in
    multi-cultural, cross-functional teams.
  • J. Willard Marriott, Jr.

6
Training Categories
7
Role of Training
  • The most expensive training
  • you can purchase is training that
  • doesn't result in any positive change.
  • Larry McGehe

8
The Higher Education System
Council of Higher Education (CHE)
  • Other HE Entities
  • Tech. Voc. Training (GOTVT)
  • Royal Com. for Jubail Yanbu
  • Health Institutes, Min. of Health
  • Others specialized institutions

National Commission for Assessment Academic
Accreditation (NCAAA)
Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE)
National Center for Measurement Assessment
Budget
Ministry of Finance
Universities directly negotiate their budgets
with the Ministry of Finance
Private Institutions
9
H.E. Growth and Initiatives
  • The access to higher education has been growing
    in the recent years to generally respond to the
    demand

High School Graduates Entering Higher Ed.
Higher Education Enrolment
70 growth from 1999 to 2006
10
H.E. Growth and Initiatives
Major Initiatives in Higher Education
Growth in HE Institutions (2002 2007)
  • Expansion in access to accommodate high school
    graduates through
  • Establishing universities (22), Community
    Colleges (28)
  • Emphasis on medicine, engineering, IT, and
    sciences
  • Regionally distributed over the Kingdom
  • King Abdullah Scholarship Program
  • Support to Private Education

11
H.E. Growth and Initiatives
Major Initiatives in HE (Cont.)
  • Establishment of the following entities
  • National Center for Measurement Assessment
  • National Commission for Academic Accreditation
    Assessment (NCAAA)
  • National Center for e-learning and distance
    education
  • Higher Education Fund
  • Center for Higher Education Statistics
  • Initiating major projects, such as
  • Developing future plan for university education
    for the next 25 years
  • Research excellence centers at universities
    (Totally funded by the Ministry)
  • Establishment of King Abdullah Univ. for science
    Technology (KAUST)
  • Faculty development training
  • Professional societies
  • Translation Program of Academic Leadership
    Education Textbooks

12
Training Institutes
Note Numbers are for the academic year
1426/1427H Source MoHE Statistical Book
1426/1427H
13
Training Institutes
  • General Organization for Technical Education and
    Training (GOTVT) has
  • Developed an ambitious Strategic Plan
  • More emphasis on training and hands-on
    experience
  • Efforts to respond to market needs
  • Expansion projects for Technical colleges are
    underway
  • More training venues and institutes for females
  • Royal Commission For Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY)
  • Maintained quality of graduates for job market
    needs
  • Focused on specific disciplines
  • Has two industrial Colleges in Jubail Yanbu
    and opened recently
  • University College in Jubail (a BS Degree) and
  • Jubail Technical Institute (diploma degree)

14
Contents
Higher Education and TrainingVision 2020
1
2
3
4
Current Status Facts
Challenges Opportunities
Trends
The 2020 Vision
  • Local and Global Challenges Opportunities
  • Global trends shaping the future of HET
  • How do we envision the Future of HE?
  • Structure Current Status
  • Growth Achievements

HET Higher Education and Training
15
Higher Education Reform
16
21st Century Features
17
Challenges
Population growth and Society Demands
Growing needs of HET for Development
Access Expansion of HET
Impacts of Communication and IT Evolution
New Directions in HET
Compliance with Market Needs
Development of Faculty, Staff, Student Trainees
Globalization Impact
Efficiency and Effectiveness
Funding of HET
Social Responsibilities
Quality
18
Major Challenges
  • Can be summarized into four major INTE-RELATED
    challenges

Access
Funding
Major Challenges
Job- Market
Quality
19
Opportunities
New Accreditation Criteria
Creativity and Innovation
Agreement on need Reform
Political Support
Availability of Financial Support
New Delivery Methods
Importance of HET for the Welfare of Nations
20
Contents
Higher Education and TrainingVision 2020
1
2
3
4
Current Status Facts
Challenges Opportunities
Trends
The 2020 Vision
  • Local and Global Challenges Opportunities
  • Global trends shaping the future of HET
  • How do we envision the Future of HE?
  • Structure Current Status
  • Growth Achievements

HET Higher Education and Training
21
The Changing World
WORKPLACE
NOW
THEN
  • Large pyramids
  • Producer-centered
  • Departments
  • Hierarchy
  • Tight structure
  • Design at the top
  • Assigned procedures
  • Rules regulations
  • Small companies
  • Client-oriented
  • Project teams
  • Flat organisations
  • Loose fluid systems
  • Design at front-lines
  • Improvised actions
  • Fit-for-purpose acts

22
The Changing World
INDIVIDUAL LIFE
NOW
THEN
  • Lifelong career
  • Long-term loyalty
  • Occupational identity
  • Work-study consistency
  • Org. membership
  • Stable employment
  • Escalating salaries
  • Upward mobility
  • Foreseeable retirement
  • Constant networks
  • Stable relations
  • Security, certainty
  • Multiple careers
  • Multiple jobs
  • Blurred identity
  • Work-study mismatch
  • Possible free-lancing
  • Frequent off-jobs
  • Precarious incomes
  • Fluctuating status
  • Unpredictable future
  • Varying networks
  • Changing partners
  • Insecurity, uncertainty

23
The Changing World
WORKPLACE ACTIVITIES
NOW
THEN
  • Paper work
  • Circulars
  • Minutes
  • Documents
  • Instructions
  • Written reports
  • Communications
  • Brainstorming
  • E-mailing
  • SMS
  • Blogs
  • Seminars
  • Debates
  • Conferencing
  • Negotiation
  • Presentation
  • Confrontation
  • Lobbying
  • Retreats

24
The Changing World
SKILLS ATTITUDES
NOW
THEN
  • Special skills
  • Planning implementation
  • Navigating the bureaucracy
  • Following the heritage
  • Communications
  • Team-working
  • Human relations
  • Problem-solving
  • Design innovations
  • Personal responsibility
  • Self-management
  • Ethics, values, principles

25
The Changing World
The BOTTOM LINE
NOW
THEN
  • Analytic, regulated, structured, clear-cut,
    uniform, convergent, normative, neat, assertive
    and reducible to parameters
  • Holistic, flexible, loose, fuzzy, plural,
    divergent, liberal, complex, speculative and
    tolerant of multiplex concepts

26
Major Trends
  • New vs. Traditional Learning
  • Lecturing vs. Problem-Based Learning
  • Curriculum Reform
  • Trends in University Model

27
New vs. Traditional Learning
28
New vs. Traditional Learning
29
Lecturing vs. Problem-Based Learning
  • Lecturing
  • Problem-based Learning

30
Lecturing vs. Problem-Based Learning
  • Learning-centered
  • Knowledge Construction
  • Application and Practice
  • Learning through Integration
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Multiple Solutions
  • Knowledge Product
  • Social context
  • ..
  • Lecturing
  • Problem-based Learning

31
Lecturing vs. Problem-Based Learning
  • Lecturing
  • Problem-based Learning
  • Moral and ethical concerns
  • Self-reflection
  • Group Leadership
  • Handling disagreements
  • Conceptualization skills

32
Curriculum Reform
  • Key-Learning Areas (KLAs)
  • Broadened learning experiences
  • From Classrooms to Cyberspaces

Cyber-Space
Beyond Campus
Beyond Classrooms
Classrooms
33
Campus or Education Business?
  • The biggest danger is that higher education may
    be the next railroad industry, which built bigger
    and better railroads decade after decade because
    thats the business it thought it was in.
  • The reality was that it was in the
    transportation industry, and it was nearly put
    out of business by airplanes
  • Colleges and universities are not in the campus
    business, but the education business.
  • Arthur Levine
  • President of Teachers College - Columbia
    University

34
Curriculum Reform
Curriculum as Subjects
35
Curriculum Reform
Curriculum as Key Learning Areas
36
Lives in Education
International Exchange
Visits to Rural, Deprived Communities
Community Services/NGO
Design, Humanities, Sports
Internship, Placement, Mentorship
Executives of Organizations
Student Activities/Halls
Study
Classes
37
Learning Experiences
Learning across Cultures
Learning to Care
Learning to Serve
Creativity Learning
Workplace Learning
Leadership Learning
Alternative Learning
Academic Knowledge
Classes
38
Learning at the University
Design, Humanities, Art, Sports
Residential Halls, Associations Clubs
Learning cross cultures
Lectures, Tutorials, Laboratories
Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Voluntary
Work
Learning to care
Learning to serve
Workplace Learning
Creativity Learning
Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork
Leadership Learning
Learning to live together
Mentorship
Academic Learning
Classes
Exchange, Youth Conferences
39
Trends in University Model
Universities in Advanced Nations
Entrepreneurship Paradigm
Universities in KSA
Classical Paradigm
2020 years
Paradigm Shift in University Role
40
Contents
Higher Education and TrainingVision 2020
1
2
3
4
Current Status Facts
Challenges Opportunities
Trends
The 2020 Vision
  • Local and Global Challenges Opportunities
  • Global trends shaping the future of HET
  • How do we envision the Future of HE?
  • Structure Current Status
  • Growth Achievements

HET Higher Education and Training
41
Higher Education Reform
Higher Education Competitiveness is Nations
Competitiveness.
Basic Principles
  • From Quantitative Expansion to Qualitative
    Upgrade
  • Differentiation and Specialization
  • From Department Store to Specialized Shop
  • Local manpower to Global human resources
  • From limited knowledge to Life-long Learner
  • Reinforcing Industrial Societal Ties

42
HET Reform
Mission Differentiation
  • Achieving
  • Specialization
  • Competitiveness

Linkages
Linkages
Excellence
  • Accreditation, ranking, and training

Responsibility accountability
Quality
  • Separate coordination, policy-making, and
    operational decisions

43
HET Reform
Mission Differentiation
Achieving Specialization Competitiveness
Build and develop research excellence
Research Universities
Provide capacity and excellence in research and
teaching
Comprehensive Universities
Provide a focus on teaching regional needs
Teaching Universities
Provide associate degrees in general education
Community Colleges
Provide degrees to accommodate student needs
Virtual University
Other Public Institutions
Public institutions outside the realm of
authority of MOHE, such as GOTVT, RCJY, military
colleges etc.
Private Sector
Private institutes of higher education
44
HET Reform
Policy-making, and decisions
Responsibility Accountability
  • Clear role definitions of HET bodies and
    institutions will promote accountability
    responsibility
  • The following issues shall be properly divided
    between governing bodies, Ministries, and
    institutions
  • National Policy Integration and alignment with
    national economic development agenda
  • Policy Formation, implementation and Evaluation
  • Alignment of national HET strategies with
    strategy of individual institution

45
HET Reform
Accreditation, Rating, Ranking
Quality Assurance
  • Quality Assurance Instruments include
  • Accreditation The test of goal achievement and
    improvement
  • Ranking and Ratings The test of reputation
  • Outcomes The test of results
  • Licensure The test of professional standards
  • Program reviews The test of Peer Review
  • Follow-up studies The test of client
    satisfaction
  • Total quality management The test of continuous
    improvement

46
Pursuing Excellence
  • Requires
  • Broadening public appreciation for the role of
    Higher Education
  • Increasing the understanding of the needs of
    workplaces
  • Contributing to a Knowledge-Based-Society and
    Knowledge-Based-Economy
  • Devoting more attention and resources to
    leadership
  • Promoting life-long learning

47
Curriculum Revision
  • Requires
  • Balance between Theory and Application
  • Learning Through Discovery or Problem Solving
  • Balance Between Breadth and Depth - Comb Theory
  • Integration of Subjects within the Discipline and
    Across Disciplines
  • Developing Skills within the Curricula
  • Appreciation and adherence to values ethics.
  • Integration between Teaching, Research and
    Community Service
  • Work-Integrated Learning (WIL)
  • Promoting life-long learning

48
Teaching for Learning
  • The most efficient ways in Learning are
  • Motivate the students
  • Stimulate their curiosity
  • Project-oriented learning
  • Problem based learning
  • Student-centered learning

and the learning will follow by itself.
49
Creativity
  • What is needed for being creative?
  • Curiosity, questions, questions, and searching
    for answers
  • Creative unrest
  • Broad horizon
  • Knowledge in several fields
  • Interdisciplinary thinking
  • Self-confidence Self-critics
  • Stubbornness Flexibility
  • Concentration Relaxation

50
Skill Development
Technical Competence
There is a gap in Skills that needs to be bridged
in the future graduate
Lifetime Learning
Solution Synthesis Ability
Critical Thinking
Practical aptitude
Entrepreneurship
Behavioral Skills
- - - - - - Current Graduates Future
Graduates
Communication
51
Higher Education Reform
52
HET Major Thrust 2020

Education for All
Globalization
Quality
Empowering people with knowledge, striving for
excellence and innovation, nurturing the
leadership of the future
Efficiency
Funding
Effectiveness
HR Development
Research Innovation
53
From Ambitions to vision
THE VISION
Challenges Opportunities
Local Global Trends
From Ambitions
54
Vision 2020
  • Saudi Arabia projected as a knowledge-based
    economy
  • HET need to be improved to compete globally and
    meet the countrys inspiration.
  • An expanding, diversified and massified Saudi
    higher education sector playing a key role in
    this transformation
  • Quality in HET contribute to a society with the
    capacity to innovate, adapt and advance.
  • An education system that is both creative and
    attractive to talents
  • More flexible/more accountable higher education
    institutes responding to the needs of the
    productive sectors
  • Saudi entrants into the job market possessing the
    combination of basic knowledge, applied skills
    and necessary values and ethics that are
    perceived to be critical for success in the 21st
    century

55
Vision 2020 (cont.)
  • Forged partnerships between private, government,
    national and international institutions
  • The private sector has to take on greater
    responsibility for the training of Saudi
    manpower.
  • Training for all providing equal access to
    training - means greater employability for
    workers and enhanced workplace satisfaction
  • Established lifelong learning practices
  • Coordination among the different education and
    training institutions is crucial.
  • Academic institutions alone can not solve major
    Global Problems. They need Empathy, Compassion,
    and Foresight from other partners.

56
For more information
  • Khaled S. Al-Sultan, The Future Policies for
    HE, Symposium on Future Vision for The Saudi
    Economy 2020, Riyadh 1422H.
  • Long Term Strategy 2025, Ministry of Economy
    Planning, Saudi Arabia
  • 2020 Vision of National Science Foundation, USA
  • Kai-ming Cheng, Training or Emancipation
    Challenges to Higher Education in the
    post-industrial society, First National Workshop
    for AAFAQ, Riyadh, 2006.

57
  • Thank you
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