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Critical Thinkers Wanted: Meeting the Challenge with Evidence-Based Practices

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Critical Thinkers Wanted: Meeting the Challenge with Evidence-Based Practices Linda Thomas, Ph.D., Jena Shafai, Ph.D., Dara Spivack, CPA IACBE Annual Conference ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critical Thinkers Wanted: Meeting the Challenge with Evidence-Based Practices


1
Critical Thinkers WantedMeeting the Challenge
with Evidence-Based Practices
  • Linda Thomas, Ph.D., Jena Shafai, Ph.D., Dara
    Spivack, CPA
  • IACBE Annual Conference Assembly Meeting
  • April 13 17, 2015
  • Baltimore, MD

2
Note
  • This file, when presented at IACBE, had
    multi-media clips (videos) embedded in it.
  • Because the videos will not play on your
    computer, I have provided links to websites where
    you may
  • view the video
  • Use the applet
  • You will find the URL links in this PPT file,
    where applicable.

3
Workshop Focus
  • Creative activities
  • To teach critical thinking
  • Across disciplines
  • In both cognitive and affective thinking domains

4
Workshop Goals
  • Learn how to use common pedagogic methodologies
    in creative, uncommon ways to motivate students
    to think critically
  • Practice multiple teaching approaches to excite
    higher order thinking habits (OB, law
    statistics)

5
Workshop Goals
  • Focus on the most complex categories of cognitive
    and affective domains thinking and feeling --
    richer ground for assessment
  • Provide opportunities to share critical thinking
    practices

6
Critical Thinking
  • Continually
  • Questioning assumptions
  • Considering context
  • Creating and exploring alternatives
  • Engaging in reflective skepticism





  • (Brookfield, 1987)

7
Critical Thinking
  • Acquisition of intellectual resources --
    strategies for thinking about a problem or
    argument -- habits of the mind



  • (Bailen
    et al, 1999)

8
Teachers play a vital role
  • Promoting complex critical practices that embody
    value commitments and further good judgment
  • Getting students to become more discriminating
    and self-conscious
  • NOT by teaching skills, but by
  • Helping them to appreciate the value of
    challenging and changing some of their social and
    emotional interpretations, assumptions and
    perspectives.

9
How?
  • Design activities which promote engagement with
    the subject while helping learners identify value
    in the outcomes.

10
Help motivate students to
  • 1. Find a clear and worthy purpose
  • Recognize challenge biases, assumptions
    consequences
  • Raise clear, context-specific questions
  • Judge credibility relevance of data
    experiences, including analogies and metaphors

11
Help motivate students to
  • Articulate and defend a position on a valuable
    issue
  • Judge the quality value of an argument
  • Solve a worthy problem using relevant criteria

12
Remember
  • The mere fact that students are analyzing does
    not mean they are doing it critically... higher
    order operations can be done in a rote and
    thoughtless way, and lower order operations can
    be done in a critically thoughtful manner.
    (Roland Case, 2005, 47)

13
Higher Order Cognitive Domain
  • Analyzing (appraising, comparing, discriminating,
    deconstructing, questioning, integrating)
  • Evaluating (hypothesizing, critiquing, judging,
    testing, defending, supporting, detecting)
  • Creating (designing, constructing, formatting,
    planning, writing, inventing)

14
Higher Order Affective Domain
  • Emotions empathy growing awareness of
    attitudes and feelings
  • Valuing (ascribing worth, sharing, subsidizing,
    debating, empathizing)
  • Organizing values (putting together ideas and
    information, retrieving, reflecting, theorizing,
    prioritizing values)
  • Internalizing values (holding a value or belief
    that influences behavior, managing attitudes,
    resolving, resisting, revising)

15
Examples
Approach/Activity ------------------------------ Critical thinking skills ---------------------- Cognitive Domain -------------- Affective Domain -------------- People-driven -------------- Numbers-driven -------------
Jurys Choice 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X  
Socratic Debate -- Negotiate Your Score 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X  
Monty Hall Paradox 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X     X
Paint Yourself Silly 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X  
Graph Design IQ Test 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X     X
Luck of the Draw Heuristic Improvement 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X X X X  
Reflection/Self Correction 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X   X  
Emotional Contagion 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X  
Regression Plotter 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
16
Examples
Approach/Activity Critical ThinkingSkills CognitiveDomain AffectiveDomain People-driven Numbers-driven
Jurys Choice 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Socratic Debate Negotiate Your Score 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Monty Hall Paradox 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
Paint Yourself Silly 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Graph Design IQ Test 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
Luck of the Draw 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Accounting for Everything 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
Heuristic Improvement 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Reflection/Self Correction 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
Emotional Contagion 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X X
Regression Plotter 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 X X
17
Jurys Choice
  • Students study for multiple choice test
  • Unexpectedly, take test in groups of three
  • Group turns in one test for grading

18
Jurys Choice
  • Whats happening?

19
Critical Thinking
  • Questioning assumptions
  • Considering context
  • Creating and exploring alternatives
  • Engaging in reflective skepticism





  • (Brookfield, 1987)

20
Teachers play a vital role
  • Promoting value commitments
  • Furthering good judgment
  • Students More discriminating and self-conscious
  • Challenging and changing some of their social and
    emotional interpretations, assumptions and
    perspectives.

21
Motivates students to
  • 1. Find a clear and worthy purpose
  • Recognize challenge biases, assumptions
    consequences
  • Raise clear, context-specific questions
  • Judge credibility relevance of data
    experiences, including analogies and metaphors
  • Articulate and defend a position on a valuable
    issue
  • Judge the quality value of an argument
  • Solve a worthy problem

22
Accounting is Everything!
  • National exams (CMA, CFA, CPA, CFP, CFA, CIA,
    GRE, GMAT, etc.) all use multiple choice format.
  • To improve performance, students must provide
    justification for the answer they select.
  • Students must also provide justification for the
    rejection of remaining options!
  • Grades increased by 5.
  • Handout has further details.

23
Socratic DebateNegotiate Your Score
  • Use tests as a learning device
  • Engaging students post-test about covered
    material can develop greater knowledge and
    promote critical thinking, argument, and debate
    skills.

24
Socratic DebateNegotiate Your Score
  • Objective tests T/F, MC
  • Best answer
  • Students review, compare, challenge
  • Interactive articulate and defend
  • Interactive rationale behind best answer
  • Points earned back in a variety of ways

25
Socratic Debate
  • Whats happening?

26
Motivates students to
  • Create fruitful debate about correct and
    incorrect answers
  • Engage because it affects their grade
  • Articulate and defend a position
  • Judge the quality and value of an argument

27
Monty Hall Paradox
  • Conditional Probability and Bayes Theorem
  • A game contextualizes theory helps learning and
    retention
  • Lets Make a Deal Game Show

28
Monty Hall Paradox
  • TV show in the 1970s host Monty Hall
  • Strategy probability Bayes Theorem
  • Students discuss in groups (OL and OG)
  • Video http//www.youtube.com/watch?vmhlc7peGlGg
  • Note the next slide would play part one of the
    video until
  • 10 seconds are up. Audience must choose
    Stay/Switch strategy.

29
Monty Hall Paradox
30
Monty Hall Paradox
  • Proof can be
  • Analytic (mathematical using probability theory)
  • Numeric (using simulation) with Applet found
  • http//www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v6n3/applet
    s/letsmakeadeal.html
  • Note The next slide would be a screen-capture of
    the presenter using the Monty Hall Paradox Applet
    found at the above URL. Your computers settings
    may have to be adjusted to use this applet which
    uses JAVA.

31
Monty Hall Interactive Website
32
Video Explanation Part II
  • The next slide would play the second half of the
    same video (link was provided earlier).
  • In this second half, the explanation is
    provided.

33
Video Explanation
34
Monty Hall Whats Happening?
  • Relevancy
  • This is also a great application to see how the
    law of large numbers worked ..
  • Relate the experience and knowledge gained to
    definitions/content in textbook

35
Monty Hall Whats Happening?
  • Recognizing Biases
  • .My wife was adamant that it is a 50/50 chance
    .
  • Student put theory to practice at party Won
    80!For details, see four slides later in this
    file

36
Paint Yourself Silly

  • There is a pottery shop in

  • Lincoln, NE called

  • Paint Yourself Silly.
  • You select a piece of bisque that
    inspires you select your colors from 100
    different glazes and then brush, sponge,
    splatter, stamp, stencil or draw your design on
    your piece. The staff helps you get started,
    provides idea books for inspiration, and will
    then clear glaze and kiln fire your piece to make
    it food safe.
  • The quality of
    the final
  • piece is up
    to you.

37
Paint Yourself Silly

  • Dr. Shafai suggests that this is very

  • similar to what happens in a

  • university. The hundreds of pieces of

  • unfinished bisque can be thought of

  • as students brains. Each student
  • enters college (the shop) with the ability to
    select from a plethora
  • of majors, disciplines and classes (colored
    glazes). Instructors
  • provide ideas, techniques, texts and guidance,
    but it is ultimately
  • up to students to establish their own
  • combination of techniques needed to design,
  • shape and finish their brains -- read, write,
  • study, synthesize, analyze and apply.

38
Paint Yourself Silly
The amount of time
spent working on this
final product and the
decision to be thorough and
meticulous or fast and sloppy is up to the
student. Either way, the final showpiece (if
not broken) is fired (legitimized with a
degree) and put out there for the world to see
safe for employer consumption.
39
Paint Yourself Silly
What is your final showpiece
going to look like?
40
Paint Yourself Silly
Why? What do you want to be known for
during your life and after you are gone -- what
might a museum guide tell tourists as they pass
your piece 100 years from now?

41
Paint Yourself Silly
  • Whats Happening?

42
Questions?
Contact Information Linda Thomas
(linda.thomas_at_bellevue.edu) Jena Shafai
(jena.shafai_at_bellevue.edu) Dara Spivack
(dara.spivack_at_bellevue.edu)
43
Student Comments Monty Hall
  • We had a party for NYE.  Somehow (don't ask) I
    started talking about the video and how your
    chances actually double by swapping...nobody
    believed me.  What happened next is that I won
    about 80!

44
Student Comments Monty Hall
  • To prove I was right, I grabbed 3 cards out of a
    deck, with one of them being the Queen of Hearts
    (the car).  I let my guest (several tried it)
    serve as the "game show host" so that they knew
    which card was which. 

45
Student Comments Monty Hall
  • I then picked 1 card (not flipping it over) and
    they flipped over a "goat" card.  I then bet them
    10 that the next card I flipped over would be
    the Queen. keep in mind I had not flipped over my
    first card.  Of course, I swapped every time.

46
Student Comments Monty Hall
  • I actually won the first 6 times in a row.  The
    Law of Large Numbers then took over a bit. But,
    by the end, I still won 80!
  • While pretty much nobody understood how it
    worked, they now believe it does...or at least
    their wallets do )
  • All seven critical thinking motivators apply
  • Recognizing biases
  • Relevancy

47
Luck of the Draw
  • Written memorandum and
  • oral argument project

48
Luck of the Draw
  • Groups of two
  • Create written memorandum analyzing facts and
    applying law to facts in complex scenario
  • Analyze both sides of the case draw conclusions
  • Articulate findings within those conclusions

49
Luck of the Draw
  • Right before oral arguments, they are assigned a
    side
  • One group argues for plaintiff, one for defendant

50
Luck of the Draw
  • Whats happening?

51
Motivates Students to
  • Understand all sides
  • Advocate either side Empathy

52
Perceptual Blindness
  • http//www.metacafe.com/watch/1910717/human_percep
    tion_test/
  • (247)
  • Next slide is the video which may be accessed at
    the above URL.

53
Perceptual Blindness
54
Perceptual Blindness
  • Whats Happening?

55
Emotional Contagion
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vA0ewCD_-jIA
  • (401)
  • The following slide would play the video which
    may be accessed at the above URL.

56
Emotional Contagion
57
Emotional Contagion
  • Whats Happening?

58
Graph Design IQ Test
  • Communicating summaries Graphs and Tables
  • Color, dimension, bells whistles How
    Effective?
  • Must critically think about the characteristics
    of the summary
  • Observation and critical evaluation of examples

59
Graph Design IQ Test
  • Perceptual Edge Web-sitehttp//www.perceptualedge
    .com/files/GraphDesignIQ.html
  • OL Take quiz, report back to the discussion
    board
  • OG Show each summary and discuss in classroom

60
Graph Design IQ Test, Q1
61
Graph Design IQ Test, Q2
62
Graph Design IQ Test, Q3
63
Graph Design IQ Test, Q4
64
Q4 Wrong Answer Feedback
  • Are you sure about that, Ace?
  • Bars work very well for comparing differences in
    magnitude, but when you need to see the shape of
    change over time, nothing is more effective than
    a line.

65
Graph Design IQ Test, Q5
66
Graph Design IQ Test, Q6
67
Q6 Wrong Answer Feedback
  • You just like all the pretty colors, don't you?
  • Map B you're required to memorize the meanings
    of seven colors (which exceeds the limits of
    short-term memory) or must constantly refer to
    the legend.
  • Map A you can remember the meanings of red and
    blue, and the rest is intuitive.

68
Graph Design IQ Test, Q7
69
Graph Design IQ Test, Q8
70
Graph Design IQ Test, Q9
71
Graph Design IQ Test, Q10
72
Graphs
  • Whats Happening?

73
Student Comments Graphs
  • Going forward in my profession, I will choose to
    use the "less is more" approach to my graphs.
  • .It is frustrating when people complicate their
    graphs by trying to spice it up.  I learned
    that simple and to the point is always preferred
    over loud and over the top graphics.

74
Student Comments Graphs
  • Also when looking at a map for weather, I now
    know why the more the snow the darker the
    purple.  Using the same color but different
    shades are much easier to follow and comprehend.

75
Questions?
Contact Information Linda Thomas
(linda.thomas_at_bellevue.edu) Jena Shafai
(jena.shafai_at_bellevue.edu) Dara Spivack
(dara.spivack_at_bellevue.edu)
76
How Regression Ruined my Life
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v6SdyOXC6Nbk

77
Weighted Mean
  • Weighted average is useful in many applications
  • Finance Average price per share of a portfolio
  • Production Average cost per pound of a blend
  • Marketing Average of audience reached in an
    advertising campaign
  • Education Average grade earned in a course

78
Regression/Correlation Applet
  • http//www.people.vcu.edu/rjohnson/regression/ind
    ex.html
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