Daily Life in Ancient Egypt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Daily Life in Ancient Egypt PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 9e71e-ZDhiN


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt


Most were nobles who had great wealth, fine homes, and plenty of time to socialize ... They decorated the wrapped body, or mummy, with jewelry and protective charms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3943
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 26
Provided by: amyleo
Tags: ancient | daily | egypt | life


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
  • History Alive! Chapter 9, pp. 81-93

9.1 Introduction
  • Life for the Egyptians during the New
    Kingdomabout 1600 to 1100 B.C.E.
  • When the Nile River flooded, all of Egypt
    celebrated the Opet Festival, honoring the
    pharaoh and his patron, the god Amon-Re
  • Almost everyone took part in the festival
  • Priests decorated a statue of the god with
    jewelry--they put the statue in a shrine and
    placed it on a barque, a ceremonial boat
  • The boat was made by artisans

  • High government officials competed for the honor
    of carrying the barque on poles through town
  • Peasant farmers lined the streets to watch the
  • Scribes made a written record of the celebration
  • All of these people belonged to very different
    social classes, which made up a social pyramid
    with the pharaoh at the top and the peasants at
    the bottom

9.2 Ancient Egypts Social Pyramid
  • Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid
  • At the very top was the pharaoh, Egypts supreme
  • The classes near the top of the pyramid had the
    fewest people and enjoyed the highest status
  • The classes nearer the bottom had more people and
    lower status
  • Government officials and priests belonged to the
    top two classes in the social pyramid under the
  • They were the most powerful groups in Egypt

  • Government officials carried out the orders of
    the pharaoh
  • Most of them came from noble families
  • They were powerful and wealthy, and they enjoyed
    a high quality of life
  • Priests were also a powerful group, because
    religion touched every part of peoples daily
  • They were in charge of the temples and religious
  • They also oversaw the important ceremonies
    surrounding death and burial
  • Next on the social pyramid were scribes
  • They held a respected position in society
  • They recorded information for government and
    religious leaders.
  • It took many years of schooling to become a scribe

  • Artisans occupied the next layer of the social
  • This group included craftspeople like carpenters,
    metalworkers, painters, sculptors, and stone
  • They had little social status
  • At the bottom of the social pyramid were the
  • They were the largest social class
  • They worked the land, providing Egypt with a
    steady food supply
  • When not farming, they worked on the pharaohs
    massive building projects

Life in Egypts Social Classes
  • Egypts social pyramid was fairly rigid
  • People usually belonged to the same social class
    as their parents
  • Most people had little chance to move to a higher
  • Egyptians in all social classes cherished family
  • Most Egyptians married within their social group
  • Children were highly valued
  • Men and women had different roles within the
  • Men were the heads of their households
  • They worked to support the family
  • Fathers often trained their sons from an early
    age to take on their line of work
  • Women typically managed the home and raised the
  • Noblewomen had servants or slaves to help them
  • Lower-class women had to do the work themselves

  • Men were in charge of Egyptian society, but women
    enjoyed more freedom and rights than most women
    in the ancient world
  • They could ask for divorces and represent
    themselves in legal matters
  • Some women in the middle and upper classes worked
    as doctors, government officials, or priestesses
  • Both women and men enjoyed a better quality of
    life the higher they were on the social pyramid
  • The Egyptians believed that their class system
    created a stable, well-ordered society

9.3 Government Officials
  • Government officials belonged to the highest
    class on the social pyramid, after the pharaoh
  • Their job was to assist the pharaoh in his or her
    role as a supreme ruler of Egypt
  • They usually came from the pharaohs family or
    other upper-class families
  • Most of them inherited their positions from
    family members
  • Three important officials were the vizier, the
    chief treasurer, and the general of the armies.
    Each had his own duties

  • The vizier had more power than anyone except the
  • He advised the pharaoh and carried out his
  • He appointed and supervised most of the other
    government officials
  • He also served as a chief judge for the toughest
  • He was expected to be fair and not show special
    favor to either side in a dispute
  • They usually wore white, the color of neutrality
  • The chief treasurer looked after the governments
  • His main duty was to collect taxes
  • Egypts economy was based on goods rather than
  • People paid their taxes in grain, cows, cloth,
    silver, and even beer

  • After the pharaoh, the general of the armies was
    the top military commander in Egypt
  • He advised the pharaoh in matters of war and
    national security, such as how to protect Egypts
    borders from invaders
  • He also helped the pharaoh make alliances with
    other kingdoms.
  • High government officials led lives of luxury
  • Most were nobles who had great wealth, fine
    homes, and plenty of time to socialize
  • The lavish banquets enjoyed by these wealthy
    Egyptians illustrate their luxurious lifestyle
  • While the guests ate, musicians, dancers, and
    acrobats provided entertainment

9.4 Priests
  • Like government officials, priests were powerful
    and highly respected
  • A large network of priests served under the
    pharaoh, who was considered the highest-ranked
    priest of all
  • Priests had different jobs
  • The High Priest advised the pharaoh and oversaw
    all religious ceremonies
  • Temple priests were in charge of the many temples
    scattered throughout Egypt
  • Other priests handled more common concerns and
  • They gave advice and performed healings

  • Women were allowed to be priestesses in Egypt
  • They were generally considered to be equal to
    male priests
  • Their main duty was to oversee temples that were
    devoted to music and dancing
  • Temple priests played an especially important
    role in Egyptian religion
  • Every temple was home to an Egyptian god or gods
  • A temple priests main job was to take care of
    the god
  • A temples god was though to live in a statue
  • The statue was housed in a holy room called a
  • Only a priest who had purified himself could
    enter to perform his sacred duties

  • Priests had a special role to play in burial
  • Egyptians believed in a life after death
  • They thought the spirits of the dead needed their
    bodies in the afterlife
  • For this reason, they preserved bodies from decay
    through embalming
  • Priests oversaw this sacred work
  • The embalming process had many steps
  • First, the embalmers removed the bodys organs
  • Only the heart was left in the body
  • Egyptians believed that the gods used the hearts
    to judge a dead persons soul
  • The organs were packed in jars to preserve them
  • The organs and body were dried out with a special
    salt called natron
  • After about 70 days, the embalmers washed and
    oiled the body and wrapped it in hundreds of yard
    of linen

  • They decorated the wrapped body, or mummy, with
    jewelry and protective charms
  • Often they placed a mask over the head
  • They spread a black, gooey gum over the body and
    wrapped it a final time
  • The mummy was then ready for burial
  • It was placed in a wooden box which was then put
    inside a large stone coffin, called a sarcophagus
  • Not all Egyptians could afford such complicated

9.5 Scribes
  • Scribes were one level below priests in the
    social pyramid
  • They were Egypts official writers and record
  • They were highly respected and well paid
  • Most scribes worked for the government others
    worked for priests or nobles
  • Only men were allowed to be scribes
  • They came from all classes of society
  • Becoming a scribe was one of the few ways that
    men could rise above their parents social class

  • Boys who wanted to become scribes had to attend
    scribe school
  • The schools were run by priests
  • Most students came from artisan or merchant
  • A very few came from the peasant class
  • Schooling started around the age of five
  • Students typically spent 12 years or more
    learning hieroglyphs, the symbols used in the
    Egyptian system of writing
  • Students had to memorize over 700 heiroglyphs
  • Students in scribe school did not have an easy

The Work of the Scribes
  • Ancient Egyptians made all kinds of records, so
    scribes held a variety of jobs
  • They kept records of grain and food supply
  • When a government census counted the people
    living in Egypt, they recorded the results
  • Some scribes calculated and collected taxes
  • Legal scribes recorded court cases and helped
    enforce laws
  • Military scribes kept track of the armys
    soldiers and food supply, and the number of
    enemies killed in battle
  • Every scribe used the same tools
  • Papyrus and sharpened reeds, wood and stone

9.6 Artisans
  • Below the scribes on the social pyramid were the
  • Highly skilled laborers who created some of the
    most beautiful art objects in the ancient world
  • Rarely got the respect they deserved
  • Artisans specialized in any one of a number of
  • Workers in this class included carpenters,
    jewelers, leatherworkers, metalworkers, painters,
    potters, sculptors, and weavers
  • They made many beautiful objects, including
    stunning jewelry and elegant furniture

  • The most skilled artisans were the stone carvers
  • They produced the statues, engravings, and
    reliefs found in Egyptian temples, tombs, and
  • Stone carvers played an important role in tomb
  • They helped equip the tombs with artwork to honor
    and preserve the dead
  • They created statues of the deceased, highly
    detailed wall engravings, and stone coffins

The Daily Life and Work of Artisans
  • Artisans were a class in the middle of Egyptian
  • They and their families lived in modest homes
  • They worked side by side in large workshops
  • They usually worked for 10 days at a stretch
    before taking time off
  • They depended entirely on their employers for
  • Pharaohs called upon hundred of artisans at a
    time to work on royal projects
  • They created the fine artwork that often covered
    temples, royal tombs, and other monuments

9.7 Peasants
  • Peasants made up the lowest and largest class in
    Egypts social pyramid
  • They were generally considered unskilled laborers
  • They grew the crops that supplied everyone with
  • Peasant life revolved around the Nile River and
    its three seasons
  • The flooding season
  • The planting season
  • The harvest season

  • The flooding season lasted from June to September
  • During this time, the Nile overran its banks and
    fertilized the fields
  • While waiting for the waters to go down, farmers
    labored on royal projects
  • In October, the planting season began and farmers
    sowed their fields with seeds
  • The biggest crops were wheat and barley, which
    were used to make bread and beer
  • The harvest season began in March
  • During this time, everyone worked from dawn to
  • Peasants often sang songs to make the long hours
    of labor go more quickly

The Daily Lives of Peasants
  • Peasants had the fewest comforts of any of the
    social classes
  • Their diets were simple
  • A typical meal might include onions, cucumbers,
    fish, homemade bread, and water or beer
  • Peas and lentils were also common
  • They rarely ate meat
  • In times of famine, they often had to boil tough
    papyrus plants for food
  • Peasants spent most of their lives working

  • An important time of year for peasants was the
    end of the harvest season
  • As a reward for their hard work, they were
    allowed to gather up as much leftover grain as
    they could and keep it for food
  • They could also be punished for a poor harvest
  • Farmers had to pay taxes in the form of crops
About PowerShow.com