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EvidenceBased Best Practices for Interactive Online Learning Environments

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Title: EvidenceBased Best Practices for Interactive Online Learning Environments


1
Evidence-Based Best Practices for Interactive
Online Learning Environments
  • Dr. Curtis J. Bonk
  • Associate Professor, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare.com
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk,
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu

2
Tons of Recent Research
  • Not much of it
  • ...is any good...

3
Problems and Solutions (Bonk, Wisher, Lee, in
review)
  • Tasks Overwhelm and confuse
  • Too Nice Due to Limited History
  • Lack Justification
  • Too much data
  • Communities not easy to form
  • Train, be clear, structure due dates
  • Develop roles and controversies
  • Train back up claims
  • Use Email Pals
  • Embed Informal/Social

4
Benefits and Implications (Bonk, Wisher, Lee,
in review)
  • Shy open up online
  • Minimal off task
  • Delayed collab more rich than real time
  • Students can generate lots of info
  • Minimal disruptions
  • Extensive E-Advice
  • Excited to Publish
  • Use async conferencing
  • Create social tasks
  • Use Async for debates Sync for help, office
    hours
  • Structure generation and force reflection/comment
  • Foster debates/critique
  • Find Experts or Prac.
  • Ask Permission

5
Basic Distance Learning Finding?
  • Research since 1928 shows that DL students
    perform as well as their counterparts in a
    traditional classroom setting.
  • Per Russell, 1999, The No Significant Difference
    Phenomenon (5th Edition), NCSU, based on 355
    research reports.
  • http//cuda.teleeducation.nb.ca/nosignificantdiffe
    rence/

6
Online Learning Research Problems (National
Center for Education Statistics, 1999 Phipps
Merisotos, 1999 Wisher et al., 1999).
  • Anecdotal evidence minimal theory.
  • Questionable validity of tests.
  • Lack of control group.
  • Hard to compare given different assessment tools
    and domains.
  • Fails to explain why the drop-out rates of
    distance learners are higher.
  • Does not relate learning styles to different
    technologies or focus on interaction of multiple
    technologies.

7
Online Learning Research Problems (Bonk Wisher,
2001)
  • For different purposes or domains in our study,
    13 concern training, 87 education
  • Flaws in research designs
  • - Only 36 have objective learning measures
  • - Only 45 have comparison groups
  • When effective, it is difficult to know why
  • - Course design?
  • - Instructional methods?
  • - Technology?

8
Evaluating Web-Based Instruction Methods and
Findings (41 studies) (Olson Wisher, in review)
9
Evaluating Web-Based Instruction Methods and
Findings (Olson Wisher, in review)
  • …there is little consensus as to what variables
    should be examined and what measures of of
    learning are most appropriate, making comparisons
    between studies difficult and inconclusive.
  • e.g., demographics (age, gender), previous
    experience, course design, instructor
    effectiveness, technical issues, levels of
    participation and collaboration, recommendation
    of course, desire to take addl online courses.

10
Evaluating Web-Based Instruction Methods and
Findings (Olson Wisher, in review)
  • Variables Studied
  • Type of Course Graduate (18) vs. undergraduate
    courses (81)
  • Level of Web Use All-online (64) vs.
    blended/mixed courses (34)
  • Content area (e.g., math/engineering (27),
    science/medicine (24), distance ed (15), social
    science/educ (12), business (10), etc.)
  • Other data
  • a. Attrition data collected (34)
  • b. Comparison Group (59)

11
Different Goals…
  • Making connections
  • Appreciating different perspectives
  • Students as teachers
  • Greater depth of discussion
  • Fostering critical thinking online
  • Interactivity online

12
Wishers Wish List
  • Effect size of .5 or higher in comparison to
    traditional classroom instruction.

13
Electronic Conferencing Quantitative Analyses
  • Usage patterns, of messages, cases, responses
  • Length of case, thread, response
  • Average number of responses
  • Timing of cases, commenting, responses, etc.
  • Types of interactions (11 1 many)
  • Data mining (logins, peak usage, location,
    session length, paths taken, messages/day/week)

14
Electronic Conferencing Qualitative Analyses
  • General Observation Logs, Reflective interviews,
    Retrospective Analyses, Focus Groups
  • Specific Semantic Trace Analyses, Talk/Dialogue
    Categories (Content talk, questioning, peer
    feedback, social acknowledgments, off task)
  • Emergent Forms of Learning Assistance, Levels of
    Questioning, Degree of Perspective Taking, Case
    Quality, Participant Categories

15
Overall frequency of interactions across chat
categories (6,601 chats).
16
Research on Instructors Online
  • If teacher-centered, less explore, engage,
    interact (Peck, and Laycock, 1992)
  • Informal, exploratory conversation fosters
    risktaking knowledge sharing (Weedman, 1999)
  • Four Key Acts of Instructors
  • pedagogical, managerial, technical, social
  • (Ashton, Roberts, Teles, 1999)
  • Instructors Tend to Rely on Simple Tools
  • (Peffers Bloom, 1999)
  • Job Varies--Plan, Interaction, Admin, Tchg
  • (McIsaac, Blocher, Mahes, Vrasidas, 1999)

17
Network Conferencing Interactivity (Rafaeli
Sudweeks, 1997)
  • 1. gt 50 percent of messages were reactive.
  • 2. Only around 10 percent were truly interactive.
  • 3. Most messages factual stmts or opinions
  • 4. Frequent participators more reactive than low.
  • 5. Interactive messages more opinions humor.
  • 6. More self-disclosure, involvement,
    belonging.
  • 7. Attracted to fun, open, frank, helpful,
    supportive environments.

18
Week 4
Starter Centered Interaction
Scattered Interaction (no starter)
19
Collaborative Behaviors (Curtis Lawson, 1997)
  • Most common were (1) Planning, (2) Contributing,
    and (3) Seeking Input.
  • Other common events were
  • (4) Initiating activities,
  • (5) Providing feedback,
  • (6) Sharing knowledge
  • Few students challenge others or attempt to
    explain or elaborate
  • Recommend using debates and modeling appropriate
    ways to challenge others

20
Online Collaboration Behaviors by Categories (US
and Finland)
21
Dimensions of Learning Process (Henri, 1992)
  • 1. Participation (rate, timing, duration of
    messages)
  • 2. Interactivity (explicit interaction, implicit
    interaction, independent comment)
  • 3. Social Events (stmts unrelated to content)
  • 4. Cognitive Events (e.g., clarifications,
    inferencing, judgment, and strategies)
  • 5. Metacognitive Events

22
Some Findings (see Hara, Bonk, Angeli, 2000)
  • Social (in 26.7 of units coded)
  • social cues decreased as semester progressed
    messages became less formal
  • Cognitive (in 81.7 of units)
  • More inferences judgments than clarifications
  • Metacognitive (in 56 of units)
  • More reflections on exper self-awareness
  • Some planning, eval, regulation self qing

23
Surface vs. Deep Posts (Henri, 1992)
  • Surface Processing
  • making judgments without justification,
  • noting that one shares stated ideas or opinions
  • repeating what said
  • asking irrelevant qs
  • i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite.
  • In-depth Processing
  • linked facts and ideas
  • offered new information
  • discussed advantages disadvantages
  • Made judgments supported by examples or
    justification
  • i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Critical Thinking (Newman, Johnson, Webb
Cochrane, 1997)
  • Used Garrisons five-stage critical thinking
    model
  • Critical thinking in both CMC and FTF envir.
  • Depth of critical thinking higher in CMC envir.
  • More likely to bring in outside information
  • Link ideas and offer interpretations,
  • Generate important ideas and solutions.
  • FTF settings were better for generating new ideas
    and creatively exploring problems.

26
Unjustified Statements (US)
  • 24. Author Katherine
  • Date Apr. 27 312 AM 1998
  • I agree with you that technology is definitely
    taking a large part in the classroom and will
    more so in the future…
  • 25. Author Jason Date Apr. 28 147 PM 1998
  • I feel technology will never over take the role
    of the teacher...I feel however, this is just
    help us teachers...
  • 26. Author Daniel Date Apr. 30 011 AM 1998
  • I believe that the role of the teacher is being
    changed by computers, but the computer will never
    totally replace the teacher... I believe that the
    computers will eventually make teaching easier
    for us and that most of the children's work will
    be done on computers. But I believe that there…

27
Indicators for the Quality of Students
Dialogue (Angeli, Valanides, Bonk, in press)
28
Social Construction of Knowledge (Gunawardena,
Lowe, Anderson, 1997)
  • Five Stage Model
  • 1. Share ideas,
  • 2. Discovery of Idea Inconsistencies,
  • 3. Negotiate Meaning/Areas Agree,
  • 4. Test and Modify,
  • 5. Phrase Agreements
  • In global debate, very task driven.
  • Dialogue remained at Phase I sharing info

29
Social Constructivism and Learning Communities
Online (SCALCO) Scale. (Bonk Wisher, 2000)
  • ___ 1. The topics discussed online had real world
    relevance.
  • ___ 2. The online environment encouraged me to
    question ideas and perspectives.
  • ___ 3. I received useful feedback and mentoring
    from others.
  • ___ 4. There was a sense of membership in the
    learning here.
  • ___ 5. Instructors provided useful advice and
    feedback online.
  • ___ 6. I had some personal control over course
    activities and discussion.

30
Evaluation…
31
16 Evaluation Methods
  • 1. Formative Evaluation
  • 2. Summative Evaluation
  • 3. CIPP Model Evaluation (Context, Input,
    Process, Product)
  • 4. Objectives-Oriented Eval
  • 5. Marshall Shriver's 5 Levels (Self,
    Materials, Curric, Modules, Transfer)
  • 6. Bonks 8 Part Eval Plan
  • 7. Kirkpatricks 4 Levels
  • 8. Return on Invest Level 5
  • 9. Level 6 budget and stability of team.
  • 10. Level 7 e-learning champion(s) promoted
  • 11. Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • 12. Time to Competency
  • 13. Time to Market
  • 14. Return on Expectation
  • 15. AEIOU Accountability, Effectiveness, Impact,
    Organizational Context, U Unintended
    Consequences
  • 16. Consumer-Oriented Evaluation

32
My Evaluation Plan…
33
Measures of Student Success (Focus groups,
interviews, observations, surveys, exams, records)
  • Positive Feedback, Recommendations
  • Increased Comprehension, Achievement
  • High Retention in Program
  • Completion Rates or Course Attrition
  • Jobs Obtained, Internships
  • Enrollment Trends for Next Semester

34
1. Student Basic Quantitative
  • Grades, Achievement
  • Number of Posts
  • Participation
  • Computer Log Activitypeak usage, messages/day,
    time of task or in system
  • Attitude Surveys

35
1. Student High-End Success
  • Message complexity, depth, interactivity, qing
  • Collaboration skills
  • Problem finding/solving and critical thinking
  • Challenging and debating others
  • Case-based reasoning, critical thinking measures
  • Portfolios, performances, PBL activities

36
2. Instructor Success
  • High student evals more signing up
  • High student completion rates
  • Utilize Web to share teaching
  • Course recognized in tenure decisions
  • Varies online feedback and assistance techniques

37
3. Training Outside Support
  • Training (FacultyTraining.net)
  • Courses Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums (FacultyOnline.com GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online
    Journals, Library Resources

38
3. Training Inside Support…
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning )
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Facilities
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
  • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants,
    annual reports, faculty development, brown bags

39
RIDIC5-ULO3US Model of Technology Use
  • 4. Tasks (RIDIC)
  • Relevance
  • Individualization
  • Depth of Discussion
  • Interactivity
  • Collaboration-Control-Choice-Constructivistic-Comm
    unity

40
RIDIC5-ULO3US Model of Technology Use
  • 5. Tech Tools (ULOUS)
  • Utility/Usable
  • Learner-Centeredness
  • Opportunities with Outsiders Online
  • Ultra Friendly
  • Supportive

41
6. Course Success
  • Few technological glitches/bugs
  • Adequate online support
  • Increasing enrollment trends
  • Course quality (interactivity rating)
  • Monies paid
  • Accepted by other programs

42
7. Online Program or Course Budget (i.e., how
pay, how large is course, tech fees charged, of
courses, tuition rate, etc.)
  • Indirect Costs learner disk space, phone,
    accreditation, integration with existing
    technology, library resources, on site
    orientation tech training, faculty training,
    office space
  • Direct Costs courseware, instructor, help desk,
    books, seat time, bandwidth and data
    communications, server, server back-up, course
    developers, postage

43
8. Institutional Success
  • E-Enrollments from
  • new students, alumni, existing students
  • Additional grants
  • Press, publication, partners, attention
  • Orientations, training, support materials
  • Faculty attitudes
  • Acceptable policies (ADA compliant)

44
Best Practices?
45
Part I. Best Practices Who are some of the key
scholars and players…???
46
Karen Lazenby, Instructor Qualities,
Deputy-Director, Telematic Learning and Education
Innovation (now Director, Client Service
Center) (University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001,
klazenby_at_tsamail.trsa.ac.za)
  • Flexible to shift between roles
  • Patient, responsive
  • Friendly, positive, supportive
  • Limit lecture
  • Publish best student work
  • Set clear rules for posting and interaction
  • Involve outside experts

47
Online Teaching Skills The Online Teacher, TAFE,
Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Technical email, chat, Web development
  • Facilitation engaging, questioning, listening,
    feedback, providing support, managing discussion,
    team building, relationship building, motivating,
    positive attitude, innovative, risk taking
  • Managerial planning, reviewing, monitoring, time
    management
  • From provider of content to designer of learning
    experiences.
  • From solitary teacher to team member

48
Ron Oliver, Edith Cowen University, Collab
Constructivist Web Tasks (McLoughlin Oliver,
1999 Oliver McLoughlin, 1999))
  • Apprenticeship QA Ask an Expert forums.
  • Case-Based and Simulated Learning exchange
    remote views enact events online.
  • Active Learning Design Web pages databases.
  • Reflective/Metacognitive Learning Reflect in
    online journals, bulletin boards
  • Experiential Learning Post (articulate ideas) to
    discussion groups
  • Authentic Learning PBL, search databases

49
John Hedberg, Singapore (was at Univ of
Wollongong) RILE Monograph (2001) Online Envir.
  • Learner must be active in learning process
  • Provide variety of contexts and viewpoints
  • Learning is a process of construction
  • Immerse learners in authentic contexts
  • Reflective thinking is the ultimate goal
  • Learning involves social negotiation
  • Need to develop realistic strategic, pedagogical,
    commercial models for online learning

50
E-Moderating by Gilly Salmon (Salmon, (1999)
Kogan Page G.K.Salmon_at_open.ac.uk)
  • Know when to stay silent for a few days.
  • Close off unproductive conferences.
  • Variety of relevant conference topics.
  • Deal promptly with dominance, harassment.
  • Weave, archive, co-participate, acknowledge
  • Provide sparks or interesting comments.
  • Avoid directives and right answers.
  • Support others for e-moderator role.

51
Robyn Masons (1991) 3 Roles (The Open
University r.d.mason_at_open.ac.uk) http//iet.open.
ac.uk/pp/r.d.mason/main.html
  • Organizationalset agenda, objectives, timetable,
    procedural rules
  • Patience, vary things, spur discussion, invites
  • Socialwelcome, thank, provide feedback, and set
    generally positive tone
  • Reinforce good things, invite to be candid
  • Intellectualprobe, ask qs, refocus, set goals,
    weave comments, synthesize comments
  • Know when to summarize and to leave alone

52
Morton Paulsens Pedagogical Techniques (Morton
Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical
Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication
morten_at_nki.no)
  • Collective databases, Access to Online Resources
  • Informal socializing (online cafes)
  • Seminars (read before going online)
  • Public tutorials
  • Peer counseling, learning partnerships
  • (Online Support Groups)
  • Simulations, games, and role plays
  • Free Flowing Discussions/Forums
  • Email interviews
  • Symposia or speakers on a theme
  • The notice board (class announcements)

53
PROF. DR. BETTY COLLIS University of Twente (UT)
, Faculty of Educ Science Technology (TO)
collis_at_edte.utwente.nl
  • Lead successful development and implementation of
    the TeleTOP (http//teletop.edte.utwente.nl)
    Web-based course-management system (1997), now in
    use throughout university and beyond.
  • Learning is active, collaborative, construction,
    and contribution (i.e., learner-centered)
  • Give learner support tools options

54
Ideal Environment of Synchronous Trainer by
Jennifer Hoffman (Insync Training,
jennifer_at_insynctraining.com)
  • A private, soundproof room.
  • High-speed connection telephone powerful
    computer additional computer tech support phone
  • Studio microphone and speakers
  • A Do Not Disturb sign
  • Near restroom pitcher of water

55
Zane Berges Pedagogical Recs (Zane Berge, 1995,
The role of the online instructor/facilitator
berge_at_umbc.edu)
  • Draw attention to conflicting views
  • Dont expect too much/thread
  • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of
    comments yields silence)
  • Request responses within set time
  • Maintain non-authoritarian style
  • Promote private conversations

56
Linda Harasim, Online Collab Learning Simon
Fraser University, linda_harasim_at_sfu.ca
  • In 1985, Dr. Harasim was one of the first to
    teach a totally online graduate course. The
    following year, she and her colleagues at the
    Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
    delivered the first professional development
    courses taught online.
  • Harasim, L. (2001). Shift Happens Online
    Education as a New Paradigm in Learning. The
    Internet and Higher Education, 3(1). Elsevier
    Science, New York, NY
  • Harasim, L.. The Virtual University A State of
    the Art. Advances in Computers, Book Series -
    Volume 54. Academic Press, London, UK.

57
The Sharp Edge of the Cube Pedagogically Driven
Instructional Design for Online
Education Syllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant
Sonwalkar
  • five functional learning stylesapprenticeship,
    incidental, inductive, deductive, discovery.
  • http//www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.a
    sp?id5858

58
Dealing with Online Students (Vanessa Dennen, San
Diego State Univ)
  • Students dont participate
  • Because it isnt required
  • Because they dont know what is expected
  • Students all participate at last minute
  • Because that is what was required
  • Because they dont want to be the first
  • Instructor posts at the last minute

59
Just a Lot of Bonk (Curt Bonk, Indiana University)
  • Variety tasks, topics, participants
  • Interaction extends beyond class
  • Make learners are also teachers
  • Allow multiple ways to succeed
  • Embed personalization and choice
  • Clarity and easy to navigate course

60
Instructor Tips
  • Archive work, repurpose it, use it
  • Take a course onlinebe a student
  • Conduct usability testing and simplify
  • Schedule someone due early in course
  • Market/Share what do
  • Find a tech mentor
  • Be flexible

61
What do we need???
  • FRAMEWORKS!!!

62
Reflect on Extent of Integration The Web
Integration Continuum (Bonk et al., 2001)
  • Level 1 Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
  • Level 2 Web Resource for Student Exploration
  • Level 3 Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
  • Level 4 Course Resources on the Web
  • Level 5 Repurpose Web Resources for Others
  • Level 6 Web Component is Substantive Graded
  • Level 7 Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
  • Level 8 Entire Web Course for Resident Students
  • Level 9 Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
  • Level 10 Course within Programmatic Initiative

63
2. Reflect on Interactions Matrix of Web
Interactions (Cummings, Bonk, Jacobs, 2002)
  • Instructor to Student syllabus, notes, feedback
  • to Instructor Course resources, syllabi,
    notes
  • to Practitioner Tutorials, articles,
    listservs
  • Student to Student Intros, sample work, debates
  • to Instructor Voting, tests, papers,
    evals.
  • to Practitioner Web links, resumes
  • Practitioner to Student Internships, jobs,
    fieldtrips
  • to Instructor Opinion surveys, fdbk,
    listservs
  • to Practitioner Forums, listservs

64
3.
65
Study of Four Classes (Bonk, Kirkley, Hara,
Dennen, 2001)
  • TechnicalTrain, early tasks, be flexible,
    orientation task
  • ManagerialInitial meeting, FAQs, detailed
    syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
    e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
  • PedagogicalPeer feedback, debates, PBL, cases,
    structured controversy, field reflections,
    portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios
  • SocialCafé, humor, interactivity, profiles,
    foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,
    guests

66
Some Final Advice…
Or Maybe Some Questions???
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