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Towards 1:1 Digital Classroom: Starting from Interactive Response System

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Title: Implemention and evaluation of collaborative learning system in wireless technology enhanced classroom Subject: PhD dissertation Author: Sams – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Towards 1:1 Digital Classroom: Starting from Interactive Response System


1
Towards 11 Digital Classroom Starting from
Interactive Response System
  • PhD Steven Liang
  • Advisor Prof. Tak-Wai Chan
  • Department of Computer Science and Information
    Engineering, NCU

2
Introduction
3
ICT in School
  • Infrastructure Trend
  • Computer classroom
  • School network
  • Computer(s) into ordinary classroom
  • Student computer
  • Purposes of Computer in Ordinary Classroom
  • Computer skill training
  • Management and data collection
  • Presentation (PPT, CD Title, Web)
  • Learning activity supporting tool

4
11 Educational Computing
  • Every student in a class has a learning device to
    participate in learning activities
  • These devices are mobile and equipped with
    wireless communication capabilities
  • Hypothesis
  • In approximately ten years, more and more
    students will bring a range of computing devices
    into the classroom for learning (www.g1on1.org)
  • Ultimately these devices will become
    indispensable educational tools like pens, papers
    or chalkboards
  • Digital technology will spread into every
    classroom, transforming everyday educational
    activities

5
Digital Classroom Environment (DCE)
  • A kind of system environment
  • Supports 11 educational computing
  • Inside classroom
  • Include a set of hardware/software tools to
    support application models

6
Motivations
  • How to using one computer in ordinary classroom?
  • How to help teacher applying IT into their
    ordinary instruction activities?
  • Beside one way presentation, do we have other
    choices?
  • Bringing only a computer into a classroom may not
    help much more
  • For supporting interaction and expanding more
    possibilities on enhancing instruction and
    learning, relevant devices may needed
  • Is there a design framework of DCE could support
    above criteria?

7
Overview of All Works
DCE 1 (IRS/EduClick)
  • Design and evaluate 1st version DCE to explorer
    DCE basic features

DCE 3
DCE 2 (WiTEC)
  • Extend 1st version DCE with more powerful device

DCE 2.1 (ELMD)
DCE Framework
  • Propose a design framework of 1 1 DCE

8
DCE 1 -- EduClick
9
Interactive Response System (IRS)
  • A technology-enabled learning environment for
    enhancing learning interactivity by transferring,
    collecting, processing, and displaying students
    responses in an ordinary classroom.

10
IRS Environment
  • 1. A set of signal transmitters
  • 2. Response signal receiver(s)
  • 3. Large-size display
  • 4. Classroom computer

11
EduClick
  • Wireless IR
  • Card size
  • Numerical keypad
  • 20M distance
  • Low cost (USD4)
  • Add teachers transmitter

Teachers
Students
12
EduClick Main Screen
1
Question Stem
3
1
2
Options
3
Multimedia attachment
4
2
4
Timer
5
Giving response
7
6
6
Red Light responded
5
7
Gray Light out of range
13
General Features of IRS
  • Device accessibility enabling many people to
    co-use one computer via the signal transmitter
    (11)
  • High efficiency reducing teachers time-
    spending and workload
  • Common response display showing students
    response status and statistic results
  • Anonymity sending responses privately

14
EduClick Improvement
  • Hardware
  • Low cost IR wireless technology
  • Longer distance
  • Collision reduction
  • Multiple receivers
  • Software
  • Remote controlling
  • Multiple application modes
  • Resource server solutions
  • Connected classroom

15
Interaction-supporting Functions of EduClick
  • Quiz Functions
  • Multiple-Choice
  • Match-up Quiz
  • Competition Quiz
  • Buzz-in Quiz
  • Ad-hoc Quiz
  • Self-paced Quiz
  • Statistical Functions
  • Show-all Responses
  • Show Frequency Chart
  • Show Correct Answer
  • Show Scoreboard

16
Application Features of Quiz Functions
Flexibility
Teacher expertise need
Ad-hoc Quiz
Buzz-in Quiz
Competition Quiz
Multiple Choice
Content preparation
Self-paced Quiz
Organized
17
Basic Flows of Integrating Interaction-supporting
Functions
Curriculum Design
Content Preparation
Instruction(Presentation)
/Learning
Engagement Actions
Multiple
-
Match
-
up
Ad-hoc
Competition
Buzz
-
in
Choice
Quiz
Quiz
Quiz
Quiz
Quiz
Classroom Learning /Instruction Activity
Show
-
Show
-
Show
-
All
Show
-
Frequency
Correct
Responses
Scoreboard
Chart
Answer
Oral Feedback Discussion
Report Analysis
18
Implementation and Findings
19
Adapting EduClick into Classroom
  • Phrase 1 (1999)
  • 3 classrooms
  • Phrase 2 (2000)
  • 61 classrooms
  • Model
  • Basic Flow

20
Evaluation of Adapting EduClick in Classroom
Instruction
  • Quantitative evaluation
  • Questionnaires single group pre- and post-test
    experimental designs
  • 42 primary school teachers who had used a
    classroom computer for at least one year
  • Participants applied EduClick in real classroom
    situations for six weeks
  • 38 out of the total 42 participants took both the
    pre- and the post-tests

21
Quantitative analysis
  • Does EduClick increase the utility time of
    classroom computers?

22
Quantitative analysis
  • Does EduClick improve the quality of teaching and
    students motivation and attention?

23
Special Learning Activities
  • Group Project Learning
  • Self-evaluation and peer-evaluation
  • Voting
  • Millionaire Game
  • Classroom management

24
Group Project Learning Flow

Group
Tasks Assign
ment

Info Gathering
1

2

instruction

3

Group Discussion

G1

G4

G3

G2




Co
-
construction of
4

p
resentation questions

Conclusion
s

7

Group

Clea
n


Powe
r

Peer
-

Presentation quiz

6

5

evaluations

25
Other Models
26
????? Peer Instruction
  • 1991?
  • ???????Eric Mazur????
  • ???????????????????

27
  • ??????

28
??
  • ??????
  • ???????????????,??????????
  • ???????????
  • ??
  • ?????????????????

29
??????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???
  • 2-? ?????
  • P?Q????

???????????????????????
30
??????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ???S???,?????????????????
  • A ? B ???
  • C ???
  • ???????
  • ??????????
  • ????????

????????????
31
Sample Question
  • A container of water rests on a scale. If you
    dip your hand into the water, without touching
    the container, what will happen to the reading on
    the scale?
  • 1. Decreases
  • 2. Remains the same
  • 3. Increases

32
(No Transcript)
33
Peer Instruction
  • ????
  • ??? ?????????, ???????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ?? ???? ?????????????
  • ????
  • ????????????????
  • ???????????

34
??1 ??????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????
  • ????IRS????

35
??2 ???????
  • ??????????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ????????????????

36
??3 ??????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????
  • ????IRS????

37
???
  1. pose question
  2. think
  3. first answer

answer correct?
gt 70
lt 35
35 - 70
4. convince-your-neighbors 5. second answer
answer correct?
majority
minority
6. explain 7. go to next topic
slow down, re-address topic
38
Reflections
39
Constrains of EduClick
  • Quiz activities only
  • Limit feedback information
  • Limit question type
  • Can not support after class learning
  • Can not support individual learning

40
??EduClick??????
  • ??????????????5????
  • ?????????????, ??????
  • ?????????????????????
  • ?????????,??????????????
  • ???????????, ??????????
  • ????, ?????????????????????????
  • ?????????
  • ?IRS?????????,??????

41
??EduClick????
  • ???,??????????,??1??????????
  • ??Peer Instruction????????
  • ????????????
  • ???????????,??????????
  • ????????,?????????,???????????
  • ?????????,?????????????????,????????????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ????????,?????????????

42
Next Try DCE 2.1 ELMD
43
ELMD System
  • Motivation
  • Electronic dictionary is very popular in Taiwan,
    China and Japan
  • Learning English is in high priority
  • Goal
  • At least provide EduClick benefit
  • Break through the constrains of EduClick
  • Support whole-day-long English learning
  • Link in-class and after-class English learning

44
Pocket electronic dictionary
Wireless comm. chip (RF)
Flash memory (learning program, data)
HIC
HIC
HIC
Module
Module
Module
ELMD module card
45
Select question
Lesson name
Question stem
Function buttons
Question options
Free type-in
Correct answer
Statistical chart
Posting list
Student status
46

On the bus
On the bus
parents
1.
practice
1.
practice
2.
e
-
dictionary
2.
e
-
dictionary
Enter classroom
Enter classroom
At home
At home
1.
sync. with the Resource
1.
sync. with the Resource
1.
student doing homework
1.
student doing homework
and Class Management
and Class Management
2.
parents check the
2.
parents check the
Server to upload homework
Server to upload homework
communication book
communication book
and download learning
and download learning
3.
parents check the student
?
s
3.
parents check the student
?
s
materials
materials
learning portfolio
learning portfolio
wireless
2.
practice
2.
practice
through
communication
4.
e
-
dictionary
4.
e
-
dictionary
Internet
Resource and Class
Management Server
In class
In class
communication
wireless
1.
teacher presentation and
1.
teacher presentation and
free type
-
in
free type
-
in
On the way home
On the way home
2.
teacher conducts
2.
teacher conducts
1. review today
?
s learning
1. review today
?
s learning
wireless
interactive activities
interactive activities
communication
3.
text
-
based conversation
3.
text
-
based conversation
between students
between students
After class
After class
Daily Cycle
1.
download homework
1.
download homework
2.
download communication book
2.
download communication book
47
DCE Framework
48
Six Major Components of DCE
Teacher
5.Classroom server
4.Teachers device
3.Communication network
6.Device management system
1.Student device
Student
49
Educational Computing Devices
50
DCE Series
  • DCE 1
  • Response pad, IRSEduClick, Components 1-4
  • DCE 2
  • Web pad, WiTEC, Components 1-5
  • DCE 2.1
  • Electronic dictionary, ELMD, Components 1-5
  • DCE 3
  • Tablet PC, DCE3, Components 1-6

51
Communication Affordances
  • Affordance A relationship between an actor and
    physical objects, reflecting possible actions
    performed on those objects (Gibson, 1977)
  • Educational communication affordance consisting
    of two attributes communication mechanism and
    educational application
  • Example Response-Collecting

52
Basic Communication Affordances
-
I Individual learning T Teacher directed
learning G Small group learning
53
Educational Computing Devices Support
Communication Affordances
N Not supported W Weakly supported R
Reasonably supported F Fully supported
54
Conclusions
55
Conclusion
  • This study implemented, explored and evaluated
    1st DCE EduClick (IRS)
  • This study extended 1st DCE to DCE 2.1 (ELMD)
  • This study propose a design framework of DCE
  • Six major components
  • Classification of student devices according to a
    set of features
  • Major communication affordances
  • Serve as a guide for future 1 1 DCE

56
Conclusion
  • EduClick forms the basic design and application
    models of DCE series
  • EduClick enable teachers flexibly to integrate
    it into various learning and instruction
    activities
  • EduClick efficiently enhance the utility of the
    classroom computer and facilitate the integration
    of information technology into instruction,
  • Effectively improving students attentiveness and
    motivation to learn, as well as the quality of
    the teachers instruction
  • ELMD like system could support a whole-day-long
    learning process
  • Teacher and models are the keys to make DCE
    success

57
Future Works
  • More evidence is required before it can be
    commonly adopted in classrooms
  • Find out the key constrains of applying DCE in
    real class instruction/learning process then
    solve it
  • Try out the most effective pedagogical models on
    DCE
  • Focus at special subject domain, prepare
    sufficient and quality contents for DCE
  • Online community integration
  • Other possible devices integration

58
Future Scenarios of DCE
  • In the short term
  • Different student devices will evolve from very
    simple forms to extremely sophisticated ones
  • Students can learn individually, in small groups,
    in a class, in a large online learning community,
    at school, at home, or outdoors
  • Students also can easily change the scale of
    learning participants or places.
  • In the long term
  • An invisible computing era where embedded
    microchips, immersed sensors, and access points,
    are ubiquitous.
  • Visible classroom computing devices will become
    invisible, embedded in our daily living
    equipment, such as walls, desks, books, pens, and
    even clothes.

59
The Inspiration from MITs 100 Laptop
  • One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
  • 1000 million sets
  • Laptops are both a window and a tool for
    developing nations
  • http//laptop.media.mit.edu/

60
Publications (journal papers)
  • Published (4)
  • Liang, J., Liu, T., Wang, H., Chang, B., Deng,
    Y., Yang, J., Chou, C., Ko, W., Yang, S. Chan,
    T. (2005). A few design perspectives on
    one-on-one digital classroom environment. Journal
    of Computer Assisted Learning, 21. pp. 181-189
    (SSCI)
  • Lee, F. L., Liang, S., Chan, T. W. (1999). An
    Attempt to Design Synchronous Collaborative
    Learning Environments. Journal of Educational
    Computing Research, 21, 2, 221-253
  • Liu, T., Wang, H., Liang, J., Chan, T., Ko, H.
    Yang, J. (2003). Wireless and Mobile Technologies
    to Enhance Teaching and Learning, Journal of
    Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 3, 371-382 (SSCI)
  • Wang, H.Y., Liu, T.C., Chou, C.Y., Liang, J.K.,
    Chan, T. W. Yang, S. (2004). A Framework of
    Three Learning Activity Levels for Enhancing the
    Usability and Feasibility of Wireless Learning
    Environment. Journal of Educational Computing
    Research, 30, 4, 331-351
  • Submitted (1)
  • Liang, J., Liu, T., Wang, H. Chan, T.
    (2005).The Impact of Low Cost Interactive
    Response System Technology on Classroom
    Interaction. Re-submitted to Journal of Computer
    Education (SSCI)

61
Publications (patents)
  • Approved(3)
  • ???, ???, ??? (2001). ????????????. ?????????
    144320?
  • ???, ???, ??? (2002). ??????????????.
    ?????????????? ZL 01 2 26588 8 ?
  • ??????????????????? (2004),???????????(Portable
    cart for mobile computer classrooms). ?????????
    199970 ?

62
Publications (conference papers)
  • Published (11)
  • Huang, C.W., Liang, J.K. Wang, H.Y. (2001)
    Educlick a Computer-Supported Formative
    Evaluation System with Wireless Devices in
    Ordinary Classroom. In Proceedings of ICCE 2001.
    pp. 14621469 (best paper award)
  • ???, ???, ???, ???, ??? ??? (2001)
    ??????????????-??????????????????????. In
    Proceedings of GCCCE 2001. pp. 1016-1023
  • Liang, J. K., Wang, H. Y., Liu, T. C. Huang, C.
    W. (2001). Highly Interactive Instruction
    environment for classroom integration of wireless
    testing system and learning information
    management system. Learning across the Ages
    Looking Back and Looking Forwards, pp. 311
  • Liu, T.C., Wang, H.Y., Liang, J.K., Chan, T.W.
    Yang, J.C. (2002) Applying wireless technologies
    to build a highly interactive learning
    environment. In Proceedings of IEEE International
    Workshop on WMTE 2002. pp. 6370
  • Chang, S.B., Liang, J.K., Wang, H.Y., Liu, T.C.
    Chan, T.W. (2002) A Learning Strategy of the
    Across-Classroom Competition Supported for
    Event-Driven Learning. In proceedings of ICCE
    2002. pp. 264-265
  • Liu, T.C., Liang, J.K., Wang, H.Y. Chan, T.W.
    (2003) Embedding EduClick in Classroom to Enhance
    Interaction. In proceedings of ICCE 2003. pp.
    117-125
  • Liu, T.C., Liang, J.K., Wang, H.Y., Chan, T.W.
    Wei, L.H. (2003) The Features and Potential of
    Interactive Response System. In proceedings of
    ICCE 2003. pp. 315-322
  • ???, ???, ??? ??? (2003) ???????????????????.
    In Proceedings of GCCCE 2003. pp. 166-171
  • Wang, H.Y., Liu, T.C., Chou, C.Y., Liang, J.K.
    Chan, T.W. (2004) Implementation and Evaluation
    of Three Learn Activity Levels in Wireless
    Learning Environment. In Proceedings of IEEE
    International Workshop on WMTE 2004
  • Chang, S.B., Wang, H.Y., Liang, J.K., Liu, T.C.
    Chan, T.W. (2004) A Contest Event in the
    Connected Classroom Using Wireless Handheld
    Devices. In Proceedings of IEEE International
    Workshop on WMTE 2004
  • Liang, J., Liu, T., Wang, H. Chan, T. (2005).
    Integrating Wireless Technology in Pocket
    Electronic Dictionary to Enhance Language
    Learning. The 5th IEEE International Conference
    on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005)

63
Acknowledgements
  • I would like to thank following team members who
    worked together in this study
  • Professors Chan, T.W., Liu, T.Z., Ko, H.W.,
    Yang, J.H., Yang, J.C., Chou, C.Y., Wang, Sams
  • PhD Chang, Ben
  • PhD students Chang, S.B., Deng, Y.C.
  • Master students Huang, Hitomi, Sun, K.S., Yun,
    S.B., Wang, T.C., Hu, M.T., Yu, C.H., Lin, C.H.
  • Teachers in the ESTMTC Elementary School, Taipei
    City

64
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