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ENGR 107: Engineering Fundamentals

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Title: ENGR 107: Engineering Fundamentals


1
ENGR 107 Engineering Fundamentals
  • Lecture 1 2
  • The Engineering Profession
  • C. Schaefer
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • George Mason University
  • January 27, 2003

2
Course Overview
  • Introduce students to
  • the engineering profession
  • engineering fundamentals and problem solving
  • engineering design principles.
  • Generate excitement by providing students
  • Hands-on group design projects
  • Insights into contemporary engineering topics.

3
Class Information
  • ENGR 107 Engineering Fundamentals
  • Meeting Time
  • Section 1 MW, 430 545 pm, Science Tech
    II, Room 7
  • Instructor Carl Schaefer
  • Office Hours By Appointment only.
  • E-Mail cgschaef_at_futurelinkinc.com or
    cschaefe_at_gmu.edu
  • Phone/Fax 703-490-1935 (voice), 703-491-3177
    (fax)
  • Course Text
  • Required
  • Engineering Fundamentals and Problem Solving, 4th
    Edition, Eide, Jenison, Mashaw, Northrop,
    McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 0-07-243027-3. (ISBN
    0-07-113022-5 is an international edition
    apparently not available in the US).

4
Grading
  • Design Project 35
  • Mid-Term Exam 30
  • Final Exam 35
  • Exam and Honor Code Policy
  • Homework and Project Policy
  • General Stuff

5
Homework Assignment
  • Reading
  • For today Chapter 1, pages 1 66, Eide, et al.
  • By next week
  • Finish Chapter 1 in Eide, et al.
  • Review Appendix A and B in Eide, et al. Pay
    particular attention to Appendix B.
  • Read pages 495 500.

6
Outline
  • What is an Engineer?
  • Engineering Programs at GMU
  • A Brief History of Engineering

7
Other References
  • Engineering in History, Richard Shelton Kirby,
    et al, Dover, 1990.
  • Beyond Engineering How Society Shapes
    Technology, Robert Pool, Oxford University
    Press, 1997.
  • Engineering An Introduction to a Creative
    Profession Fifth Edition, Beakley, Evans,
    Keats, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986.

8
So, What is an Engineer?
  • National Council of Engineering Examiners
    Engineer shall mean a person who, by reason of
    his special knowledge and use of mathematical,
    physical, and engineering sciences and the
    principles of engineering analysis and design,
    acquired by education and experience, is
    qualified to practice engineering
  • OK, but really, what is an engineer.

9
No Really, What is an Engineer?
  • Individuals who combine knowledge of science,
    mathematics, and economics (yes, economics, too)
    to solve technical problems that confront
    society.
  • Practically
  • Engineers convert scientific theory into useful
    application.
  • Engineers help to provide for mankinds material
    needs and well being.

10
Professional Engineer
  • Graduate from ABET accredited engineering school.
  • Four years of engineering experience accepted by
    Board of Examiners.
  • 16 hours of written examination
  • Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (EIT)
  • Principles and Practice Exam
  • Code of Ethics self imposed
  • The majority of engineers are not professional
    engineers!

11
The Technology Team
  • Scientists
  • Engineers
  • Technologists
  • Technicians
  • Artisans/Craftsman

Note The Technology Team should not be confused
with the project or design team. The latter is
truly multidisciplinary, and includes management,
sales, purchasing, etc.
12
The Engineering Team
  • Engineer
  • Conceptual design
  • Research
  • Project planning
  • Product innovation
  • System development
  • Supervision of technologists, technicians, and
    craftsmen
  • Technologist
  • Routine product development
  • Construction supervision
  • Technical sales
  • Hardware design and development
  • Coordination of work force, materials, and
    equipment
  • Supervision of technicians and craftsman
  • Technician
  • Drafting
  • Estimating
  • Field inspections
  • Data collection
  • Surveying
  • Technical writing
  • Craftsman
  • Uses hand and power tools to service, maintain,
    and operate machines or products useful to the
    engineering team

Ref Introduction to Engineering, 3rd Edition,
Paul H. Wright, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002.
13
Engineering Functions
  • Research
  • Design
  • Development
  • Test
  • Production
  • Deployment
  • Maintenance and operations
  • Management
  • Sales
  • Consulting
  • Teaching

14
What is a Scientist?
  • Prime objective is increased knowledge of nature
    and its laws.
  • Scientists use knowledge to acquire new
    knowledge.
  • Systematic search using scientific method

Science
Engineering
15
The Scientific Method
  • Formulate a hypothesis to explain a natural
    phenomenon.
  • Conceive and execute experiments to test the
    hypothesis.
  • Analyze test results and state conclusions.
  • Generalize the hypothesis into the form of a law
    or theory if experimental results are in harmony
    with the hypothesis.
  • Publish the new knowledge.

16
The Engineer
  • The engineer uses knowledge of mathematics and
    natural sciences and applies this knowledge along
    with his/her judgment to develop devices,
    processes, structures, and systems that benefit
    society.
  • Where a scientist uses knowledge to acquire new
    knowledge, the engineer applies this knowledge to
    develop things for society.
  • Scientist seeks to know engineers aim to do.

17
Some Engineering Fields
  • Aerospace
  • Architectural
  • Biomedical
  • Chemical
  • Civil
  • Computer
  • Electrical
  • Industrial
  • Mechanical
  • Mining
  • Marine and Ocean
  • Metallurgical
  • Nuclear
  • Petroleum
  • Systems

18
Employed Engineers by Field, 1998
  • Field Employment
  • Aerospace engineers 53,035
  • Chemical engineers 48,363
  • Civil engineers 195,028
  • Computer engineers 299,308
  • Electrical/electronic engineers 356,954
  • Industrial engineers 126,303
  • Materials engineers 19,654
  • Mechanical engineers 219,654
  • Mining engineers 4,444
  • Nuclear engineers 11,694
  • Petroleum engineers 12,061
  • All other engineers 414,611

19
The Design Process
  • Identification of a need.
  • Problem definition.
  • Search.
  • Constraints.
  • Criteria.
  • Alternative Solutions.
  • Analysis.
  • Decision.
  • Specification.
  • Communication.

20
Information Technology and Engineering Programs
at George Mason University
  • Civil, Environmental, and Infrastructure
    Engineering (B.S., M.S.)
  • the physical and organizational infrastructure
    essential to the functioning of an urban
    society.
  • Computer Science (B.S., M.S.)
  • design, implementation, and maintenance of
    computer systems
  • Electrical and Computer Engineering (B.S., M.S.,
    Ph.D.)
  • research, development, production, and
    operation of a wide variety of products in the
    important areas of electronics, communications,
    computer engineering, controls, and robotics.
  • Information and Software Engineering (M.S.,
    Ph.D.)
  • focuses on the technical, managerial, and
    policy issues associated with building
    computer-based information systems for modern
    organizations.

21
Information Technology and Engineering Programs
at George Mason University
  • Information Technology and Engineering (Ph.D.
    only)
  • focus on the science and technology of
    information processing and engineering.
  • Operations Research and Engineering (undergrad
    certificate, M.S., Ph.D. through ITE doctoral
    program)
  • the theoretical and empirical study of
    managerial and operational processes and the use
    of mathematical and computer models to optimize
    these systems.
  • Systems Engineering (B.S., M.S., Ph.D. through
    ITE doctoral program)
  • the process of defining, developing, and
    integrating quality systems. System engineers
    define what the system must do, analyze cost and
    performance of the system, and manage the
    development of the system.

22
A (Brief) History of Engineering
23
How Society Perceives Engineers
  • By and large, engineers are paid by society to
    work on systems dealing with problems whose
    solutions are of interest to society. These
    systems seem to group conveniently into
  • (a) systems for material handling, including
    transformation of and conservation of raw and
    processed materials,
  • (b) systems for energy handling, including its
    transformation, transmission, and control, and,
  • (c) systems for data on information handling,
    involving its collection, transmission, and
    processing.

24
How Engineers Picture Themselves!
  • Normal people believe that if it aint broke,
    dont fix it. Engineers believe that if it aint
    broke, it doesnt have enough features yet!
  • Author unknown quote adapted from Va. Tech
    lecture on engineering.

25
History of EngineeringEight Great Events1
  • Food-Producing Revolution (6000 3000 B.C.)
  • Appearance of Urban Society (3000 2000 B.C.)
  • Birth of Greek Science (600 300 B.C.)
  • Revolution in Power (Middle Ages)
  • Rise of Modern Science (17th century)
  • Steam and the Industrial Revolution (18th
    century)
  • Electricity and Applied Science (19th century)
  • Age of Automatic Control (20th century)

1 Kirby, et al.
26
We Can Add Two More(at least for now!)
  • The Information Age (late 20th century)
  • Proliferation of computer technology
  • The Biotechnology Revolution (21st century)
  • Human Genome Project
  • Genetic engineering
  • Neural regeneration
  • Bionics

27
History of EngineeringEight Great Events
  • Food producing revolution (6000 3000 B.C.)
  • Hunters and gatherers
  • Nomadic tribes
  • Sparse populations
  • No towns, villages, cities
  • Appearance of urban society (3000 2000 B.C.)
  • Appearance of cities Egyptian society
  • Increase in wealth, extension of political power,
    growth in trade, required urban infrastructure,
    stimulated engineering
  • Knowledge gained was empirical, gained from
    experience, and handed down to next generation

28
History of EngineeringEight Great Events
  • Birth of Greek Science (600 300 B.C.)
  • Discovery of science
  • Recorded scientific and philosophical knowledge
  • Engineers and architects respected members of
    society
  • Romans adopt Greek science and become master
    engineers (but rotten scientists)
  • Revolution in power (Middle Ages)
  • Up to this time, power supplied by slave labor
  • Engineers harness power from three sources
  • Animals (horses, oxen, etc)
  • Wind (windmills)
  • Water (waterwheels, watermills, dams)

29
History of EngineeringEight Great Events
  • Rise of modern science (17th Century)
  • Rediscovery of Greek science
  • Newton, Galileo, Descartes, etc. establish strong
    foundation
  • Tools of science and engineering (telescope,
    microscope, barometer, calculus, analytic
    geometry, etc.)
  • Truss and suspension bridges, canals, harbors,
    municipal engineering, pumps, etc.
  • Steam and the industrial revolution (18th
    Century)
  • Invention of the steam engine and industrial
    equipment
  • Mass production, steam-powered transportation
    (locomotives and paddle wheelers) spurred growth
    in canals, bridges, roads, railroads
  • Materials science, refined steel bridges,
    transportation

30
History of EngineeringEight Great Events
  • Electricity and the beginning of applied science
    (19th Century)
  • Rediscovery of electricity and electromagnetism
  • Electrical generation and distribution,
    batteries, telecommunications (telegraph)
  • Skyscrapers
  • Age of automatic control (20th Century)
  • Manned, powered flight
  • Mass produced cars
  • Computer

31
Engineering Accomplishments A Historical
Retrospective
  • 6000 3000 B.C. Not much going on, really.
    Crude tools, pottery, ornaments.
  • 3000 600 B.C. Rise of Egypt as an (incredible)
    engineering society
  • Driven by class society and need for
    infrastructure to support.
  • Also driven by pharaohs of time
  • Great Pyramid of Cheops 2.3 million cut blocks
    weighing 5,000 pounds each. Pyramid stands 481
    ft high. Joints less than 0.02 inches in width
  • Precision cutting, measurement devices,
    irrigation, asphalt roads(!)

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33
Engineering Accomplishments A Historical
Retrospective
  • 600 B.C. 400 A.D.
  • Engineering dominated by Greeks, Romans.
  • Engineering knowledge acquired by conquest
    (development and refinement, not research)
  • Greeks more mathematically rigorous (Aristotle,
    Archimedes) than Romans, although Romans
    considered better engineers.
  • Accomplishments included, sophisticated roads and
    aqueducts, turbine engine, navigation, running
    water and sewage drainage, heated houses, public
    baths, etc.

34
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35
Engineering Accomplishments A Historical
Retrospective
  • 1st 16th Centuries
  • Fall of Roman empire.
  • Engineering dominated by Arabs, Chinese, and
    Italians.
  • Accomplishments included paper, new smelting
    processes, waterwheels and windmills, movable
    type printing press, telescope, gunpowder
  • 17th and 18th Centuries
  • Dominated by Europe
  • Accomplishments included scientific and
    engineering methods, canals and locks, ship
    design, fundamental theoretical frameworks

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38
Engineering Accomplishments A Historical
Retrospective
  • 19th Century
  • Dominated by United States
  • Mass production, iron refinement, steam engine,
    railroads
  • 20th Century
  • Massive, almost exponential increase in
    scientific and engineering knowledge
  • Examples, Nylon, nuclear energy, solid state
    electronics, jet aircraft, lasers, satellites,
    space exploration

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