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Safety in the Workplace

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Title: Safety in the Workplace


1
Safety in the Workplace
  • Professionalism in the Work Environment
  • Presented by Geoffrey White
  • Occupational Health Safety Coordinator
  • August 3, 2004

2
Occupational Health Safety Legislation -
Overview
  • Occupational Health Safety Act and Regs
  • Act
  • Responsibilities Employers Supervisors
    Employees
  • Identify and control Hazards
  • Joint Health Safety Committees
  • Worker Rights
  • Right to refuse unsafe work Right to know
    hazards Right to participate
  • Regulations
  • (Industrial Construction Health Care) WHMIS
    Control of Exposure to Biological or Chemical
    Agents ..

3
Occupational Health Safety Legislation -
Overview contd
  • Workplace Safety Insurance Act (WSIA)
  • Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB)
  • Reporting Accidents
  • Entitlement to WSIB Benefits
  • Return to work requirements/process
  • First Aid Regulation
  • Questions????

4
OHS Definitions
  • Occupational Health Safety Act
  • Provides legislative framework for worker
  • protection
  • Outlines general workplace requirements,
    responsibilities and fines (employers
    supervisors employees)
  • Provides coverage for workplaces in Ontario
  • Penalties/Fines for contraventions
  • Anyone - up to 25, 000 and/or 12 months in jail
  • Corporations up to 500, 000

5
OHS Definitions
  • Regulations
  • Applied under the Act
  • Specific requirements for procedures or
    equipment chemicals (WHMIS) designated
    substancesFirst Aid workplace conditions
    protective equipment etc

6
Definitions Continued
  • Employer
  • Anyone who hires one or more workers.
  • Includes Contractors, Subcontractors
  • Supervisor
  • Person who has authority over a worker or is in
    charge of workplace
  • Typically have hiring/firing power
  • Worker
  • Anyone who performs work for pay.

7
Definitions Continued
  • Ministry of Labour Inspector
  • Enforce the Act and Regulations
  • Investigate complaints
  • Investigate critical injuries (places life in
    jeopardy unconsciousness substantial blood
    loss fractured arm or leg amputation or
    arm/hand/leg/foot) burns to major portion of
    body loss of sight in an eye)
  • Competent Person
  • A person who is qualified (knowledge,training or
    experience) to organize and perform work safely
  • Familiar with legislative requirements
  • Act Regulations
  • Knowledgeable about hazards in workplace

8
Employer Responsibilities Continued
  • Refer to sec 25 of the Act for complete list
  • Employers required to
  • Make sure proper equipment is used and in good
    condition
  • Protective devices, equipment and materials as
    prescribed
  • Provide instruction, training and supervision to
    protect HS of worker
  • Take every precaution reasonable in the
    circumstances for the protection of a worker
  • The big hammer
  • Make sure first aid is given promptly

9
Supervisor Responsibilities
  • Refer to sec 27 of the Act
  • Supervisor must
  • Ensure workers work in compliance with the Act
    and Regs
  • Ensure workers use or wear equipment, protective
    devices or clothing required by employer
  • Take every precaution reasonable in the
    circumstances for the protection of a worker
  • Provide written instruction where prescribed.

10
Employee Responsibilities
  • Know your rights and responsibilities under the
    OHS Act and Regulations
  • Use/wear any protective equipment required
  • E.g. hearing protection protective gloves
    safety glasses
  • Know proper procedures for any equipment to be
    used or process to be performed

11
Employee Responsibilities Contd
  • Ask for help if you dont know how to use a
    particular piece of equipment or perform a
    particular task.
  • Report any unsafe conditions or broken/defective
    equipment to your supervisor
  • Report accidents immediately
  • Know emergency evacuation procedures
  • Know where first aid stations are located

12
Employee Responsibilities Contd
  • Know where the nearest fire extinguisher is
    located in your area and how to use one
  • Only operate equipment if authorized and trained.
  • Know the safety resources available to you
  • Supervisor
  • Joint Health Safety Committee
  • OHS Coordinator/Department
  • Ministry of Labour
  • WSIB

13
Joint Health Safety Committees
  • Required in workplaces with twenty or more
    workers
  • At least 2 members for lt 50 employees at least 4
    members for 50 or more employees
  • Mgt. and labour representatives (at least 50
    must be non-mgt.)
  • Certified members (Mgt and Labour) certified by
    WSIB (special training requirements)

14
Joint Health Safety Committees Contd
  • Typically have one JHSC per work location but may
    apply to Ministry for a multi-site committee
  • Advisory committee
  • Identify hazards and make recommendations to
    improve safety
  • Recommend practices, procedures and programs
  • Post member names and work locations

15
Joint Health Safety Committees Contd
  • Workers selected by workers or trade unions
  • Meet at least x 3 months
  • Inspections
  • Physically inspect workplace at least monthly
  • Large workplaces
  • Develop a schedule to cover the entire workplace
    at least 1/yr.

16
Employee Rights
  • Workers have 3 basic rights
  • The Right to Know
  • About hazards in the workplace
  • The Right Refuse
  • Anyone (exceptions include police ambulance
    fire or where refusal would directly endanger
    someone) can refuse to perform work if they
    believe they are endangered.
  • The Right to Participate
  • Investigations, Inspections

17
Right to Know Workplace Hazards
  • Obviously to work safely, you must know what
    hazards you may be exposed to
  • Manually handling materials
  • Use proper lifting techniques
  • Use 2 hands to grab heavy materials
  • Keep the load close to your body
  • Keep you back straight
  • Lift with your legs.not your back!
  • Avoid awkward reaches
  • Ask for help with very heavy and/or large items
  • Safe Lifting Procedure available

18
Office Hazards
  • Ergonomics
  • Esp. VDT workstations
  • Equipment layout
  • Reach distances, heights. work surfaces
  • Lighting, noise
  • Lifting
  • Slips, trips and falls

19
Office Hazards
  • Chemicals
  • Pipe systems/processes
  • Cleaning agents
  • Toners
  • Blueprint machines
  • Flammable/combustible liquids
  • Indoor air quality
  • Temperature, RH, stale stuffy air CO, CO2
  • Mould

20
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • WHMIS Regulation applies in respect to hazardous
  • products used, stored and handled at a workplace.
  • This is a far reaching regulation affecting
    virtually all
  • employers
  • Glues/adhesives
  • Toners
  • Oils/Fuels
  • Cleaning agents
  • Paints
  • Lab operations
  • Compressed gases/aerosols
  • Retail outlets

21
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • Violence in the workplace
  • Immediately report incidents to your supervisor.
  • Tripping Hazards
  • Extension cords or other wires
  • Filing Cabinets
  • Beware of open drawers (you may bang into or trip
    over them.
  • Make sure cabinets are not top-heavy low level
    drawers should be loaded first with heavy items
    for stability.
  • Only open one drawer at a time (safety feature).

22
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • Tripping Hazards Contd
  • Materials stored on floor
  • Chairs, boxes or other items
  • Wet/Slippery Surfaces
  • Wet floors clean spills promptly or report to
    housekeeping
  • Pushing/Pulling rolling stock (e.g. Carts)
  • Pushing is usually more safe than pulling
  • Use body weight to push
  • Can see where youre going
  • Better control

23
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • Cuts
  • Paper cuts (sheet paper boxes packaging)
  • Tools
  • Paper cutter (table-top unit) - keep free hand
    clear of blade
  • Small utility knives
  • Avoid pulling knife toward yourself cut away
    from your body
  • Keep hands clear of blade
  • Make sure blade is sharp
  • Sharp edges on furniture/equipment/building
    surfaces

24
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • Electrical
  • Do not use electrical equipment in wet
    conditions.
  • Caution around water/sinks
  • Make sure electrical cords are in good condition
  • Do not overload circuits
  • CSA approved equipment only.

25
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • Video Display Terminals (abbr. VDTs)
  • Ergonomic considerations
  • Avoid continued use for extended periods to allow
    your body (wrist/arms/eyes/back) to rest
  • Take short breaks (5 min/hr).
  • Break refers to doing something (another task
    perhaps) that uses other muscles/actions - It
    doesnt necessarily have to be a total break.

26
Workplace Hazards Continued
  • The key to VDT comfort is adjustability
  • Chair Allow feet to sit flat on floor
    armrests should
  • be just below elbow height
  • Monitor Top of screen should be just below eye
    level
  • (when sitting on a chair)
  • KeyboardAt elbow height. Do not rest arms/wrists
    on
  • edge.
  • Mouse Close to body avoid awkward reaches.
  • Place on same surface as keyboard.

27
Workplace Hazards Continued
28
Fire Safety
  • Review the fire safety procedure at your work
    location. Know the alarm system Single or
    Two-Stage
  • Single Stage (one alarm only)
  • Evacuate when alarm sounds
  • 2-Stage (two different alarms)
  • First alarm (intermittent) means----be prepared
    to evacuate, wait for instructions
  • Second alarm (constant) - Evacuate
  • Know your escape routes

29
  • Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System

30
Overview
  • Ontario WHMIS Regulation (O.Reg 860) applies to
  • Employers and workers in respect of controlled
    products used, stored and handled at a workplace
  • Far reaching regulation that applies to virtually
    all workplaces
  • Three components of WHMIS
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Labels
  • Training

31
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Suppliers
  • Must evaluate/determine whether their products
    are
  • classified as a controlled product.
  • Criteria under the Hazardous Products Act very
    technical
  • There are several exemptions to WHMIS
  • Consumer products
  • Explosives (has its own Act and Regulations)
  • Tobacco Products
  • Food, Drugs and Cosmetics (Food and Drug
    Act/Regs)
  • Radiation (has its own specific Act and
    Regulations)
  • Wood or products made of wood
  • Manufactured articles
  • Hazardous waste

32
Suppliers Contd
  • Must ensure products are classified properly
    (governed by Hazardous Products Act and
    Regulations)
  • Must ensure products are properly labeled
  • Must provide material safety data sheets

33
Suppliers Contd
  • Several Classifications for Controlled Products
  • Compressed Gases
  • Flammable and Combustible Material
  • Oxidizing Materials
  • Poisonous and Infections Materials
  • Immediate and Serious
  • Other Toxic Effects
  • Biohazardous Infectious
  • Corrosive
  • Dangerously Reactive

34
Employers
  • Must ensure products are properly labeled
  • Must ensure material safety data sheets are
    available
  • Must ensure workers are educated

35
Worker Education
  • Workers who work with or in proximity to a
    controlled product must receive training.

36
WHMIS SYMBOLS
  • Symbol format is regulated

37
Class A Compressed Gases
38
Class BFlammable and Combustible Material
39
Class COxidizing Materials
40
Class D Poisonous and Infectious Materials
Class D1 - Immediately and Serious Toxic Effects
41
Class D Poisonous and Infectious Materials
Class D2 - Other Toxic Effects
42
Class D Poisonous and Infectious Materials
Class D3 - Biohazardous and Infectious
43
Class E
Corrosives
44
Class FDangerously Reactive Materials
45
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Material Safety Data Sheets are required for all
    hazardous substances.
  • Valid for 3 years
  • They contain technical product- specific
    information for hazardous products.
  • At least 9 sections of information required

46
MSDS Contd
  1. Product Information (Product Name Supplier,
    Manufacturer)
  2. Hazardous Ingredients (concentration/toxicity)
  3. Physical Data (solid/liquid/gas.)
  4. Fire or Explosion Hazard (conditions for
    ignition/explosion)
  5. Reactivity Data (stability/ other chemicals..)
  6. Toxicological Properties (short and long-term
    effects.)
  7. Preventive Measures (ventilation, ppe emergency
    measures)
  8. First Aid (treatment for overexposed individuals
    - all routes of exposure)
  9. Preparation Information (Name, date and contact
    number(s) for person or group who prepared the
    msds)

47
WHMIS Labels
  • Product Name
  • Hazard Symbols
  • Refer to Material Safety Data Sheet

Labels are required on essentially all containers
of controlled product.
48
WHMIS Labels Contd
  • Cross hatched border
  • Hazard Symbols
  • Risk Phrase
  • Precautionary Measures
  • Supplier name

49
Workers Right To Refuse Unsafe Work
  • One of the basic worker rights under the OHS Act
    is the Right to Refuse Unsafe Work. The process
    is straightforward and is illustrated in the
    following flow chart
  • Worker must remain in a safe place during the
    investigation but can be assigned other work
    until refusal resolved
  • Workers cannot be penalized for exercising their
    right to refuse.

50
Work Refusal Procedure
Immediately notify your supervisor and Safety
representative
51
Stage 2 Work Refusal
52
WSIA
  • Workplace Safety Insurance Act

53
WSIA First Aid Regulation
  • Regulation applies to all employers covered
  • by WSIB.
  • Requires all employers to have first aid
  • equipment, facilities and trained personnel
  • Employees required to seek first aid in event of
    an accident

54
Reporting an Accident
  • If you have an accident.
  • Report all accidents to your supervisor
  • Get first aid or medical aid immediately
  • Medical aid accidents must be reported to the
    WSIB Employer Accident Report (Form 7) for
    benefits

55
WSIB Accident Claims
  • In event of an accident requiring medical
    attention
  • Employer must notify the WSIB (72 hrs).
  • Form 7 (Report of Accident)
  • Employer must work with employee (and medical
    professionals) to safely return them to work
  • May require modified duties or other workplace
    accommodations
  • Duty to accommodate

56
Adjudication and Benefits
  • Claims are reviewed by WSIB to determine
  • workplace relationship.
  • If allowed, worker entitled to benefits
  • Health care
  • Loss of earnings (85 net income) if applicable.
  • Non-economic loss (ca. pain and suffering)
  • Future economic loss (offset future loss of
    earnings if applicable).

57
Adjudication and Benefits
  • Claims (and benefits) can be denied by the WSIB
    if
  • Claim is not supported by facts
  • Late notification (employee to employer)
  • Too long to seek medical attention.
  • Lack of cooperation
  • Lack of documentation
  • Condition not considered related to workplace
    activities.

58
Adjudication and Benefits
  • Claims and/or decisions can be challenged
  • By the employer
  • By the employee

59
Safety Resources
  • Ministry of Ontario Regulations (All Ministries)
  • www.gov.on.ca
  • Publications Ontario
  • Legislation Online
  • E-Laws
  • Acts and Regulations of Ontario
  • Consolidated Law (Statutes and associated
    Regulations)
  • Alphabetical Index (look under O Occupational
    HS to see list of relevant Regulations
    Asbestos WHMIS etc..)
  • Ministry of Labour Website
  • Acts/Regulations
  • Guides
  • JHSCS
  • Workplace Hazards

60
Safety Resources
  • Employment Standards Act
  • Minimum age
  • Working hours
  • Vacation entitlement
  • Emergency leave
  • Termination
  • Canadian Centre for Occupational Health Safety
    (CCOHS) www.ccohs.ca
  • National Institute Occupational Safety Health
    (NIOSH) www.cdc.gov/niosh
  • Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB)
    www.wsib.on.ca

61
Questions????
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