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Response to Intervention

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Title: Response to Intervention


1
Response to Intervention
2
Workshop Outcomes
  • Discuss the essential elements of RTI
  • Understand the roles of all tiers within a system
    of supports
  • Understand Behavioral RTI and the
    behavior-academic connection
  • Examine RTI across the country
  • Identify key elements of decision protocols and
    documentation

3
Agenda
  • A General Educators View
  • What is RTI?
  • A Tiered Pyramid of Interventions
  • Behavioral RTI
  • Key Elements to Operationalizing RTI
  • Decision Protocols, Decision Making, and
    Documentation

4
Thats Me!
  • I work at school sites.
  • I have to have coffee as soon as I wake up.
  • I work in the central office.
  • I played sports in high school.
  • I am a school teacher with a special education
    credential.
  • I have been in education less than five years.
  • I plan to shop when this is over.
  • I am a psychologist by training.
  • I traveled more than 100 (200, 300, etc.) miles
    to get here.
  • I am a speech and language pathologist by
    training.
  • I have a pet I like more than some of my
    relatives.
  • I am a school teacher with a general education
    credential.
  • I read for pleasure at least three times a week.

5
WHAT IS RTI?

6
  • Our mission as educators is not to
  • Meet mandates.
  • Raise test scores.

7
Our Mission
To assure high levels of learning for all
students!
8
Research
  • Approximately two-thirds of eighth- and twelfth-
    grade students read at less than the proficient
    level as described by NAEP (National Institute
    for Literacy, 2006).
  • Approximately 32 percent of high school graduates
    are not ready for college-level English
    composition courses (ACT, 2005).
  • Over half of adults scoring at the lowest
    literacy levels are drop-outs and almost a
    quarter are high school graduates (NCES, 2005).
  • Approximately 40 percent of high school graduates
    lack the literacy skills employers seek (Achieve,
    Inc., 2005).
  • U.S. drop-outs literacy skills are lower than
    most industrialized nations, performing
    comparably only to Chile, Poland, Portugal and
    Slovenia (OECD, 2000).
  • A full 70 percent of U.S. middle and high school
    students require differentiated instructionthat
    is, instruction targeted to their individual
    strengths and weaknesses (Alliance for Excellent
    Education for the Carnegie Corporation of New
    York).

9
  • If our mission is high levels of learning for all
    students, the question is
  • Is it possible?

10
Schools do make a difference.
  • Effective schools research by Ron Edmonds,
    Lawrence Lezotte, Wilbur Brookover, Michael
    Rutter, and others concludes
  • All children can learn!
  • Schools control the factors assuring that
    students master the core of the curriculum.

11
Schools do make a difference.
  • An analysis of research conducted over a
    35-year period demonstrates that schools that are
    highly effective produce results that almost
    entirely overcome the effects of student
    backgrounds.
  • Robert Marzano, What Works in Schools (2003)

12
Schools do make a difference.
  • 90-90-90 Schools
  • (Douglas Reeves)

13
For all students to learn, we must
  • Start with highly effective, research-based,
    differentiated core instruction.
  • Systematically identify students who are not
    succeeding in our core program.
  • Provide these students additional time and
    support until they learn.

14
Why adopt an RTI model?
15
Fundamental Assumption
  • To achieve our mission, it is not a regular ed
    issue, nor a special ed issue.
  • Its an ed issue!

16
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Answering this question requires us to look back
    into history.
  • 1975, PL 94142
  • Identifying students with handicapping conditions
    denied access to public education
  • Child Find
  • Procedural safeguards as a major component of
    identification process

17
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • What was not a focus?
  • Little or no attention was paid to student
    outcomes, either academic or behavioral.
  • Students with disabilities were systematically
    excluded from assessment systems.
  • No systems were developed for assessing these
    students.

18
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Successful academic outcomes are not achieved by
    waiting for students to fail but are instead
    achieved by systematically applying these
    questions to our work.

19
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Impact on regular education
  • Educators came to understand that when students
    failed to learn, it was expected (even required)
    that they refer students for special education
    testing.
  • Failure to succeed in a general education
    program meant the student must, therefore, have a
    disability. David P. Prasse, Loyola University

20
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Impact on regular education
  • Special education experienced ballooning
    enrollments.
  • General education experienced a narrowing of
    expectations for student performance.
  • We learned to look elsewhere for assistance.

21
Why adopt an RTI model?
After 25 years of refer, test, place, something
needed to be done.
  • Reform needed to be systematic (understood by
    both regular and special education teachers).
  • RTI emerged as a regular education initiative.

22
We simply know more...
  • 1 in 6 children may suffer from
  • Mental Retardation
  • Learning Disorders
  • Attention Disorders
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Sensory Processing Disorders
  • Epilepsy Processing Disorders
  • Neurological
  • fMRI
  • Pre and post brain scanning
  • EEG
  • Brain Electrical Activity Mapping
  • Statistical Probability Mapping
  • Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia,
  • Aditi Shankardass, A second opinion on learning
    disorders, TED, 2009

23
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions
Tier 1 Core Program
24
Tier 1 Where all students need to go
Tier 2 What some students need to get there
Tier 3 What this student needs to get there
25
  • Core and More

26
Certain Access
  • Effective
  • practices

Systematic response
27
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • At first glance, response to intervention (RTI)
    is a method to identify learning disabilities.
    But RTI could play a much larger role. It has the
    ability to transform how we educate studentsall
    students. With RTI, students may get the support
    they need
  • as soon as they show signs that they are having
    difficulty learning, regardless of whether or not
  • they have a disability.
  • Council for Exceptional Children (2007)

28
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Rather than a focus upon identification and
    placement, we needed a focus upon student
    outcomes.
  • Meanwhile, among the essential questions of the
    PLC are
  • How will we know if the students learned?
  • How will we respond if they dont learn?

29
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • RTI
  • Intended to provide an educational experience to
    all students that is
  • Focused upon delivering a powerful core
    instructional program and interventions
  • Frequently monitoring the progress of students
    receiving interventions
  • Adjusting and changing the interventions as
    appropriate

30
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Students who need special education are those
    who
  • Respond to interventions yet require major
    resources to sustain the progress.
  • OR
  • Show progress but will not be able to close the
    gap with their peers, no matter the intensity or
    frequency of the intervention.

31
RTI is a Commitment!
32
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Why? Because
  • Adopting an RTI model is about adopting best
    practice, insisting that we do what is best and
    necessary for all students in our schools, and,
    finally, rising to the challenge of doing that
    which is socially just. That is why we must adopt
    an RTI model and implement it with integrity in
    every school throughout the nation.
  • David P. Prasse, Loyola University

33
Why adopt an RTI model?
  • Because
  • - A child shall not be determined to be a child
    with a disability if the determinant factor is
  • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading
    (as defined by NCLB)
  • Lack of appropriate instruction in math
  • Limited English proficiency
  • 34 CFR 300-306(b)

34
  • Tier 1

35
Background
  • Madeline Hunter Instructional Theory Into
    Practice (ITIP)
  • Objectives
  • Standards
  • Anticipatory set
  • Teaching
  • Input
  • modeling
  • check for understanding
  • Guided practice/monitoring
  • Closure
  • Independent practice
  • Mastery Teaching and Enhancing Teaching, Madeline
    Hunter

36
Background
  • Direct, explicit instruction
  • The goal of direct instruction is to maximize
    student time on task and the student rate of
    success which in turn are associated with student
    achievement. Thus, the behaviors incorporated
    into direct instruction are designed to create a
    structured, academically oriented learning
    environment in which students are actively
    engaged during instruction and are experiencing a
    high rate of success (80 percent mastery or
    better) in the tasks they are given (Joyce,
    Weil, Calhoun, p. 344).
  • Orientation
  • Presentation
  • Structured Practice
  • Guided Practice
  • Independent practice
  • Methods of Teaching, Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil
    with Emily Calhoun

37
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Why do it?
Students
Teacher
Better Learning through Structured Teaching,
Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey
38
Keys to Effective Tier 1 Instruction
  • Before the lesson
  • Cognitive Planning
  • During the lesson
  • Metacognitive Modeling

39
What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Tier 1
Instruction?
  • Write and Pass
  • Create a Circle Map describe a classroom that
    exhibits effective instruction
  • After I direct you, pass to the right (if at end
    end, down) and add to the map
  • Create a one-liner

40
Effective Classroom Instruction
41
What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Tier 1
Instruction?
  • Incorporating all phases of lesson design
    correctly
  • High levels of student engagement
  • High levels of student participation
  • Frequent checks for understanding with quality
    questions
  • Constant corrective feedback
  • Students interacting with students

42
My preferencePhases of Tier 1 Instruction
  • Orientation
  • Presentation
  • Structured Practice
  • Guided Practice
  • Independent Practice
  • Closure/Reflection/Connections

43
5 Phases of Tier 1 Instruction
  • Check for understanding
  • Use interactive structures
  • Actively engage students
  • Provide immediate corrective feedback
  • Efficiently use instructional time
  • Establish clear routines and procedures
  • Plan objectives / activities that are standards
    and data-based
  • Select tasks appropriate either instructionally
    or independently
  • Provide consistent instruction and content
    through lesson

44
Key Teacher Behaviors
  • Sets the context for lessons
  • Deconstructs standards for content and level of
    cognition
  • Refers to progress toward meeting the objective
    throughout the lesson
  • Assesses for and connects to prior learning
  • Builds background knowledge
  • Pre-teaches academic and content vocabulary
  • Employs scaffolds to support students
  • Provides a variety of media
  • Links all activities, homework, and assessments
    standards
  • Provide immediate, corrective feedback
  • Constantly observes, explains, questions,
    clarifies, praises, acknowledges prompts, and
    corrects

45
Key Teacher Behaviors
  • Metacognitively models
  • Provides multiple explanations
  • Provides hands-on, tangible, concrete, and
    conceptual experiences
  • Determines appropriate grouping (pairs, groups)
    and tasks based on Purpose, Process, and Product
  • Specifically supports English learners with
    visuals and sentence frames
  • Intervenes with students when needed
  • Extends for students ready to move on
  • Assesses at the end of the lesson to determine
    who has mastered content and who needs further
    assistance
  • Ensures students can transfer knowledge
  • Designs homework to reinforce lesson

46
Key Student Behaviors
  • Attends to teacher
  • Listens to explanations
  • Actively processes new information
  • Asks questions to clarify
  • Responds when prompted
  • Collaborates with peers
  • Takes charge and responsibility for learning
  • Practices new skills to self-assess knowledge
  • Problem solves when confused
  • Self-regulates
  • Self-corrects
  • Initiates learning dialogue with peers
  • Reflects on learning
  • Extends and applies learning to new and/or future
    concepts and contexts
  • Explores real-life applications

47
Differentiation
48
  • Tiers 2 and 3

49
  • Learning CPR

50
Activity 2 Minutes
  • Brainstorm all the academic and behavioral
    interventions with which you have been involved

51
CPR Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
  • Urgent, life-saving process
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

52
Characteristics of an Effective Intervention
Program
  • Urgent
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

53
Characteristics of an Effective Intervention
Program
  • Urgent
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

54
Urgent
  • Do we have a sense of urgency when implementing
    interventions?

55
Characteristics of an Effective Intervention
Program
  • Urgent
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

56
  • Evidence Based
  • vs.
  • Research Based

57
Extended Time to Learn Essential Standards
  • Formula for Learning
  • TI T L
  • Targeted Instruction Time Learning

58
Traditional Schools
  • TI T L
  • Targeted Instruction Time Learning
  • Constant Constant Variable

59
New Schools
  • TI T L
  • Targeted Instruction Time Learning
  • Variable Variable Constant

60
Timely
  • Extended time to learn essential standards

Timely school response when students dont learn
61
Characteristics of an Effective Intervention
Program
  • Urgent
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

62
Pearl
  • Identify students for interventions based upon
    the cause of their struggles, not by the
    symptoms.

63
Targeted
  • Students who dont do their work

Students who lack the skills to do their work
64
Targeted
  • Intentional
  • non-learner

Failed learner
65
Students can be both intentional non-learners
and failed learners.
66
Targeted
  • What is the interventions intended outcome?
  • Does it provide differentiated, research-based
    instruction?
  • Which students should be selected for
    participation (intentional non-learners or failed
    learners)?

67
Characteristics of an Effective Intervention
Program
  • Urgent
  • Research based
  • Directive
  • Timely
  • Targeted
  • Administered by trained professionals
  • Systematic

68
Administered by Trained Professionals
  • Who will teach or otherwise implement this
    intervention?
  • Do our instructors have the training and
    resources necessary for success?

69
Interventions
  • Interventions become more intensive by
  • Increasing the frequency (5 times/week rather
    than 3 times/week)
  • Increasing the duration (50 minutes rather than
    30 minutes)
  • Decreasing the pupilteacher ratio

70
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions
Tier 1 Core Program
71
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions
Tier 1 Core Program
72
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions
Tier 1 Core Program
73
(No Transcript)
74
Learning for All
  • Response to Intervention offers the best
    opportunity in the past three decades to ensure
    that every child, no matter how gifted or
    challenged, will be equally valued in an
    education system where the progress of every
    child is monitored and individualized
    interventions with appropriate levels of
    intensity are provided to students as needed.
  • East (2007)

75
  • Behavioral RTI

76
(No Transcript)
77
Goals of Behavioral RTI and PBIS
  • Improve classroom and school climates
  • Decrease reactive behavior management
  • Ensure every student learns at the highest
    possible level
  • Integrate academic and behavioral supports
  • Improve support for students with complex
    behavioral challenges
  • Based on the decades of work of Sugai and Horner

78
Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
  • School-wide PBS is
  • A systems approach for establishing the social
    culture and behavioral supports needed for a
    school to be an effective learning environment
    for all students.
  • Evidence-based features of SW-PBS
  • Prevention
  • Define and teach positive social expectations
  • Acknowledge positive behavior
  • Arrange consistent consequences for problem
    behavior
  • On-going collection and use of data for
    decision-making
  • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention
    supports
  • Implementation of the systems that support
    effective practices

Rob Horner and George Sugai, Linking Behavior
Support and Literacy Support
79
Behavior is Science
  • Successful individual student behavior support
    is linked to host environments or school climates
    that are effective, efficient, relevant,
    durable for all students
  • Zins Ponti, 1990

80
Are your Behavioral Expectations and Supports
Based on Science?
  • Activity Are your schools expectations and
    supports (4 min)
  • Effective
  • Have you defined your objectives?
  • Are you achieving your stated objectives?
  • Efficient
  • Can you consistently commit to, and hold adults
    and students accountable to, your stated
    objectives?
  • Relevant
  • Do expectations and supports match your current
    realities and desires?
  • Durable
  • Is your support system flexible and designed to
    adjust to data?
  • Scalable (for all)
  • Are your expectations and supports systematic and
    consistent across your school building

81
Some Examples of Inappropriate Behaviors
  • Inappropriate remarks
  • Fidgeting
  • Not doing classwork
  • Not doing homework
  • Apathetic responses
  • Other

82
The Old Way of Behavioral Supports
  • When presented with challenging behaviors, we
    selected interventions that produced immediate
    relief
  • Remove student
  • Remove ourselves
  • Modify physical environment
  • Assign responsibility for change to students and
    others

83
Then, We Got Tough
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Increased surveillance
  • Increased suspension expulsion
  • Alternative programming

84
Some Have Assumed That Students
  • Are inherently bad
  • Will learn more appropriate behaviors through
    negative consequences
  • Will somehow be better tomorrow

85
The Results
  • Environments of control
  • Antisocial behaviors
  • Accountability outside the classroom or school
  • Devalued and diminished adult-student
    relationship
  • Disconnect between academic and behavior supports

86
Motivation
  • Children who engage in problem behavior typically
    do so for one of two MAIN reasons
  • Get access to attention (adult/ peer)
  • Avoid/escape work or demands
  • Good behavior support improves academic
    engagement and academic gains.
  • Good instruction improves behavior

Rob Horner and George Sugai, Linking Behavior
Support and Literacy Support
87
Science of behavior has taught us that students.
  • Are not born with bad behaviors
  • Require regular and frequent feedback on their
    actions
  • Receive frequent feedback from others, self, and
    environment that can shape undesired behaviors
  • Do not learn best when presented with negative
    consequences
  • Learn better ways of behaving when taught
    directly
  • Correct and improve behavior through positive
    feedback

Rob Horner and George Sugai, Linking Behavior
Support and Literacy Support
88
Behavioral RTI Involves All Staff - Always
  • Positive expectations and routines taught and
    encouraged
  • Active supervision by all staff
  • Precorrections reminders
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Behavioral RTI is highly compatible with a PLC
  • In fact, it cannot be fully achieved unless
    approached collaboratively

89
Behavioral RTI is Consistent with RTI
  • Universal screening
  • Implementation with fidelity
  • Continuum of evidence-based interventions
  • Analyses of student performance data
  • Continuous progress monitoring
  • Tiered system of supports
  • Data-based decision making problem solving

90
Elements of Behavioral RTI
  • Establish Team Membership
  • Identify desired behaviors
  • Teach desired behaviors
  • Create system for monitoring
  • Identify rewards
  • Identify Supports for At-Risk Students
  • BE CONSISTENT
  • Analyze data
  • Reteach
  • Intervene

91
STEP 1 Establish Team Membership
  • Representative of demographics of school and
    community Consider involving students
  • Principal involvement
  • Schedule team meetings at least monthly
  • Schedule for presenting to whole staff at least
    monthly
  • Integration with other behavior related
    initiatives and programs
  • Appropriate priority relative to school and
    district goals
  • Schedule for annual self-assessments

92
STEP 2 Develop Purpose Statement
  • Positively stated
  • 2-3 sentences in length
  • Supportive of academic achievement
  • Contextually/culturally appropriate
  • Schoolwide in scope
  • Communicated to all stakeholders
  • Included in school publications

93
STEP 2 Sample Purpose Statements
  • Wilson School is a community of learners and
    teachers. We are here to learn, grow, and become
    good citizens.
  • At Wilson School, we treat each other with
    respect, take responsibility for our learning,
    and strive for a safe and positive school for all!

94
STEP 3Identify Expectations
  • Identify desired behaviors
  • Linked to social culture of school
  • 3-5 in number
  • 1-3 words per expectation
  • Positively stated
  • Supportive of academic achievement
  • Schoolwide in scope
  • Communicated to stakeholders
  • Included in school publications

95
Identify Expectations
  • Be Respectful of Self, Others, and Property
  • Respect
  • Be Responsible and Prepared at all Times
  • Responsibility
  • Be Ready to Follow Directions and Procedures
  • Readiness

96
Identify Expectations
97
STEP 4Teach Desired Behaviors
  • Focus on main school settings and contexts
  • Specify 1-5 positive, observable behavior
    examples for each expectation and each
    setting/context
  • Teach social behaviors like academic skills
  • Involve staff, students, and families in
    development
  • Schedule initial instruction
  • Schedule regular review, practice, and follow-up
    instruction

98
STEP 4Teach Desired Behaviors - continued
  • Display prompts, reminders, and precorrections
  • Provide feedback, corrections and positive
    acknowledgements
  • Provide instruction to new faculty, staff,
    students, and parents
  • Inform other stakeholders
  • Schedule continuous evaluation of effectiveness
  • Identify and support students whose behaviors do
    not respond to teaching behavior expectations

99
Teach Desired Behaviors
  • Demonstration Days
  • Half-days
  • Teacher teams
  • Show incorrect and teach correct behaviors
  • Reinforce in each class, each period
  • Consider additional demonstration days throughout
    the year

100
Step 5Teach Desired Behaviors in Classrooms
  • Classroom management practices and procedures
    based on schoolwide plan
  • Define processes for responding to minor or major
    violations
  • Teach schoolwide behavior expectations in typical
    classroom contexts and routines
  • Establish data system to monitor referrals from
    classrooms
  • Provide support for students whose behaviors are
    not responsive to classroom-wide management
  • Display prompts, reminders, and precorrections in
    classrooms
  • Reinforce consistently

101
Step 6 Develop Procedures for Discouraging Rule
Violations
  • Define violations of behavioral expectations
  • Appropriate labels
  • Representative of continuum of severity (minor,
    major, illegal)
  • Universally applied
  • Defined in measurable terms
  • Develop procedures for processing violations of
    behavioral expectations
  • Agreement regarding administrator versus teacher
    responsibilities
  • Referral form for tracking discipline events
  • Consistent application of continuum of
    consequences
  • Data decision rules for intervention and support

102
Identify Supports for At-Risk Students
  • Remind
  • Check-in
  • Catch being good
  • Pre-correct
  • Increase frequency of monitoring
  • Behavior contracts
  • Behavior plans
  • Develop alterative behavioral options

103
STEP 7 Develop Procedures for Encouraging
Students to Embrace Expectations
  • Reward positive behaviors
  • Acknowledge with verbal praise and
    academically-based rewards
  • Establish routine rewards for positive
    behaviors
  • Determine tiers of supports for students who do
    not respond
  • Establish system for communicating with all
    stakeholders
  • Assist classroom teachers in providing Tier 1
    supports

104
Are Rewards Dangerous?
  • our research team has conducted a series of
    reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature
    our conclusion is that there is no inherent
    negative property of reward. Our analyses
    indicate that the argument against the use of
    rewards is an overgeneralization based on a
    narrow set of circumstances.
  • Cameron, 2002
  • Cameron Pierce, 1994, 2002
  • Cameron, Banko Pierce, 2001

105
Rewards
  • Rewards are a core feature of building a positive
    school culture
  • Rewards make a difference
  • Initial behavior change
  • Sustained behavior change (Doolittle, 2006)
  • Rewards can be used badly
  • But the literature has not proven that rewards,
    in and of themselves, inhibit intrinsic
    motivation
  • Rewards can be used effectively in all school
    contexts
  • Reward the behavior not the person
  • When we say rewards, think reinforcers

106
Identify Rewards
  • Incentive cards
  • Drawings
  • Acknowledgement
  • Tokens

107
STEP 8 Develop Procedures for Data-Based
Decision-Making and Monitoring
  • General data collection and referral procedures
  • Procedures are integrated into typical routines
  • Referral form for documenting behavior incidents
  • Limit information to important student,
    classroom, and school questions
  • Managed by a few staff members
  • No more than 1 of time each day for managing
    data system

108
STEP 8 Develop Procedures for Data-Based
Decision-Making and Monitoring - continued
  • General data collection and referral procedures
  • Efficient procedures for inputting and storing
    information
  • Efficient procedures for summarizing and
    analyzing information
  • Efficient procedures for producing visual
    displays of the data
  • Schoolwide procedures for responding to
    violations
  • Routines for staff and students to receive daily,
    weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback
  • Procedures for making decisions and developing
    actions based on the data

109
BE CONSISTENT
  • Student to student
  • Period to period
  • Teacher to teacher
  • Day to day

110
Create System for Monitoring
  • The new referral
  • SWIS

111
Sample Referral
112
SWIS Data Entry
113
Analyze Data
  • Who?
  • When?
  • What types?
  • Where?

114
Sample SWIS Report
115
Sample SWIS Report
116
Reteach
  • Whole school
  • Small groups
  • Individual

117
Intervene
118
  • Remember a student with whom you had behavioral
    challenges
  • at your table, complete an Analysis

119
Activity
Setting or event
Antecedents
Behavior
Consequence
Function
120
Some Remarks Regarding Principles,
Considerations, and Potential Responses
  • Care
  • Remember that its about connections
  • Be proactive
  • Policies
  • Be clear

121
Some Remarks Regarding Principles,
Considerations, and Potential Responses, continued
  • Be consistent
  • Get support if and when needed
  • Remember that choices can be powerful
  • Use the right conjunction
  • Closer, not farther
  • Private vs. Public statements

122
Some Remarks Regarding Principles,
Considerations, and Potential Responses, continued
  • Greeting when they return
  • Stating things in the positive
  • Positive affirmations
  • The 2/10 approach
  • Prewritten Cards

123
Some Remarks Regarding Principles,
Considerations, and Potential Responses, continued
  • Tally Cards
  • Tokens
  • Passes
  • Questioning
  • Other

124
What does Behavioral RTI look like?
  • At least 80 of students can tell you what is
    expected of them and give behavioral examples
    because these behaviors have been taught,
    actively supervised, practiced, and acknowledged
  • At least 80 of students are responding to the
    high behavioral expectations of the school
  • Positive adult-to-student interactions greatly
    exceed negative adult-to-student interactions
  • Functionally-based behavior support is the
    foundation for addressing problem behavior
  • Principals are active participants
  • Full continuum of behavior support is available
    to all students

125
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126
  • RTI Across the Country

127
Myths About RTI
  • Myth 1 The intent of RTI is identification,
    and therefore special education remains its own
    entity that occurs subsequent to trying RTI.
  • Myth 2 Tier 3 is only for special education.
  • Myth 3 The focus of RtI should be identifying
    students with Specific Learning Disabilities to
    get rid of students who are not really LD, but
    who were simply not achieving for other reasons.

128
Myths About RTI
  • Myth 4 RtI is only prereferral.
  • Myth 5 Comprehensive evaluations do not change
    with RTI, so districts should continue to do
    traditional assessments.
  • Myth 6 The research base for RtI is limited to
    beginning reading. There are no research studies
    comparing RtI to traditional special education
    services.

129
Myths About RTI
  • Myth 7 No contemporary research including
    student outcome data are available.
  • Myth 8 The RtI model is the 3-tier, general
    ed/remedial ed/special ed model, so all states
    should adopt it.
  • Myth 9 Tier 2 is short-term, not the 10-30
    weeks that exists in many RtI models.

130
Myths About RTI
  • Myth 10 Because of time to disposition
    issues with longer Tier 2 interventions, the
    special education identification process will not
    fit into the RtI framework.
  • Myth 11 There is no sense of urgency the
    status quo is not that bad. No hurry some
    tweaking is needed, but RtI can support the
    traditional model.

National Association of State Directors of
Special Education, 2005
131
Keys to Implementing RTI
  • RTI is a framework for a system that
  • Provides high-quality instruction and
    intervention matched to student need
  • Monitors progress frequently to make decisions
    about change in instruction or learning goals
  • Applies student response data for making
    important educational decisions, including
    determining special education eligibility
  • (Adapted from National Association of State
  • Directors of Special Education, 2005)

132
Keys to Implementing RTI
  • Use teaching methods and interventions that have
    been shown to work because they are
    research-based.
  • Track progress of students receiving
    intervention.
  • Use progress-monitoring data to
  • Provide students with even more intensive
    interventions.
  • Consider the additional resources of special
    education.

133
Keys to Implementing RTI
  • Key components
  • Problem solving and collective responsibility
  • Quality core instruction
  • Universal screening and diagnostic assessment
  • Interventions
  • Progress monitoring
  • Intervention efficacy and fidelity

134
Practice a Gap Analysis
  • With your shoulder partner, choose 1 row (1 min)
  • Begin a gap analysis on that row (4 min)

135
RTI
136
IOWA
  • RTI

Special Education Eligibility Standards, Iowa
Department of Education, July 2006
137
Purpose of RTI in Iowa
  • Identify and support students at risk with
    general education interventions
  • Identify students requiring special education
    and/or related services
  • Special education and related services are not
    seen as separate but as part of a student support
    system.
  • An RTI process will satisfy the components of a
    full evaluation.

138
Iowa Determination of Eligibility
  • Does the individuals academic, behavioral,
    physical, health or sensory performance level
    adversely affect educational performance?
  • Does the individual need/require special
    education services?

139
Iowa Determination of Eligibility
  • Non-categorical designation for all individuals
  • A student eligible to receive special education
    services or related services is defined as an
    Eligible Individual
  • IEP Teams and parents may request a specific
    diagnosis if it is of educational benefit to the
    student

140
Iowa Determination of Eligibility
  • Disproportionality
  • Ethnic and linguistic diversity
  • Exclusionary factors still apply
  • Lack of instruction in reading and math
  • Limited English proficiency
  • Cultural or economic disadvantage

141
Iowa 3 Source of Data
142
Iowa Disability
  • A disability
  • Results in educational performance significantly
    and consistently different, diminished, or
    inappropriate compared to peers
  • Interferes with
  • Access to general education opportunities
  • Developmentally appropriate progress
  • Interpersonal relationships

143
Iowa Progress
  • Students rate of progress compared to expected
    rate (peers or normed standard)
  • The area of concern must be operationalized
  • Baseline performance is established
  • Goal is established
  • Frequent data collection
  • Decision protocols
  • Phase changes noted

144
Iowa Progress
  • Required Questions
  • How does the students rate of progress compare
    to the expected rate?
  • What is the frequency, intensity, and duration of
    the behavior (if the concern is behavioral)?
  • Have interventions been developed, implemented,
    and monitored with fidelity?
  • What supports resulted in the most progress?

145
Iowa Discrepancy
  • The difference between a students level of
    performance compared to peers levels of
    performance or other normed standards at a
    specific point in time

146
Iowa Discrepancy
  • Required Questions
  • What multiple sources of data indicate that the
    students performance is significantly discrepant
    from peers or the normed standard?
  • How does the students current level of
    performance compare to peers or the normed
    standard?
  • How great is the discrepancy (10th percentile, 1
    SD, years behind, safety and learning)?
  • How practically and statistically significant is
    the discrepancy?

147
Iowa Need
  • Educational interventions cannot be successfully
    sustained without special education services

148
Iowa Need
  • Required Questions
  • What are the students needs in instruction,
    curriculum, and environment
  • What strategies, accommodations, and
    modifications will enable the student to be
    successful.
  • What strategies, accommodations, and
    modifications have enhanced the students
    performance and allowed access to relevant
    content?

149
Iowa Need
  • Required Questions
  • 4. What ecological variables inhibit the success
    of certain strategies, accommodations, and
    modifications?
  • How pervasive are the concerns across settings
    and time?
  • What ongoing, substantial, additional services
    are need that cannot be provided within general
    education?

150
Iowa NeedThe conclusion that the interventions
required for success cannot be sustained without
special education services
151
New Mexico RTI Defined
  • Continuum of schoolwide supports that will
    maximize the odds that students will succeed
  • Major factor in school improvement efforts
  • Organize and guide instruction
  • Allocate and optimize resources
  • Integrate and systematize teaching, learning, and
    behavior
  • Long-term commitment to students
  • The Student Assistance Team (SAT) and the
    Three-Tier Model of Student Intervention
  • New Mexico Public Education Department

152
New Mexico RTI Defined
  • RTI is not a
  • Student placement model
  • Location
  • Classroom
  • Class
  • Program
  • Teacher
  • Label
  • Special education initiative
  • Quick fix
  • Interventions and services are in tiers not
    students

153
RTI in New Mexico
  • Tier 1 Great core curriculum and outstanding
    differentiation
  • Tier 2 Formal, fully-documented intervention
    through school teams
  • Tier 3 Special education

154
New Mexico Universal Interventions and Levels
of Support
  • Specialized strategies and scaffolds
  • Flexible groupings
  • Tiered assignments
  • Curriculum compacting
  • Cross age grouping
  • Independent study
  • Learning contracts
  • Behavior contracts
  • Increased frequency
  • Increased duration
  • Reduced group size
  • Specialized instructors

155
New Mexico Accountability
  • Balanced scorecard
  • Increase in students successful in Tier 1
  • Decrease in dropouts
  • Decrease in retentions
  • Increase in graduation rates
  • Increase in rates of seniors meeting a-g
  • Improved AYP scores
  • Fewer students referred
  • Fewer students identified
  • Fewer students requiring supplemental (Tier 2)
    supports
  • Increase in number of students moving from Tier 2
    to Tier 1
  • Fewer behavioral concerns

156
New Mexico Needs
  • Training in effective, direct, explicit,
    differentiated Tier 1 instruction with
    universal interventions
  • Establish and train teacher teams
  • Develop decision protocols (or rules) to adjust
    instruction within and between tiers, based on
    student response to instruction and intervention
  • Establish and support Positive Behavior
    Interventions and Supports within schools

157
New Mexico Universal Screening
  • Below the 25th percentile on frequent district
    assessments

158
New Mexico What is an Inadequate Response?
  • Lack of response to instruction and intervention
    as compared to peers after a reasonable time
  • Data drives decisions

159
New Mexico Tier 2
  • Supplemental and individualized support
  • Students continue to receive effective, direct,
    explicit, differentiated Tier 1 instruction with
    universal interventions
  • Tier 2 supports provided by classroom teacher and
    other appropriate staff at the school

160
New Mexico Student Assistance Team (SAT)
  • Not a function of special education
  • A support group to assist general education staff
    in supplementing instruction and support
  • Not designed to replace or relieve regular
    education teacher

161
New Mexico Secondary School RTI
  • Focus on self-regulatory strategies
  • Academic self-management
  • Motivation and attribution
  • Methods of learning
  • Physical and social environment
  • Time management
  • Self-monitoring
  • Take advantage of alternate schedules

162
Alternative Schedules La Serna
163
Alternative Schedules La Serna
La Serna High School, Whittier, CA
164
Alternative Schedules Whittier
165
Alternative Schedules Whittier
166
Alternative Schedules Whittier
Whittier High School, Whittier, CA
167
Alternative Schedules San Juan Hills
168
Alternative Schedules San Juan Hills
169
Alternative Schedules San Juan Hills
170
Alternative Schedules San Juan Hills
San Juan Hills High School, San Juan Capistrano,
CA
171
Alternative Schedules Lynbrook
172
Alternative Schedules Lynbrook
173
Alternative Schedules Lynbrook
174
Alternative Schedules Lynbrook
Lynbrook High School, San Jose, CA
175
New Mexico Eligibility
  • Dual discrepancy model
  • Low or large differences in achievement scores as
    compared to grade-level peers
  • Learning rate substantially below grade-level
    peers

176
Illinois RTI
  • General education initiative
  • Requires collaborative effort by ALL educational
    experts
  • Three essential components
  • Three-tiered model
  • Problem-solving model
  • Data informs instruction
  • The Illinois State Response to Intervention (RtI)
    Plan

177
Illinois Three Tiers
  • Resources allocated based on student need
  • Tiers 2 and 3
  • Interventions provided in addition to Tier 1 core
    instruction
  • State recommendations for three-tiered framework
    allows for local agencies to exercise flexibility

178
Illinois Eligibility
  • Teams use data at each tier to document students
    response to intervention as part of evaluation
    process
  • RTI shall be a part of the evaluation process
    when an SLD is suspected
  • After implementing an RTI process on behalf of a
    student, teams may use the discrepancy model
  • A RIOT-like model should be used
  • Reevaluations should also utilize RTI

179
Illinois Key elements
  • Identification of assessments
  • Identification of strategies and interventions
  • Education and professional development
  • Communication to all stakeholders
  • Necessary structures and infrastructures
  • Development of decision and eligibility protocols

180
Illinois RTI ImplementationSelf-Monitoring
  • Assuming staff is trained, are they implementing?
  • Assuming staff is implementing, are they
    implementing with fidelity?
  • Assuming staff is implementing with fidelity, are
    they sustaining high levels of intensity?
  • Assuming staff is sustaining high levels of
    intensity, what are student outcomes?
  • Are all stakeholders contributing fully committed
    and informed?

181
Illinois Decision Protocols
  • No prescribed length of time
  • Long enough to
  • Determine if intervention is working
  • Close the gap between student and peers or
    benchmark
  • Taking into account
  • Students baseline performance
  • Students prior history of intervention support
  • Past educational stability of student in school
  • The intensity of the intervention
  • Students deemed eligible will continue to receive
    interventions

182
Illinois Documenting Fidelity
  • In addition to documenting student data,
    intervention fidelity must also be documented
  • Professional development
  • Use of scripts
  • Co-plan, co-teach opportunities
  • Checks for effectiveness, based on analysis of
    student data

183
Illinois Student Observations
  • Observing students in natural settings is a
    critical piece of the process
  • Measure specific behaviors
  • Behaviors have been identified prior to
    observations
  • Observations are standardized and objective
  • Times and places are carefully selected

184
Illinois Inadequate Progress
  • Student still has one or more significant skill
    deficits compared to peers of grade level
    benchmarks
  • Students pace of progress does not match
    intervention or CBM norms
  • For progress to be achieved, the student requires
    supports that are significantly different from
    general education peers

185
Illinois Parent Requests
  • If district agrees with parent request and the
    student has not been involved in an RTI process,
    then appropriate supports must be initiated,
    given Illinois requirement that RTI be used in
    the determination of eligibility
  • Timelines remain the same
  • Use of the discrepancy model is neither required
    nor sufficient
  • Informed parent consent is not required for most
    elements of RTI

186
3 States
  • Iowa 40 pages
  • New Mexico 139 pages
  • Illinois 36 pages

187
California (Draft)
  • Appropriate instruction
  • Screening
  • Intervention
  • Progress monitoring
  • Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses
  • (RTI Problem-Solving Model)

188
Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Does the student demonstrate an academic weakness
    relative to peers or grade levels standards?
  • Does the students have a processing disorder?
  • Is the processing disorder related to the
    academic weakness?
  • Is the weakness accompanied by other areas of
    strength?
  • Then, the student exhibits a pattern of strengths
    and weaknesses and may be eligible

189
  • How many effective schools would you have to
    see to be persuaded of the educability of poor
    children? If your answer is more than one, then I
    submit that you have reasons of your own for
    preferring to believe that pupil performance
    derives from family background instead of school
    response to family background. We can, whenever
    and wherever we choose, successfully teach all
    children whose schooling is of interest to us. We
    already know more than we need to do that.
    Whether or not we do it must finally depend on
    how we feel about the fact that we haven't so
    far.
  • Ronald Edmonds, Harvard University, 1976

190
Fuchs and FuchsTeaching Exceptional Children,
May/June 2007
  • Students are identified as LD when their
    response to validated intervention is
    dramatically inferior to that of peers.

191
Fuchs and Fuchs Six Components
  • Number of tiers
  • Identifying for prevention
  • Preventative intervention
  • What is an adequate response? (Dual discrepancy)
  • Evaluation to determine eligibility
  • The purpose of special education

192
  • Decision Protocols and Documentation

193
Documentation
  • Accurate information on peers grade-level peers
    performance and rate of learning
  • Criteria for judging discrepancy must be clearly
    stated
  • A students performance and rate of learning must
    be reliably and meaningfully different
  • Tukey Method

194
Documentation Graphs
  • Record
  • Type of support
  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Group size
  • Dates of service
  • Student progress

195
Progress Monitoring
  • Whats a good response to an intervention?
  • Good response
  • Gap is closing.
  • Teacher can extrapolate a point at which the
    student will catch up to peerseven if this is a
    long-range target!

196
Good Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Time
Observed Trajectory
197
Progress Monitoring
  • Whats a good response to an intervention?
  • Good response
  • Gap is closing.
  • Teacher can extrapolate a point at which the
    student will catch up to peerseven if this is a
    long-range target!
  • Questionable response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening.
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur.

198
Questionable Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Time
Observed Trajectory
199
Progress Monitoring
  • Whats a good response to an intervention?
  • Good response
  • Gap is closing.
  • Teacher can extrapolate a point at which the
    student will catch up to peerseven if this is a
    long-range target!
  • Questionable response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening.
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur.
  • Poor response
  • Gap continues to widenno change in rate of
    growth.

200
Poor Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Time
Observed Trajectory
201
Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Time
Observed Trajectory
202
  • Putting It All Together

203
RTI2 in California
  • High-quality classroom instruction
  • Research-based instruction
  • Universal screening
  • Continuous classroom progress monitoring
  • Research-based interventions
  • Progress monitoring during instruction and
    intervention
  • Fidelity of program implementation
  • Staff development and collaboration
  • Parent Involvement
  • Specific Learning Disability Determination

204
What about
  • Decision Protocols
  • And
  • Documentation

205
Our Challenge
  • Develop efficient, sustainable steps that
    schools and school districts can flexibility and
    compliantly follow
  • How?

206
Discussion
207
Thank You!
  • Chris Weber, EdD
  • cweber_teacher_at_yahoo.com

208
Thank You!
  • To schedule professional development, contact
    Solution Tree
  • at (800) 733-6786.
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