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Response to Intervention: Everyone serving everyone

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Title: Response to Intervention: Everyone serving everyone


1
  • Response to Intervention Everyone serving
    everyone

Assessing learning and the learning environment
Andrew Shanock, Ph.D., NCSP College of St. Rose
2
  • SPELL TALK
  • mgah
  • tuc
  • touk
  • tawk
  • talk

3
Graphing CBM Scores
4
Graphing CBM Scores
5
Two kids, same intervention
6
AGREE?
  • A teaching method might work with all of the
    students some of the time
  • And some of the students all of the time
  • But a method doesnt work with all of the
    students, all of the time.

7
Goals of Presentation
  • How did we get here
  • Air the not-so-secret dirty secrets of
    educational systems
  • What is RTI
  • Roles of educational leaders
  • How to build consensus and infrastructure for
    effective implementation.
  • Understand that Tier One is the most important
    Tier

8
Some thoughts about Secondary Level RTI.
  • By Middle School, We Would Hope that We Wouldnt
    Be Discovering Disabilities in our students
  • LOTS of students have Academic and Behavior
    challenges in Middle and High School, HOWEVER,
    EVERY PROBLEM LEARNING IS NOT A SIGN OF A
    LEARNING PROBLEM
  • (courtesy of Mark Shinn, Ph.D., National Louis
    University, 2008)

9
The American Educational System Structure
  • Turfdom
  • Conflicting Programs
  • Lack of coordination
  • bureaucracy for sake of bureaucracy
  • Student grouping not instructionally based
  • Rigidity, rules
  • Redundancy

Migrant
K-12 Education
10
The American Educational System Structure
  • Turfdom
  • Conflicting Programs
  • Lack of coordination
  • bureaucracy for sake of bureaucracy
  • Student grouping not instructionally based
  • Rigidity, rules
  • Redundancy

English
K-12 Education
11
Traditional System issues
  • Little emphasis on early intervention and
    prevention
  • Can only get services if diagnosed! Use of
    IQ-Achievement Discrepancy BAD
  • (Identifying CHC Abilities, using consistency
    GOOD!)
  • IEPs did not implement scientifically based
    instruction
  • Start program in September, find out if effective
    in May
  • Overrepresentation of minorities in special
    education
  • Retention/social promotion are weakest
    intervention strategies
  • More concern about being in compliance than
    childs educational success THE FORGOTTEN GOAL
  • Within Student vs. Within System
  • Darn those lazy kids. I sat them in the room for
    a half hour and nothing happened.

12
BREAKING NEWS
  • THE EARLIER THE INTERVENTION THE
  • LOWER THE RISK OF ACADEMIC
  • DIFFICULTY IN THE FUTURE

13
Related to Traditional Assessment?
  • Huge Increases in Identification
  • From 1976 to 2002 the classification of
    children with specific learning disabilities
    increased 300
  • Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special
    Education July 1, 2002
  • Inconsistencies in Identification
  • 1988 27 of identified children in Utah were
    ED,
  • the ED rate in CA was 2.5 of identified
    children
  • Forness Kavale, 1990

14
Related to the Traditional Model?
  • 6 million children currently in special education
  • Federal funding is 8.5 billion dollars
  • Placement in special education programs most
    often result in little gain or negative outcomes
  • (A New Era 2002)

15
IDEIA
  • What are some of the details of the Law?

16
Early Intervening Services Provision What IDEIA
Now Provides
  • Greater emphasis on use of early interventions
    (research-based)
  • School districts will be able to use up to 15 of
    their total IDEIA federal funds for early
    intervening servicesThese services are to be
    provided BEFORE they are identified as having a
    disability. LEAs have option to conduct this
    activity.
  • Funding may be used for professional development,
    academic and behavioral supports.

17
RTI Official Permission for Needs-Based Service
Delivery
18
Why Is A New Approach Needed?
  • Wait to fail
  • Students are not considered eligible for support
    until their skills are widely discrepant from
    expectations
  • Counters years of research demonstrating
    importance of early intervention
  • Dont need a diagnosis for an intervention to be
    provided
  • (Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special
    Education, 2002)

19
New Yorks Response
20
NYS Learning Disability Definition
  • A student with a disorder in one or more of the
    basic psychological processes involved in
    understanding or in using language, spoken or
    written, which manifests itself in an imperfect
    ability to listen, think, speak, read, write,
    spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The
    term includes such conditions as perceptual
    handicaps, brain injury, neurological impairment,
    minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and
    developmental aphasia. The term does not include
    students who have learning problems which are
    primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor
    handicaps, of mental retardation, of emotional
    disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or
    economic disadvantage. A student who exhibits a
    discrepancy of 50 percent or more between
    expected achievement and actual achievement
    determined on an individual basis shall be deemed
    to have a learning disability language to be
    repealed

21
NYS Learning Disability Definition
  • (C) Eligibility Determinations
  • (2) A student shall not be determined eligible
    for special education if the determinant factor
    is
  • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading,
    including explicit and systematic instruction in
    phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary
    development, reading fluency (including oral
    reading skills) and reading comprehension
    strategies
  • (new language proposed)
  • ( Proposed Amendment to the Commissioner, pp. 22
    of 67)

22
Additionally Districts must
  • Districts must identify RTI criteria and the
    process for levels of intervention and progress
    monitoring
  • Districts must ensure staff has knowledge and
    skills to implement RTI with consistency and
    fidelity
  • By 2012, prohibit the use of the significant
    discrepancy criteria in reading for K-4 students

23
  • ALL RIGHT ALREADY
  • GET
  • WITH
  • RTI

24
Response to Intervention (RTI)A Definition
  • The practice of providing high quality
    instruction and interventions matched to student
    need, monitoring progress frequently to make
    decisions about changes in instruction or goals
    and applying child response data to important
    educational decision. RTI should be applied to
    decisions in general, remedial, and special
    education, creating a well integrated system of
    instructional/intervention guided by child
    outcome data

25
Key Components
  • Leadership
  • Allowing for role change
  • Knowledge of various Tiers of service
  • Allow and support mistakes
  • Providing Professional Development (increasing
    knowledge)
  • Clear policy and procedures that are focused on
    the child and fits within the reality of the
    classroom

26
Key Points
  • RtI is not about
  • Special Education
  • General Education
  • Talented and Gifted Education
  • Compensatory Education
  • RtI is about EVERY EDUCATION
  • RtI is fundamentally about improving teaching and
    learning/matching differentiated instruction with
    student needs

27
Core Principles of RtIAT ALL LEVELS
  • Frequent data collection on student performance
  • Early identification of students at risk
  • Early intervention (K-3)
  • Multi-tiered model of service delivery
  • Research-based, scientifically validated
    instruction/interventions
  • Ongoing progress monitoring - interventions
    evaluated and modified
  • Data-based decision making - all decisions made
    with data

28
What is NOT RTI
  • The Old Way of Doing Business with a New Label
    (e.g., Pre-Referral Intervention, Old Team-New
    Name).
  • Reinventing a System that Focuses (obsessively)
    On Identifying a Disability as the Goal
  • Expecting GE Teachers to Meet the Needs of ALL
    students (180 students-180 different
    interventions)
  • A Referral-Driven System That Considers Students
    1 at a Time With Lots of Paper, Lots of Testing,
    Lots of Meetings, Lots of Paper, Lots of
    Meetings, and on and on
  • (courtesy of Mark Shinn, Ph.D, National Louis
    University, 2008)

29
Three Tiered Model of School Supports Example of
an Infrastructure Resource Inventory
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier III Comprehensive and Intensive
Interventions ( Few Students) Students who need
Individualized Interventions
Tier III Intensive Interventions ( Few
Students) Students who need Individual
Intervention
Tier II Strategic Interventions (Some
Students) Students who need more support in
addition to the core curriculum
Tier II Targeted Group Interventions (Some
Students) Students who need more support in
addition to school-wide positive behavior program
Tier I Universal Interventions All students all
settings
Tier I Core Curriculum All students
29
30
3-Tier Model
  • Tier 1
  • Core Classroom All students
  • Tier 2
  • Intervention 20-30
  • Tier 3
  • Intensive 5-10
  • Intervention

31
One approach to RTI4 Tier Model

Tier 4CSE or 504 students Monitored weekly

Tier 312 or 13 instruction (remedial reading,
AIS, AST) Monitored weekly
Tier 2Small Group instruction (remedial
reading, AIS, AST) Monitored bi-weekly or monthly
Tier 1Universal screening General Education
Curriculum
32
The Middle School Dilemma
ONLY Tier 3 Programs That Often Dont Provide
What Students Need

---------
-Weak Tier 3 Interventions Content Area
Tutoring Help with Homework Alternative Content
Area Courses -Few or No Tier 2 Options -Little
Attention to Tier 1 Improvement of Teacher
Effectiveness
------------------------
33
Tier One
  • Research-based general education classroom
    teaching
  • These are best practice interventions
  • conducted with any child in the general education
    environment
  • based on curriculum given to majority of children
    in the classroom

34
Tier One Interventions
  • Some examples.
  • Give students a target to read to and circle the
    word where you want them to be after one minute.
    Give them a goal and make it harder by a word or
    two every time you have them read.
  • Middle School and High School syllabus for each
    course

35
Syllabus??
  • Contact information
  • Helps students, family/guardians, and other
    academic professional get a hold of you
  • Course Description
  • Helps build preview to courselike building
    background information
  • Course Goals and Big Ideas
  • Also, helps to preview course and illuminate the
    student of possible future events, topics, etc
  • Instructions and Directions as to HOW TO GET
    HELP.
  • Might include a school resource room, website,
    other teachers, a file drawer in the classroom,
    etc. Detailed directions.

36
Syllabus, continued
  • Course calendar and Due Dates
  • Builds structure and organization.also helps
    other professionals in the building
  • Access to Models for papers, projects, tests
  • Might include a school resource room, website,
    other teachers, a file drawer in the classroom,
    etc.
  • (Mark Shinn, Ph.D., National Louis University,
    2008)

37
Tier One
  • 80 of children should respond to general
    education curriculum at Tier One
  • If more than 20 of children need intervention
    assistance beyond best practice, the issue lies
    with the curriculum or the instruction, not the
    children

38
Tier One
  • Benchmark assessments occur 3 times per year to
    evaluate children in reading fluency and
    comprehension and math calculation
  • These benchmark assessments will indicate which
    students are in need of intervention, along with
    state test scores, and classroom grades

39
RTI Begins with Using CBM in Benchmark
Assessment
  • Frequent Evaluation (3 times per year) of Growth
    and Development Using R-CBM
  • Initial Performance Assessment (IPA) or Taking
    Inventory at the Beginning of the School Year
  • 1. Identify Students At Risk
  • 2. Instructional Planning
  • 3. Initial Data Point for Progress Monitoring
  • Accountability
  • NCLB and AYP
  • Linkages to State Standards

40
  • It IS
  • What about the interaction of the curriculum,
    instruction, learner, and learning environment
    should be altered so that the child will learn?
  • Ken Howell
  • (University of Oregon, 2007)

41
Tier Two
  • If children indicate at Tier One that they are
    below expectations for their grade level, they
    move to Tier Two!
  • Referral typically is made by classroom teacher

42
Tier Two
  • Small Group instruction
  • Remedial reading, AIS, AST
  • With research-based interventions
  • Monitored bi-weekly or monthly
  • By remedial reading teacher or AIS teacher

43
NYS Education Memo
44
Tier 2
  • Where to Focus?
  • Build Effective, Scientifically-Based Tier 2
    Remedial Reading
  • AND
  • Effective, Scientifically-Based Behavior Programs
  • in grades 5-9

45
Tier 2 Interventions
  • Some examples
  • Evidence-based programs at the Middle School and
    High School Levels
  • Reading Mastery (SRA)
  • Language! (Sopris West)
  • REWARDS (Sopris West)
  • SIM (Strategic Instruction Model)
  • Small group instruction (approximately 5-10
    students) with a baseline and goal for each
    students skill level (i.e., fluency,
    comprehension, vocabulary, etc.) to be
    implemented for 8-10 weeks THEN RE-EVALUATE!
  • Intervention is targeted toward BASIC SKILLS and
    CONTENT INSTRUCTION

46
Tier Three
  • If children indicate at Tier Two
  • (through progress monitoring of reading or math
    skills)
  • that they continue to remain below expectations
    for their
  • grade level,
  • despite research-based interventions
  • and monthly IST meetings,
  • they move to Tier Three!
  • Referral is typically made by classroom teacher
    through IST process.

47
Tier Three
  • 12 or 13 instruction
  • Remedial reading or AIS
  • With research-based interventions
  • Monitored weekly
  • By reading teacher or AIS teacher

48
Tier 3 Interventions
  • Some examples of research-based intensive
    interventions
  • REACH (SRA)
  • Corrective Reading (SRA)
  • Language! (Sopris West)
  • Small group instruction (approximately 2-3
    students) with a baseline and goal for each
    students skill level (i.e., fluency,
    comprehension, vocabulary, etc.) to be
    implemented for 8-10 weeks THEN RE-EVALUATE
    progress!!

49
Tier Four
  • CSE or 504 students
  • Research-based interventions implemented through
    resource room, Consultant Teacher model, AIS, or
    Remedial Reading
  • Monitored weekly

50
Tier Four
  • If the student continues
  • to have difficulty
  • making progress,
  • Case Manager refers them to
  • Instructional Support Team
  • Or CSE review

51
Design Elements Integral to RTI Process
  • Proactive System Design A blueprint or model
  • Effective and Efficient Teams
  • A Range of Evidence-Based Interventions/Instructio
    n
  • Procedural Standard Protocols-- Organizing and
    Documenting Critical Tasks
  • Initial Planning
  • When Intervention is Required
  • Efficient and Economical Assessment That Provides
  • Preventive Progress Monitoring
  • Universal Screening
  • Identifying Educational Need
  • Sensitive Progress Monitoring
  • Reports Documenting/Summarizing the Process and
    Outcomes

52
Nuts and Bolts of RtI that drive you nuts and
make educators bolt.
Intervention Fidelity Staff Development Building
Consensus Support and Structure
  • Intervention Decision Making
  • Finding Interventions
  • Implementation of RtI

53
PROGRESS MONITORING
  • Curriculum Based Measurement
  • What is it good for

54
What Is the Difference Between Traditional
Assessments and PM?
  • Traditional assessments
  • Lengthy tests
  • Not administered on a regular basis
  • Teachers do not receive immediate feedback
  • Student scores are based on national scores and
    averages and a teachers classroom may different
    tremendously from the national student sample
  • Measures are sensitive to change. Normed tests
    wont give you that.

55
What Is the Difference Between Traditional
Assessments and PM?
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is one type of
    PM
  • CBM provides an easy and quick method to
    gathering student progress
  • Teachers can analyze student scores and adjust
    student goals and instructional programs
  • Student data can be compared to teachers
    classroom or school district data

56
Purpose of CBM?
  • To provide educators with an efficient means to
    evaluate the effectiveness of a students
    instructional program
  • TO INTERVENE IMMEDIATELY

57
  • Reliable and valid indicator
  • Sensitive to growth
  • Short duration
  • Repeatable
  • Simple
  • Easy to teach/train
  • Easy to understand explain
  • Increased utility

58
Curriculum Based Measurement at each Tier
  • CBMs take 1 to 7 minutes to administer
  • Addresses Spelling, Writing, Math, Reading
  • All except Reading can be done in group format
  • Frequency of assessment depends on Tier.

59
MS/HS Progress Monitoring
  • Research still in infancy
  • Can extrapolate and use basics of CBM to develop
    our own measures
  • More nationally developed CBMs coming out,
    primarily math and reading.
  • In MS/HS have to show comprehension, but first
    they have to have basic skills. Both
    comprehension and skills can be monitored.

60
CBM
  • Not interested in making kids read faster
  • Interested in kids becoming better readers
  • The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading
    competence
  • Students who score high on CBM
  • Are better comprehenders
  • Correlates highly with high-stakes tests
  • If they do not have basic reading fluency, how
    are they going to do on State tests? How are
    they going to do comprehending reading material.

61
READING CBMs
  • Reading Measures
  • Oral Reading Fluency
  • Maze fluency Comprehension
  • Best for progress monitoring at MS level

62
Maze
63
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64
CBM Reading Fluency Probes Example
Examiner Copy
Student Copy
65
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67
How to Administer and Score Written Expression
CBM
  • Administered to entire class at one time
  • Students presented with a story starter
  • Students are given time to formulate their
    writing
  • Students write for a set amount of time
  • Teacher scores Written Expression CBM probes
    after administration is complete
  • We are looking at how well they can organize and
    express their thoughts under timed pressure.much
    like the DBQs

68
How to Administer and Score Written Expression
CBM
  • Narrative writing story starters
  • Familiar theme should be used
  • Starters should always end in mid-sentence
  • Starter is written at top of student CBM probe
  • Can be used to prepare students for DBQs

69
At the Middle School Level
  • the best measure for predicting performance is to
    have students write for 7 minutes in response to
    a narrative prompt, and score the number of
    correct minus incorrect word sequences.
  • For progress monitoring, where data are collected
    on a weekly basis, a 5-minute sample is probably
    long enough.

70
How to Administer and Score Written Expression
CBM
  • I was on my way home from school and
  • I was talking to my friends when all of a sudden
  • It was a dark and stormy night
  • One day I found the most interesting thing
  • One night I had a strange dream about
  • I found a note under my pillow that said
  • The cave was very dark and
  • The 2008 Presidential Race was historic in that.
  • The debate about global warming has many facets.
    Opposing opinions claim that..

71
DBQs
  • How quick can they organize their thoughts and
    put it down on paper.
  • Can choose topic phrases from typical DBQ items.
  • Grade on words written, grammar, spelling,
    punctuation
  • Can rate quality (words, organization have an 8
    pt rubric. 1-4, go by half steps (1, 1.5, 2, etc)

72
MATH CBM
  • Math
  • can be used with single-skill worksheets
  • (all 2 digits plus 2 digits with regrouping)
  • can be used with multiple-skill worksheets
  • (various skills)
  • give credit for each individual correct digit for
    example
  • 13 9 21
  • One point (the 2) out of two

73
How to Identify the Level of Material for
Monitoring Progress
  • Generally, students use the CBM materials
    prepared for their grade level (AIMSweb).
  • However, some students may need to use probes
    from a different grade level if they are well
    below grade-level expectations.
  • Can do both computation and concepts and
    applications at all grade levels

74
How to Administer and Score Math Curriculum-Based
Measurement Probes
  • Students answer math problems.
  • Teacher grades math probe.
  • The number of digits correct, problems correct,
    or blanks correct is calculated and graphed on
    student graph.

75
Computation
  • Student is presented with 25 computation problems
    representing the year-long, grade-level math
    curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit
    varies for each grade).
  • Teacher grades test after student finishes.

76
Computation
Student Copy of a First Grade Computation Test
77
Computation
  • Correct Digits Evaluate Each Numeral in Every
    Answer

4507
4507
4507
2146
2146
2146
2
61
4
2361
2
1
44
3 correct
4 correct
2 correct
digits
digits
digits
78
Upper level math
  • X2 2x1 would be worth 7 points
  • X, 2, , 2, x, , 1
  • Geometry Each angle of a triangle or quadrangle
    can be a point.
  • Can you think how we can do this in trigonometry

79
Concepts and Applications
  • Student is presented with 1825 Concepts and
    Applications problems representing the year-long
    grade-level math curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit
    varies by grade, no more than 7 minutes).

80
Concepts and Applications
81
Other MS/HS CBMs
  • In content-area learning, we have had success
    using a vocabulary-matching technique where
    students have 5 minutes to match terms with
    definitions. This measures serves as a good
    measures for both performance and progress
    monitoring.
  • CROSS CURRICULAR
  • For a description of how to construction
    vocabulary-matching probes, see Espin, Busch,
    Shin, and Krsuchwitz, 2001.

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How Does it Fit Together?
Standard Treatment Protocol
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 1
85
Great, now I have data.Now what??!!!
86
Response to Intervention
Expected Trajectory
Performance
Observed Trajectory
Time
87
Assessing Response to Intervention3 point
decision rule
Individualized intervention initiated
Student Identified as Needing Intensive Support
Modify intervention
Modify intervention
Oral Reading Fluency
Aimline
Determine resources needed to sustain progress
(Gen Ed, SPED, Title, EA assistance, etc.)
88
Intervention Development
  • Interventions should be
  • - implemented by the highly qualified teacher
  • - scientific research based
  • - measurable
  • -progress should be monitored by curriculum
    based measurements
  • WE CHANGE OUR APPROACH BASED ON DATA. Stop
    dragging the kids through. Too tiring

89
Intervention Implementation
  • The following instructional elements may be
    altered to enhance student performance
  • -instructional strategies
  • -size of instructional group
  • - time allocated for instruction
  • - materials used
  • -reinforcement

90
Interventions
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
  • http//www.fcrr.org/
  • Intervention Central
  • http//www.interventioncentral.org/
  • What Works Clearinghouse
  • http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
  • Literacy Connections
  • http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
  • PaTTAN
  • http//www.pattan.net/teachlead/effectiveinstructi
    on.aspx

91
Reading Comprehension Strategies
  • Affinity
  • Anticipation Guide
  • Cloze
  • Concept Definition Map
  • Cornell Graphic Organizer
  • DR/TA
  • Fishbone
  • K-W-L-S
  • Learning Logs
  • Minute Paper
  • Pairs-Read
  • Paraphrasing
  • QAR
  • RAFT
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Rock Around the Clock
  • SQ3R
  • Structured Note-taking
  • Summarizing
  • Venn Diagram
  • Vocabulary in Context

92
Support and Evaluation in Context
93
Intervention Integrity
  • is the degree to which an intervention is
    implemented as originally designed.

  • (Gresham, 1989)

94
Jacobs Reading Goal
  • By January of 3rd grade, given passages from 3rd
    grade reading curriculum material, Jacob will
    read 70 words correct in one minute with five or
    fewer errors

95
Example of Defining the Problem
  • Instead of
  • Serena struggles with reading
  • A better definition
  • When given a reading passage from her social
    studies book, Serena reads 45 wpm while her
    average peer reads 70wpm. She struggles to read
    vocabulary words related to the social studies
    content.

96
Support Plan
  • Must include
  • Who is responsible?
  • What will be done?
  • When will it occur?
  • Where will it occur?

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100
Evaluating Interventions
  • Is it working?
  • Is it being implemented as planned?
  • Did it work?

101
Example of Defining the Problem
  • Instead of
  • Joey has a hard time writing
  • A better definition
  • When asked to write a story, Joey is able to
    write two incomplete sentences with approximately
    50 of the words spelled correctly. The average
    student in the class is able to write two
    paragraphs with 80 of the sentences having
    correct grammar and 90 of the words spelled
    right.

102
Example of Defining the Problem
  • Instead of
  • Max is always out of his seat
  • A better definition
  • Max leaves his desk without permission an
    average of six times per hour during math and
    reading only an average of two times an hour
    during science and social studies. His peers
    average less than one time per hour.

103
Is it working?
Progress Monitoring
Making instructional decisions based on the
review and analysis of student data Progress
monitoring always includes graphing
Classroom Intervention I
Classroom Intervention 2
104
Why use graphs?
  • Teachers are able to make sound decisions about
    the instruction being delivered to students based
    upon data, not guesswork
  • Parents are kept well informed about their
    childs progress with specific information about
    how their child is responding to instruction.
    Parents may assist in making suggestions for
    instructional adjustments.
  • Students know what is expected of them. They
    receive specific feedback about their performance
    along the way rather than only at the end of the
    marking period. Goal setting and progress
    monitoring are some of the most effective
    strategies to improve academic engaged time.

105
Graphing CBM Scores
106
Graphing CBM Scores
107
Graphing CBM Scores
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111
Positive Response to Intervention
Expected Performance
Performance
Observed Performance
Fall
Winter
Spring
112
How does your IST work?
  • Efficient
  • Focused
  • Structured
  • Designated Roles
  • Consistent Team Members
  • Regularly scheduled
  • Parent Involvement
  • Respected
  • Seen as help or obstacle
  • Uses objective data
  • Follows up
  • Supportive
  • Knows intervention vs. modification.
  • Should be backbone of RtI

113
Implementing RTI
  • NO PROBLEM, RIGHT?

114
Infrastructure
Change Model
Consensus
Implementation
115
Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI
  • Infrastructure Development (cont.)
  • Data Management
  • Technology support
  • Decision-making criteria established
  • Implementation
  • Consensus
  • Beliefs are shared
  • Vision is agreed upon
  • Implementation requirements understood
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Regulations
  • Training/Technical Assistance
  • Model (e.g., Standard Protocol)
  • Tier I and II intervention systems
  • E.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan

116
The Process of Systems Change
  • Until, and unless, Consensus (understanding the
    need and trusting in the support) is reached no
    support will exist to establish the
    Infrastructure. Until, and unless, the
    Infrastructure is in place Implementation will
    not take place.
  • A fatal error is to attempt Implementation
    without Consensus and Infrastructure
  • Leadership must come from all levels

117
Change Across Levels
  • Consensus, Infrastructure, Implementation applies
    to EVERY level at which change occurs
  • State
  • District
  • School
  • Consensus building is similar across levels
  • Infrastructure and Implementation processes are
    different across levels

118
Leadership
  • Be clear about who decides
  • Issue a call for ideas
  • Give the permission to fail
  • Communicate
  • Pay attention to sequencing
  • Teach the organization how to say no and why to
    say yes
  • Keep faith and intuition alive and in perspective

119
Manage the System
  • Measure performance
  • Celebrate success
  • Have fun
  • Build mission into systems, not vice versa
  • Be disciplined about management
  • Listen to the stakeholders and organization
  • Keep learning

120
In the beginning
None of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
All of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
necessary to participate in a Problem
Solving/ Response to Intervention Model
121
Over Time
None of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
All of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
necessary to participate in a Problem
Solving/ Response to Intervention Model
122
Goal
None of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
All of Beliefs, Skills, Knowledge
necessary to participate in a Problem
Solving/ Response to Intervention Model
123
What changes need to occur?
  • Building Consensus
  • Beliefs are shared
  • Stakeholders have knowledge to implement change
  • Stakeholders have skills to implement change

124
Consensus Development Beliefs
  • Level of commitment from school personnel
    regarding a reform initiative is likely to
    influence the degree to which implementation
    occurs
  • Curtis and Stollar suggest that a commitment from
    the majority (80 is often suggested) of
    stakeholders in a building should be obtained
    before proceeding with implementation of an
    innovation

125
Consensus Development Beliefs
  • Making the shift to a new paradigm, like PS/RtI,
    does not simply involve accepting a new set of
    skills. It also involves giving up certain
    beliefs in favor of others. (Ken Howell)
  • PS/RtI requires systemic change in the way we
    educate all students

126
Foundation Beliefs for PS/RtI
  • Every student is everybodys responsibility
  • PSM/RtI is a General Education Initiative-Not
    Special Education
  • Improving the effectiveness of core instruction
    is basic to this process
  • NO Child Left Behind Really Means NO
  • Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate
    the impact of instruction
  • Policies must be consistent with beliefs
  • Beliefs must be supported by research
  • Focus on alterable variables

127
Foundation Beliefs- contd
  • Maximum benefits to students occur if
  • Data are used to guide instructional decisions
  • Professional development and follow-up modeling
    and coaching are provided to ensure effective
    instruction at all levels
  • Leadership is vital All students and their
    families are part of one proactive and seamless
    system

127
128
Changing Beliefs
  • Training
  • Research shows that training is effective for
    changing beliefs
  • http//www.rtinetwork.org
  • Resource for Consensus building strategies
  • NASDSE Book (Research to Practice)

129
Consensus Building
  • Educators will embrace new ideas when two
    conditions exist
  • They understand the NEED for the idea
  • They perceive that they either have the SKILLS to
    implement the idea OR they have the SUPPORT to
    develop the skills

130
Consensus DevelopmentSkills
  • www.nasdse.org
  • Building and District Implementation Blueprints
  • www.rtinetwork.org
  • Blueprints to support implementation
  • Monthly RtI Talks
  • Virtual visits to schools implementing RtI
  • Webinars
  • Progress Monitoring Tools to Assess Level of
    Implementation
  • www.floridarti.usf.edu
  • Online training module (e.g., using data to make
    decisions)
  • http//www.florida-rti.org/
  • Florida Response to Intervention, Florida
    Department of Education

131
Where to Get More Information
  • www.aimsweb.com
  • www.uoregon.edu
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • www.ggg.umn.edu
  • www.ku-crl.org (Secondary Support)
  • www.safeandcivilschools.com
  • www.successfulschools.org
  • dww.ed.gov
  • www.fcrr.org
  • www.texasreading.org
  • www.corelearn.com
  • www.centeroninstruction.org

132
The I in RtI
  • RtI is based on the actuality of interventions
    delivered as intended
  • We CANNOT assess RtI if the intervention was not
    implemented as designed
  • Intervention integrity must be ensured and
    documented
  • Integrity and documentation will become part and
    parcel of procedural safeguards

133
What is an intervention
  • An intervention is directly teaching a specific
    skill.
  • It is not a modification
  • It is not an accommodation
  • You can modify an intervention to see if the
    modification increases performance.

134
Research tells us
  • Most interventions are not implemented correctly
  • Often interventionists report using interventions
    when in actuality theyre not
  • Implementation frequently diminishes after only a
    few days

135
Why do most interventions fail?
  • Problem Solving steps not followed
  • Implementation plan not detailed and specific
  • Flawed design
  • Lack of progress monitoring
  • Implemented incorrectly

136
Why do most interventions fail?
(contd)
  • Teacher perception
  • Lack of knowledge/skill or training
  • Lack of support
  • Lack of time
  • Interventions too complex

137
Improving Integrity
  • Strategies
  • Follow-up by a consultant/support staff
  • Frequency range from daily to weekly initially
  • Review of implementation plan
  • Graphic display of data
  • (Noell, Witt, Slider, Connell, Gatti, Williams,
    Keonig, Resetar, Duhon, in press)

138
Improving Integrity
  • Teacher responsiveness to implementing
    interventions
  • Understands the need
  • Perceives self as possessing skills to implement
    OR has support to implement while acquiring
    skills

  • (Bev Showers et. al.)

139
Improving Integrity
  • Based on the research, the following intervention
    protocol should be considered
  • Ensure that teacher/parent understands need
  • Evaluate skill of interventionist and determine
    level of support
  • Delineate intervention in stepwise fashion
  • Create implementation schedule for intervention
  • Time of day, times per day, etc.
  • Create intervention support/integrity schedule

140
Intervention Support
  • IF YOU CANNOT CREATE A SUPPORT SCHEDULE DO NOT DO
    INTERVENTION UNTIL ONE CAN BE ESTABLISHED
  • It is critical that building administrators
    understand the importance of the support schedule

141
Intervention Support
  • Intervention plans should be developed based on
    student need and interventionist skill
  • All intervention plans should have intervention
    support
  • Principals should ensure that intervention plans
    have intervention support
  • Teachers should not be expected to implement
    plans without support

142
Specific Support Strategies
  • Provide
  • A step by step implementation protocol
  • Materials
  • Necessary training for interventionist
  • Guided practice and feedback
  • Mentor/buddy

143
Intervention Integrity Checks
  • Intervention documentation
  • Monitoring implementation
  • Performance feedback
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