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Response to Intervention (RtI)


Multi-Tier Model The Dual-Sided Pyramid. Problem Solving Process. Evaluate. Ws It Effective? ... Data collection WITHOUT intervention integrity is useless ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention (RtI)

Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • Keeneyville District 20
  • January 16, 2009
  • Marjorie Cave Lenore Johnson
  • DuPage Regional Office of Education
  • RESPRO Services

Session Objectives
  • Participants will
  • Understand the what and why of RtI
  • Connect current practices to RtI process
  • Have tools and resources to support continuing
    conversations at the building level
  • Be clear on next steps

  • Turn to a neighbor a share one thing you know and
    one question you have about Response to
    Intervention (RtI).

Defining Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • RtI is the practice of (1) providing high-quality
    instruction/intervention matched to student needs
    and (2) using learning rate over time and level
    of performance to (3) make important educational
  • (NASDSE, 2005)
  • Problem-solving is the process that is used to
    develop effective instruction/interventions.
  • Response to Instruction (responsive teaching)

RtI Good IDEA Policy
  • Approach for redesigning and establishing
    teaching and learning environments that are
    effective, efficient, relevant and durable for
    all students, families and educators
  • NOT a program, curriculum, strategy, intervention
  • NOT limited to special education
  • NOT new

What is Response to Intervention?
  • Response to Intervention (RtI) consists of Three
    Essential Components
  • Providing high quality, evidence-based
    instruction/intervention matched to student needs
  • Using data regarding learning rate over time and
    level of performance
  • Making educational decisions based upon students
    response to instruction/intervention

Why Use RtI?
  • RtI enables educators to target instructional
    interventions in response to childrens specific
    areas of need as soon as those needs become
  • Before, the education system waited for a student
    to fail before attempting more intensive
    instructional interventions
  • Current research demonstrates that early
    intervention is crucial to a students success

Why Else Should We Use RtI?
  • RtI allows special and general educators to
    collaborate in order to educate all students
  • RtI creates an educational system that focuses on
    success for all learners
  • RtI identifies struggling learners early
  • RtI requires data-driven educational
    decision-making for all learners

Basic Elements of RtI A Primer
Consensus Essential Beliefs
  • No child should be left behind
  • It is OK to provide differentiated service across
  • Academic Engaged Time must be considered first
  • Student performance is influenced most by the
    quality of the instruction and interventions we
    deliver and how well we deliver them -- not on
    preconceived notions about child characteristics
  • Decisions are best made with data
  • Our expectations for student performance should
    be dependent on a students response to
    instruction and intervention, not on the basis of
    a score that predicts what they are capable
    of doing.

Core Principles of RtI
  • Educators will
  • Design a quality core curriculum
  • Identify learning targets based on the core
  • Intervene early
  • Use a problem-solving method
  • Use a multi-tier model of instruction
  • Use scientific, evidence-based interventions/instr
  • Monitor student progress to inform instruction
  • Use data to make decisions
  • Use assessments for screening, diagnostics and
    progress monitoring
  • Effectively teach all children

Common Elements in RtI
  • Problem-Solving Model The Circle
  • Multi-Tier Model The Dual-Sided Pyramid

Problem Solving Process
What is Problem-Solving?
Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention Key
  • Effective Core Instruction is the basis for this
  • The model cannot fix core instruction issues
    through student removal
  • Academic Engaged Time (AET) is the treatment
    dosage for this model
  • Cannot do more in same time frame
  • The unit of analysis is the school building,
    not the district
  • Role of the building principal is critical to the
    success of the model

Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention Key
  • Supplemental instruction is best delivered
    through standard protocols of intervention to
    groups of students with common needs
  • Data drive decisions - RATE is the key
  • Severity versus Intensity
  • Time is our ally and our enemy - Early
  • Its all about the rate of student progress in the
    amount of time remaining
  • Data collection WITHOUT intervention integrity is
  • Staff, resources and time must match the demand

The Link Between RtI, Problem-Solving and
Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD)
  • RtI is the problem-solving method for identifying
    a students strengths and weaknesses both
    academically and behaviorally
  • RtI matches instructional resources to
    educational needs
  • RtI provides the historical data needed to
    determine what the school needs to do to ensure a
    students success in the general education

Building Level Intervention Team Problem-Solving
  • Promote collaboration in the decision-making
  • Analyze building and classroom level data
  • Collaboratively develop individual intervention
    plans for struggling learners
  • Assist teachers in selecting evidence-based
  • Support teachers in implementing interventions
    with integrity

Multi-Tier Model
Tier 3 Individual Students/Very Small
Group Assessment-based High Intensity
Tier 3 Individual Students/ Very Small
Group Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures
Tier 2 Some students (at-risk) High
efficiency Rapid response
Illinois Learning Standards
Illinois Social Emotional Learning Standards
What Does RtI Look Like?
  • Tier 1 Core curriculum meets the needs of 80
    or more of the students
  • Tier 2 20 of the students may be identified as
    at-risk and require supplemental instruction
    and/or intervention in addition to the core
  • Tier 3 5 of those students may be identified
    as needing more intensive, small group or
    individual interventions to supplement the core
  • Percentages will vary by district/school

Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • All Students Receive
  • District curriculum that is evidenced-based and
    aligned to Illinois Learning Standards
  • Curriculum-based measures and assessments for
    screening, diagnostic and continuous progress
  • Differentiated instruction designed to meet the
    broad range of their needs

Tier 1 Core Instruction Share Practices
  • Tier 1 Instructional Practices
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Scaffolding Instruction
  • Providing models
  • Using student assessments to design instruction
  • Providing descriptive feedback to student related
    to a learning target
  • Guided Reading
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Flexible Grouping

Universal Interventions
  • Core instructional programs
  • Reading curriculum
  • Mathematics Curriculum
  • Student progression requirements/benchmarks
  • Core behavioral programs
  • School-based discipline policies
  • Core home/community programs
  • Attendance program
  • Wellness curricula

Tier 2 Intervention
  • Some Students Receive
  • Core curriculum in the large group
  • Individualized Intervention Plan
  • Supplemental interventions in the small group
    inside the general education classroom or outside
    of the general education classroom
  • Interventions targeted to remediate a specific
  • Interventions implemented with integrity (e.g.,
    number of minutes/day and per week, materials
    used, progress monitoring and implementer) tied
    to an individualized intervention plan

Tier 2 Interventions Share Practices
  • Tier 2 Instructional Interventions
  • Small group instruction
  • In classroom or out of classroom extra time
  • Individual teacher-student meeting
  • Co-teaching or co-planning with support personnel
    or grade level meet individual student needs
  • Buddy Reading
  • Community Member support - volunteers
  • Morning meetings, Lunch study group
  • After school support

Supplemental Interventions
  • Increased time and focus in academic instruction
    (differentiated instruction)
  • Classroom-based behavioral interventions
  • Building-based interventions for issues such as
  • Activate existing peer support programs, mediation

Tier 3 Intervention Share practices
  • Very Few Students Receive
  • Individualized Intervention Plan
  • Integrated instruction from all three tiers to
    strengthen the accumulated impact of the
    interventions and instruction
  • Interventions delivered to very small groups of
    2-3 students or individual students
  • Interventions focused on narrowly defined skill
    areas identified from the results of frequent
    progress monitoring
  • Interventions implemented with integrity (e.g.,
    number of minutes/day and per week, materials
    used, progress monitoring and implementer) tied
    to an individualized intervention plan

Tier 3 Intervention
  • Very Few Students Receive
  • Individualized Intervention Plan
  • Title I reading / math support
  • Interventions delivered to very small groups of
    2-3 students or individual students
  • Increased time on the intervention
  • IEP driven support

Intensive Interventions
  • Specialized academic interventions
  • Intensive acceleration classrooms
  • 180 minutes of instruction
  • Social skills training, anger control training,
    parent education groups
  • Behavior intervention plans
  • Alternative education programs

Assessment Sample Grade 3
Example of Tier Level Interventions
Tier I
Tier 2
Tier 3
Curricular Focus
5 areas
Less than 5
2 or less
Core Supplemental Intensive
Core Supplemental
Frequency of Progress Monitoring
Yearly or greater
Monthly or greater
(No Transcript)
Tier I
Field Testing Spring
2007 Programs - Available at all
buildings Programs Available at limited
buildings Strategic Reading Plus - a subclass of
Strategic Reading in which students are
struggling with decoding issues Programs
Supported Ed Initiative Programs
Tier 2
Tier 3
K-12 Reading Intervention Sample
K-12 Reading Intervention Sample
K-12 Reading Intervention Sample
RtI Legislation, Rules and State Plans
Illinois and Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • IDEA Regulations effective October 13, 2006
  • Illinois Part 226.130 Rules adopted June 28, 2007

IDEA Regulations- October 13, 2006
  • The State
  • must not require the use of a severe discrepancy
    between intellectual ability and achievement for
    determining whether a child has a specific
    learning disability
  • must permit the use of a process based on the
    childs response to scientific, research-based

IDEA Regulations- October 13, 2006
  • The Team
  • must document how the child responds to
    scientific, evidence-based interventions
  • must document that the child does not achieve
    adequately or make sufficient progress in
    state-approved grade-level standards
  • must consider data that demonstrates appropriate
    instruction delivered by qualified personnel and
    documentation of repeated assessments of
    achievement at reasonable intervals

Illinois Part 226.130 Rules
  • Require
  • use of a process that determines how the child
    responds to scientific, evidence-based
    interventions as part of the evaluation procedure
    described in 34 CFR 300.309
  • development and distribution of a State RtI Plan
    by January 1, 2008 by the State Superintendent in
    collaboration with professional organizations
    outlining the professional development that is
    necessary and other activities and resources that
    are essential for implementation

Illinois Part 226.130 Rules
  • Require
  • Illinois districts to complete a plan for
    transition to the use of a process that
    determines how the child responds to scientific,
    research-based intervention as part of the
    evaluation procedure by January 1, 2009
  • Illinois districts to implement RtI as part of
    their evaluation procedure for making SLD
    determinations by the 2010-2011 academic year

Plan Components
  • Introduction/belief statements for RtI
  • Definition of RtI and Problem Solving
  • Link between RtI and specific learning disability
    eligibility determination
  • Process for Implementation
  • Implementation Timelines
  • Funding Considerations
  • ISBE Evaluation Plan
  • Supporting Resources

Three Phases of RtI
  • Consensus Building (Commitment)
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Implementation


RtI System Seven Areas of Implementation
  • Consensus Building and Collaboration
  • Standards-Based Curriculum Research-Based
  • Research-Based Assessment Practices
  • Student Intervention/Problem Solving Team Process
  • Intervention Strategy Identification
  • Resources Allocation
  • Ongoing Professional Development for Effective

Questions to Ask Yourself
  • What does the research say?
  • What might be the unintended consequences? Are
    there any?
  • How do we know if our Tier I curriculum is
    rigorous? Does it meet standards?
  • Are achievement targets clear in the Universal
  • What are our options for assessment? What do we
    already have?
  • Do we need to change our current assessment
  • How often is often enough to assess? Too often?
  • Does RtI look different at different levels?
  • How can we maintain our local control and provide
    greater flexibility?
  • How do we keep regular education in the lead?
  • In our school is it Response to Intervention or
    Response to Instruction? Is there a

Important Points about Data
  • The purpose of this analysis is understanding
  • Important to establish We all own all of the
  • Do NOT use these data in an evaluative way with
    individual staff or groups of staff as you set
    off on this journey
  • This is to establish the need and motivation to
    make a difference

Examining Your Data
  • If you are hitting all of your AYP targets
  • If you core curriculum is operating equitably,
    and all of your subgroups are performing at high
  • Your trajectories for all subgroups are positive
    and at or above expectation
  • All of your students with supplemental and
    intensive needs are making meaningful,
    significant and acceptable growth
  • Then, you dont need RtI

District Assessment Plan
Shift District approach from Assessment OF
Learning to Assessment FOR Learning. Shift
Thinking to EVERYONE
What road do we take?
How do we get there?
to create changes in
Process, Eligibility, Intervention
by looking at
Changing Roles
District's 2005-2006 Plan
3 Components of Implementation
How Long Will It Take to Implement this
  • 3-6 years
  • Take it one step (e.g., skill) at a time
  • Develop your district core beliefs regarding RtI
    before you begin the journey
  • Determine what currently is in place will remain
    and what will be change eliminated, or tweaked
    and why
  • Model the regular education and special education
    alignment with this belief
  • Start with young students
  • Consider Tier 1 issues is your current
    curriculum standards-based Does it follow
    best-practice? Are you going to include all range
    of students in your RtI plan? At risk
    academically talented and RKs
  • Create Tier 2 options with existing staff and
  • Develop a 5 year plan
  • Use networks-avoid reinventing the wheel.

What we have learned
  • There are predictable componentsin successful
    RtI implementation
  • Some of these components conflict with historical
    structures and practices in schools
  • Some tough things are predictable
  • Knowing what they are, and being ready for them
    is half the battle in addressing them

Tough Reality 1
  • RtI requires everyone to own the results for all
    kids - not just in word, but in deed - whatever
    it takes
  • No more your kids and my kids
  • Theyre all our kids
  • We all have to accept both the successes and
    failures of all of all our kids

Tough Reality 2
  • People who do not have a history of working
    together and collaborating will have to begin
    doing so
  • Collaboration is an unnatural act for some
  • People need to learn the skills needed for success

Tough Reality 3
  • Professional development must focus on getting
    RtI going and supporting it for a minimum of 2 to
    3 years

Tough Reality 4
  • RtI requires behavior change on the
  • part of teachers
  • Teachers must accept student performance data as
    a basis for changing instruction
  • Teachers must have or learn the skills related to
    data-based decision making in instructional
    decision making
  • Staff MUST have a deep understanding about
    effective instruction
  • Staff MUST have a deep understanding of
    assessment- WHYs and Hows

Big Tough Reality 5
  • We have to expand the range of instructional
    options (amount and intensity) available to all
  • This may mean more and different instructional
  • Logistics of it all is one of the biggest hurdles
    you will face

Tough Reality 6
  • Motivation issues- both for staff and kids. RtI
    is hard work.
  • Be proactive and celebrate/share success stories

Belief Examination Do you believe children can
learn at high levels?
  • Your answer to this is grounded in your
    fundamental beliefs about what children can
  • Take a minute to reflect on your beliefs about
    student learning.

RtI Consensus Building ToolAll children can learn
  • Back at your school, consider discussing these
  • Do we believe that children can learn what is
    needed for the future?
  • How prepared is our school?
  • How prepared are we to support them?

All Kids Can Learn
  • Charles Darwin School
  • All kids can learn based on their ability.
  • Extent of learning is based on innate ability
    that is relatively fixed
  • Our job is to create multiple programs that
    address different levels of ability.

DuFour, etal. 2004
All Kids Can Learn
  • Pontius Pilate School
  • All kids can learn if they take advantage of the
    opportunity we give them to learn.
  • All students can learn if they choose to put
    forth the effort.
  • It is our job to provide students with
    opportunities to learn and their responsibility
    to learn.

DuFour, etal. 2004
All Kids Can Learn
  • Chicago Cub Fan School
  • All kids can learn something, and we will help
    all students experience academic growth in a warm
    and nurturing environment.
  • Extent of learning is based on a combination of
    ability and effort, both of which we have little
    control over.
  • It is our job to help students demonstrate some

DuFour, etal. 2004
All Kids Can Learn
  • Henry Higgins School
  • All kids can learn and we will work to help all
    students achieve high standards of learning
  • All students can and must learn at relatively
    high levels of achievement.
  • It is our job to continue to work with students
    to meet standards and help them master
    challenging academic material.

DuFour, etal. 2004
  • Turn to a neighbor a share two things you learned
    about Response to Intervention (RtI).

  • National Center on Response to Intervention
  • Intervention Central
  • RtI Action Network

Thank you for all you do to support student