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Phonics Approach

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Title: Phonics Approach


1
Phonics Approach
??? ???????????? 2009/04/1
2
Phonics Approach for Reading
  • Phonics, two meanings
  • An approach, for teaching reading
  • (We say, Based on the Phonics Approach.)
  • 2. The letter-sound relationships
  • (We say, Teach phonics.)

3
Stages of Reading Development
Stage 0 Birth to Age 6 Prereading 1. Develop
knowledge of print 2. Recognize a few letters,
words, and environmental print signs
4
Stages of Reading Development
Stage 1 Grades 1 through 2 Initial reading or
decoding 1.Develop the understanding of the
alphabetic principle 2. Begin to decode words
5
Stages of Reading Development
Stage 3 Grades 2 through 3 Confirmation,
fluency 1.Develop strategies to decode
words and make meaning from text 2. Recognize
many words by sight 3. Sound out words they dont
recognize by sight
6
Stages of Reading Development
Stage 3 Grades 4 through 8 Learning the
new Use reading more as a way to
obtain information and learn about the
values, attitudes, and insights of authors.
7
Phonics knowledge to be covered
  • Kindergarten
  • Concepts of print
  • Alphabet recognition
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Blending
  • Sense of story
  • Building world knowledge

8
Phonics knowledge to be covered
  • Grade 1
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Blending and word building
  • Short vowels (CVC patterns)
  • Consonants
  • Final e (a_e, e_e, i_e, o_e, u_e)
  • Long-vowel diagraphs (ai, ay, ea, ee)

9
Phonics knowledge to be covered
Grade 1 7. Consonant clusters (bl, cr, st) 8.
diagraphs (sh, ch, th, wh) 9. Some other vowels
(oo, ou, ow, oi) 10. Early structural analysis
verb endings (-ed, -ing) plurals,
contractions (Im, dont) compound words
(daydream)
10
Phonics knowledge to be covered
Grade 1 11. Connected text reading 12.
Vocabulary development/world knowledge
11
Phonics knowledge to be covered
  • Grades 2-3
  • Grade 1 skills review
  • More complex vowel spellings
  • More structural analysis (compound
  • words, affixes, etc.)
  • 4. Multisyllabic words

12
Phonics knowledge to be covered
Grades 2-3 5. connected text reading 6.
Vocabulary development/world knowledge
13
Phonics knowledge to be covered
  • Grades 4-8
  • More complex vowel spellings
  • More structural analysis (compound
  • words, affixes, etc.)
  • 3. Multisyllabic words
  • 4. Syllabication strategies
  • 5. Word origins (Greek and Latin roots)

14
Phonics knowledge to be covered
Grades 4-8 6. connected text reading 7.
Vocabulary development/world knowledge
15
Our focus on Phonics Workshop
Grades 1 through 3 for native speakers That is
about Grades 1 through 6 for
Taiwanese EFL learners (repeat the phonics
knowledge)
16
Basic Phonics build vocabualrydevelop
phonological awareness learn letter-sound
correspondences
What to cover in our Phonics instruction?
17
Basic Phonics learn letter-sound
correspondences1. one on one B-/b/2. Short
vowel (CVC) 3. Final e (CVCe)4. Long vowel
diagraph (CVVC ai, ay, ee, ea)
18
Basic Phonics learn letter-sound
correspondences5. Consonnat cluster (fl, bl,
st)6. Consonant daigraph (sh, th, wh)
19
Suggestions for Instruction
  • Short-vowel sounds before long
  • esp. CVC
  • 2. Provide decodable connected text
  • for applying their knowledge of
  • learned sound-spelling relationships
  • e.g. The fat cat is on the mat. (more.)

20
Suggestions for Instruction
3. Teach continuous consonants first e.g. f
l m n r s --when blending, sounds
can be sustained without distortion --go
from slow blending to fast blending
21
Suggestions for Instruction
4. Progress from simple to more complex
sound-spellings. --consonants before diagraphs
(ch th wh ph) and blends (bl- cr
-st) --short vowel sound-spelling before long
vowel sound spelling, variant vowels and
diphthongs (ou, oi)
22
Advanced Phonics 1. Some other vowels (oo, ou,
ow, oi)2. spelling patterns (-ack, -eam, fl) 3.
Early structural analysis verb endings
(-ed, -ing) plurals, contractions (Im,
dont) compound words (daydream)
23
Advanced Phonics letter-sound
correspondences4. More complex vowel spellings
(-oil, -ouch)5. More structural analysis
(compound words, affixes, etc.)6. Multisyllabic
words7. Syllabication strategies
24
For today
  • Basic Phonics
  • 2. Advanced Phonics
  • 3. Lesson plans

25
Basic Phonics
1. ???phonics? 2. Phonics????? 3. ??????? 4.
??????? 5.??????????? 6.?????????
26
1 2 Phonics??????????
???? ? ?? ? ???? ? ?????? ? ???? ?????
27
Phonics
for reading comprehension
Meaningful sound input (????)
Phonological awareness (????)
Letter-sound correspondences (????????)
28
3. ???????
?? ?????
?? read aloud
?? retelling
29
4. ???????
????(blending) for reading
????(segmenting) for spelling
30
5. ???????
??????????
??????????
31
????????
  • ???? ??? ???
  • ????
  • ???? ??????
  • ???? ????

32
6. ???-??????? (letter-sound correspondences)
???????????,???? ?????????????? ??????,????????? ?
?????????????? ????? (so segmenting is
important) e.g. B--/bi/ V--/vi/
33
??????
Phonics?????????? ??????????
bl-ack tr-ee str-eet p-ear b-ear
34
Prephonic Spelling
?????????
Children experiment with prephonic spelling when
they use writing such as letters, numbers and
other symbols to represent written language as
they explore the relationships between written
and spoken words.
35
Prephonic Spelling
For example, The drawing of car for car The
drawing of a heart for heart
36
Semi-Phonetic Spelling
In semi-phonetic spelling there is a beginning
understanding of sound-symbol relationships. A
word may be represented with one letter or two.
e.g. B, BD (bed) KR, TL
37
Phonetic Spelling
In phonetic spelling, writers record words using
an almost perfect match of letters and sounds.
Particular spelling of sounds can occur in a
self-formulated style of spelling. e.g. sbring,
sdudent
38
2. Scan your textbooks
Activities
1. My teaching on Picky Nicky
39
Advanced Phonics
  • Ways to Teach Phonics
  • What to Be Taught Are.
  • 3. Word Study

40
1. Ways to Teach Phonics
  • Two ways to teach phonics
  • Direct phonics or explicit phonics
  • (synthetic approach)
  • 2. Indirect phonics or implicit phonics
  • (analytic approach)

41
Direct phonics
  • A bottom-up model of learning to read
  • Teach letter names
  • Teach letter sounds
  • Teach blending sounds
  • Provide opportunities to blend words
  • in context

42
Indirect Phonics
A discovery method Learners are asked to
deduce the sound-spelling relationship.
43
Indirect Phonics
  • Instruction roughly follows
  • this sequence
  • A list of words with a common
  • phonic element is shown. For example,
  • sun son set sing mite bite site

44
Indirect Phonics
Instruction roughly follows this sequence 2.
Learners are asked to discover what they have
in common, focusing on finding a similar
sound.
45
Indirect Phonics
Instruction roughly follows this sequence 3.
Once the common sound is discovered, the
spelling that stands for the sound is
discussed.
46
Indirect Phonics
Instruction roughly follows this sequence 4.
Learners are asked to verbalize a
generalization about the sound and the
spelling, such as the letter s stands for the
/s/ sound.
47
2. What to be taught are
1. More consonant clusters
2. Rimes (-ack -all) (including diphthongs
-oil -ouch)
3. High frequency words (sight words) either
decodable, e.g. had make or
un-decodable, e.g. the your
48
Suggestions for InstructionAdvanced Phonics
Once complex sound-spellings have been
taught, focus on larger spelling patterns and
useful word parts. e.g. prefixes,
suffixes, and roots
49
2. What to be taught are
4. Teach syllabification To decode multisyllabic
words, learners must be able to divide words
into recognizable chunks.
50
What is a syllable?
A syllable is a unit of pronunciation. (Look at
the mirror for the drops of jaw or the openings
of the mouth for a vowel.)
51
Syllabication
  • To be able to divide words into
  • syllables, they need to
  • figure out the vowel sound in one-
  • syllables words
  • b. know that one syllable has only
  • one vowel sound

52
Six basic syllable spelling patterns
  • closed The syllable ends in a
  • consonant. e.g. cat at rabbit
  • 2. open The syllable ends in a
  • vowel (usu. a long vowel).
  • e.g. eye tie tomato t?meto

53
Six basic syllable spelling patterns
3. vowel-silent e (VCe) (usu. a long vowel)
e.g. cake compete decide 4. vowel
team vowel diagraphs e.g. boat explain
outch
54
Six basic syllable spelling patterns
5. r-controlled when a vowel is followed by
r, the letter r affects the sound of the
vowel. bird turtle work (car)
55
Six basic syllable spelling patterns
6. consonant le Usually when le appears at
the end and is preceded by a consonant, the
consonant le form the final syllable.
little circle
56
Suggestions for InstructionAdvanced Phonics
Provide phonics generalizations e.g. 1) When
the letter c comes before e, i , or y in a word,
it usually represents the /s/ sound. (e.g.
cent, city, cycle). ..
57
Suggestions for InstructionAdvanced Phonics
Teach blending multisyllabic words e.g.unhappy
1) Tell ss to first look for larger word
parts within this long word. 2) Point to the
prefix un and say its sounds -/un/. Then point
to the word happy.
58
Suggestions for InstructionAdvanced Phonics
Teach blending multisyllabic words e.g.
unhappy 3) Slowly put together these two word
parts-un and happy-to say the word
unhappy. 4) Circle the word with your finger and
say, The word is unhappy.
59
Suggestions for InstructionAdvanced Phonics
Teach blending multisyllabic words e.g.
unhappy 5) Explain to students how the word
parts also help you determine the meaning of
the word.
60
Advanced Phonics/Word Study
For those students who have mastered phonics and
sound-symbol relationships, how can orthographic
awareness be used to further develop their
reading and writing abilities?
61
3. Word Study
Refers to the body of knowledge that includes
phonics and spelling. Word study involves a range
of instructional activities and experiences that
a teacher designs to support childrens
development of word- solving skills.
62
3. Word Study (Structural analysis)
  • Compound words
  • Prefixes
  • Suffixes
  • (plurals and inflectional endings)
  • 4. Homophones

63
Question and Discussion
64
Lesson Plans?Drilling activities
only?Classroom activities on three basic
components of Phonics instruction?
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