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Phonics: Strategies for Decoding Unknown Words

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Decoding Unknown Words Presented by Cherry Carl Presentation Highlights Research background on phonics Phonics skills and rules Approaches to teaching phonics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phonics: Strategies for Decoding Unknown Words


1
Phonics Strategies forDecoding Unknown Words
  • Presented byCherry Carl

2
Presentation Highlights
  • Research background on phonics
  • Phonics skills and rules
  • Approaches to teaching phonics
  • Assessing phonics/decoding knowledge
  • Developing phonics knowledge

3
Presentation Highlights
  • Strategies and materials
  • Building decoding fluency
  • Special Needs Indicators
  • Taking a look at California standards
  • Resources

4
What Does ResearchSay About Phonics Instruction?
  • Phonics instruction is an essential part of
    balanced reading programs in the early grades.
  • For phonics to help the reader, the word(s) to be
    decoded must already be known (in the readers
    listening and speaking vocabulary).
  • Source Reutzel and Cooter (1999)

5
What Does Research Say?
  • Phonics skills are best taught after phonemic
    awareness and alphabetic principle have been
    learned.
  • When phonics rules are used in conjunction with
    meaning and grammar cues, the reader can
    positively identify unknown words in
    instructional level reading materials.
  • Source Reutzel and Cooter (1999)

6
What Does Research Say?
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is
    more effective than non-systematic or no phonics
    instruction.
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
    significantly improves kindergarten and
    first-grade children's word recognition and
    spelling.
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
    significantly improves children's reading
    comprehension.
  • Source Student Achievement and School
    Accountability ConferenceOctober 2002

7
What Does Research Say?
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is
    effective for children from various social and
    economic levels.
  • Source Student Achievement and School
    Accountability ConferenceOctober 2002

8
What Does Research Say?
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is
    particularly beneficial for children who are
    having difficulty learning to read and who are at
    risk for developing future reading problems.
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is
    most effective when introduced early (K or 1).
  • Source Student Achievement and School
    Accountability ConferenceOctober 2002

9
Phonics Skills and Rules
  • The C Rule
  • The G Rule
  • The CVC Generalization
  • Vowel Teams (Digraphs)
  • The Final E
  • The Bossy R (R-Controlled)
  • Source Reutzel and Cooter (1999)

10
Phonics Skills and Rules
  • Consonant Digraphs
  • Blends/Clusters
  • Double Consonants
  • The Schwa Vowel sounds
  • Diphthongs
  • The Y Rules
  • Source Reutzel and Cooter (1999)

11
Approaches to Teaching Phonics
  • Explicit or alphabetic phonics methods
  • Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
    provides instruction in a carefully selected and
    useful set of letter-sound relationships and then
    organizes the introduction of these relationships
    into a logical instructional sequence.
  • Children have ample opportunities to practice
    and review.

12
Approaches to Teaching Phonics
  • Implicit phonics methods
  • Children learn to analyze letter-sound
    relationships in previously learned words. They
    do not pronounce sounds in isolation.

13
Approaches to Teaching Phonics
  • Analogy Based Phonics
  • Children learn to use onsets and rimes they
    already know to identify/decode unknown words
    with similar parts.

14
Assessing Phonics Knowledge
  • Phonemic Awareness Activities
  • Alphabetic Principle
  • Basic Phonics Skills Test
  • Running Records
  • Nonsense Test
  • Phonics Inventory
  • DIBELS

15
Developing Phonics Knowledge
  • Phonemic awareness
  • The alphabetic principle
  • Explicit phonics instruction

16
Strategies and Materials
  • Making words
  • Sorts
  • Tongue Tanglers
  • Onsets and Rimes
  • Decodable Texts
  • Flexible Practice
  • Dictation/Spelling
  • Word Work

17
Sample Sequence
  • Phonemic Warm-Up
  • Teach Sound/Spelling
  • Practice Blending
  • Apply
  • Decodable Text
  • Dictation
  • ? Picture/Word Sorts
  • ? Word Hunts

18
Building Decoding Fluency
  • Access to and practice reading vast amounts of
    high-quality, engaging text
  • Repeated readings of books, poems, journals, and
    other genre
  • Independent reading opportunities with easy
    reading materials and familiar text

19
Special Needs Indicators
  • Difficulty identifying vowel sounds in words
  • Difficulty identifying consonant sounds
  • Difficulty identifying sounds represented by
    digraphs
  • Inability to identify syllable breaks in words
  • Inability to use structural analysis

20
Summary Statements
  • Phonics is an essential part of a comprehensive
    approach to the teaching of reading.
  • Phonics instruction needs to be explicit and
    direct incidental and opportunistic approaches
    to developing phonics are less effective.
  • Source John J. Pikulski (1998)

21
Summary Statements
  • Phonics instruction can and must be meaningful,
    lively, and engaging phonics should not be
    equated with repetitious drill or the mindless
    completion of worksheets.
  • Source John J. Pikulski (1998)

22
Summary Statements
  • In order for children to gain full use of phonics
    skills they need guidance in integrating them
    with other word identification skills and in
    strategically and fluently applying those skills.
  • Source John J. Pikulski (1998)

23
Summary Statements
  • In order for children to gain full use of phonics
    skills they need many opportunities to apply them
    to functional and interesting reading and writing
    activities.
  • Source John J. Pikulski (1998)

24
Summary Statements
  • While the development of phonics and other word
    identification skills is essential and necessary
    for skillful, mature reading, it is not
    sufficient skillful mature reading must also
    build upon language, vocabulary, and concept
    development as well as a variety of thinking
    skills.
  • Source John J. Pikulski (1998)

25
  • Taking a Lookat California Standards

26
Kindergarten
  • 1.14 Match all consonant and short-vowel sounds
    to appropriate letters.
  • 1.15 Read simple one-syllable and high-frequency
    words (i.e., sight words).
  • 1.16 Understand that as letters of words change,
    so do the sounds (i.e., the alphabetic
    principle).

27
Grade One
  • 1.10 Generate the sounds from all the letters and
    letter patterns, including consonant blends and
    long-and short-vowel patterns (i.e., phonograms),
    and blend those sounds into recognizable words.

28
Grade One
  • 1.11 Read common, irregular sight words (e.g.,
    the, have, said, come, give, of).
  • 1.12 Use knowledge of vowel digraphs and r-
    controlled letter-sound associations to read
    words.

29
Grade One
  • 1.13 Read compound words and contractions.
  • 1.14 Read inflectional forms (e.g., -s, -ed,
    -ing) and root words (e.g., look, looked,
    looking).

30
Grade One
  • 1.15 Read common word families (e.g., -ite,
    -ate).
  • 1.16 Read aloud with fluency in a manner that
    sounds like natural speech.

31
Grade Two
  • 1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling
    patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel
    spellings) when reading.
  • 1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules
    when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel su/
    per vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel sup/ per).

32
Grade Two
  • 1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and
    regular multisyllable words.
  • 1.4 Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan.,
    Sun., Mr., St.).

33
Grade Two
  • 1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals
    (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals
    (e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives).
  • 1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with
    appropriate intonation and expression.

34
Grade Three
  • 1.1 Know and use complex word families when
    reading (e.g., -ight) to decode unfamiliar
    words.1.2 Decode regular multisyllabic
    words.1.3 Read aloud narrative and expository
    text fluently and accurately and with appropriate
    pacing, intonation, and expression.

35
Resources
  • Arbruster, Dr. Bonnie. Research-Based Instruction
    in Reading. Student Achievement and School
    Accountability Conference October 2002.
  • Blevins, Wiley (1998). Phonics from A to Z A
    Practical Guide. New York Scholastic.
  • Chall, Jeanne S. and Popp, Helen M. (1996).
    Teaching and Assessing Phonics A Guide for
    Teachers. Cambridge, MA Educators Publishing
    Service.

36
Resources
  • Pikulski, John J. (1998). The Role of Phonics in
    the Teaching of Reading.
  • Reutzel, D. Ray and Cooter, Robert B. (1999).
    Balanced Reading Strategies and Practices. Upper
    Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.
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