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Earthsoft foundation of guidance presents - Project management

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Project management is a special skill or a common sense? most imp is to track,b alert, reviews & mitigate risks - Know Schedule, Efforts, Time Management, Quality, Delivery, Estimation, Closure, Client, Project, for other presentations visit www.myefg.in – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earthsoft foundation of guidance presents - Project management


1
Project Management Guide
2
Appeal
Please circulate to all your friends, colleagues,
relatives, associates and to everyone on
your mailing list. Let them also gain! Please
visit www.myefg.org Download the
presentations Topics - Education, Career,
Finance, Health, Personality, Religion, etc
3
Index
  • Defining project
  • Bypassing planning
  • Project objectives
  • Setting limitations
  • Project planning
  • Effective planning
  • Project resources
  • Launching a project
  • Effective Monitoring
  • Scope creep
  • Software
  • Closing a project

4
Defining project
  • Define Goal expected changes after project
  • What are the benefits for client
  • For organisation (helps to set the priorities)
  • Time boundaries
  • Resources needed
  • People
  • Money
  • Hardware Software
  • Facilities
  • Element of the risks
  • Maximising result plan optimize efforts

5
Defining project
  • Steps
  • Define the project
  • Plan the project
  • Estimate duration, money and resources
  • Build a project team
  • Launch the project, Party with stake holders
  • Monitor the project, review the progress
  • Closure of the project

6
Bypassing planning
  • Mentality of
  • Pushing the project
  • Planning means waste of money and time
  • Laziness, Shying away new methods
  • Overconfidence
  • Deceiving that adopted methods are the best
  • Hoping everything will be all-right
  • Lesser / Poor experience of manager
  • Sr. management involved in many crisis
    activities
  • Too much dependency on consultants

7
Project objectives
  • Sense of purpose? Would help on focus
  • Target? Would help motivating the team members
  • Prioritization Time sensitive? Would help to
    organise measure how much to go
  • Specific Clear Simple
  • Measurable to measure the success of the
    project
  • Aggressive but Realistic to achieve action
    result
  • Who has created the project?
  • Have you suggested? Or
  • Direct client? Or senior management of client? Or
  • Their client? Or
  • Consultant of client? Or
  • Consultants of clients client?

8
Define Project
  • Ask - What project should attempt to achieve?
  • Is there a need to change? How?
  • To create something new? Why?
  • Why is it important? Is any liability linked?
  • How soon it is needed? Is it time dependant?
  • Define Key players from client organizational
    side
  • Vision statement share during kickoff meeting
    Seek agreement
  • Be flexible to revise the vision statement or
    objectives

9
Setting limitations
  • Time constraints
  • Who is setting the time constraints?
  • Is any scope shifting the time frame?
  • Is it realistic? Is it shorter than team
    envisaging?
  • Does it have right distribution across phases?
    e.g. RA 2 months entire development 2
    months??
  • Budget constraints
  • To control the scope of the project, Client would
    always want to have as much
  • To check, monitor control the budgets
  • Can you absorb over-run of efforts budget?
  • Structural constraints - To get buying from all
    the hierarchy

10
Risk mitigation
  • Estimate probability of occurrence and impact
    thus likely exposure
  • External - Out of control of manager good to
    identify the owner transfer
  • Internal - Understand, measure the impact,
    mitigate or transfer
  • Track till closure or transfer
  • Think always contingency plan

11
Project planning
  • Look at the bigger picture - Think priority,
    available resources, budget, schedule, resources
    to be recruited, etc
  • Set a reference point - Baseline the schedule for
    tracking
  • Communicate a vision - Share a well written plan
    to all
  • Delegate the tasks - Cover all the activities,
    define role of everyone, make delegation
  • Break into modules - Clearer smaller tasks helps

12
Project planning
  • Allow to control - Define ownership once modules
    are defined
  • Set clear roles - Helps avoiding confusion, no
    excuses for missing deadline
  • Adapt to change Plan creates direction, revisit
    original assumptions change if as required,
    needs agreement
  • Check history Similar project might have been
    executed, visit previous templates, talk with
    team members who were involved, capture the tips
    act accordingly

13
Project planning
  • Plan brainstorming meeting chaired by third party
    - Gather team members to brainstorm
  • Requirements understanding knowledge transfer
  • Detailed Plan
  • Risk mitigation
  • Resourcing and Budgets
  • Pre-project activities are listed scheduled
  • To check if re-scheduling is required
  • To group the activities logically,
    chronologically and cost based to make
    assignment eazier
  • To plan further meetings for checking
    completion, acceptance, availability of the
    resources

14
Project planning
  • Creating milestones
  • To measure the progress
  • To focus on results
  • To divide work schedule
  • To raise alerts for risks difficulties
  • Attributes of mile stones
  • Defined milestones in agreement with client
  • Direct clear statements for deliverables
  • Verifiable results
  • Adaptability By client and team members

15
Effective planning
  • Time estimate Estimate the size of the project
    , convert it to schedule check is it inline
    with clients expectations?
  • Resource need- Build the team using the best
    possible members, also include infrastructure,
    hardware, software, etc
  • Cost determine how much would the project cost?
    Have a firm grip on direct (salary, travel,
    equipment) indirect cost(overheads like
    management cost, stationary, administration, etc.
    Track the cost as project progresses

16
Effective planning
  • Completeness
  • Do not miss any activity/ feature/ function.
    Include all review rework activities.
  • Estimate efforts time needed to complete the
    activity Allow contingency time for holdups ,
    overruns, quality rejections, delivery failures,
    leave, holidays, meeting, emergency, accidents,
    etc.
  • Identify dependent non dependent activities,
    Connect activities based on priorities
    dependency. Non-dependent activities can be
    completed in parallel. Create network diagram for
    dependent activities determine critical path
  • Track all activities

17
Effective planning
  • Assign the resources
  • Changing objectives- review to check the changes
    due to inadequacy at starting phase, Address
    appropriately re-estimating re-scheduling.
  • Experience-Use organisational experience
  • Recorded data PCB (project capability baseline)
    - Use historical data- PCB, ready components,
    etc
  • Consultant Hire expert for estimation reviews
  • Do not agree under pressure- Client or management
    might push estimation or schedule. Unless it is
    realistic doable, do not agree.
  • Communication Synchronize the communication
    with all stake holders seek agreement

18
Leadership style
  • Authorative Making most of the decision on own,
    discouraging different ways of looking at thing
  • Disadv team members can get disgruntled since
    unable to vent their opinions
  • Hands-on Less dependent on fellow members, can
    work with less confident members
  • Consensus seeking - spend time listening to
    members, helps building team confidence,
    encourage members to use their initiatives, long
    time for decision making
  • Analytical more time spend analyzing the
    situation planning, fine tuning decision
    making, attention to details, need to be good at
    delegation

19
Project resources
  • Check the leadership of manager
  • Ownership of failures
  • Ability to motivate team
  • Ability developing team members
  • Ability to cope up with the changes
  • Ability to delegate
  • Leading from front

Role Role
1 Establishing objectives 6 Encouraging Motivating team
2 Preparing master plan 7 Keeping priorities of stake holders
3 Fixing budget 8 Reciprocating demands
4 Defining communicating roles 9 Monitoring controlling progress
5 Selecting team 10 Ensuring targets
20
Project resources
  • Project performance depends on the skills of the
    best possible team without burdening the budgets
    to ensure quality speed
  • List the key role, designation, brief description
    of each tasks, necessary preferred skills
  • Check team logic by grouping different roles
  • Get the best available resources, identify the
    training needs
  • Assure to have back up for the key resources
  • Revisit schedule to adopt available resource
  • Chase second choice if first choice is not
    available
  • Workout new recruitment, invest as if necessary
  • Get agreement on the team, hierarchy and their
    roles
  • Forecast direct (Salary subcontract) indirect
    cost
  • Arrange a team meeting, convey goal objectives,
    communicate the role and schedule
  • Request for explaining understanding of role
    responsibility

21
Teamwork spirit
  • Forming Seek commitment from individual,
    explain their roles seek their understanding,
    discuss their expectation, understand their
    background, areas of expertise, etc
  • Storming Address the grievances conflict,
    avoid getting too personal, brainstrom to carry
    assigned tasks effectively, what support do they
    need, etc
  • Norming Allow members to settle, set the
    guideline for daily reporting, conduct start up
    meeting for daily updates, etc
  • Performing Motivate working together to
    perform towards shared objectives, recognize good
    work, grant higher role, more responsibility,
    encourage to develop new skills, etc
  • Boring If project is long, members feel they
    have outlasted their role, remind their deadlines
    targets
  • Mourning Finishing tasks early could
    de-stabilise, assign more tasks to bind those
    members

22
Project resources
Role Description
1 Champion Supports project, guides to manager , powerful leverage during tough time, can be relied
2 Director/ Manager Having final say, manages the project - plan, track, control measure
3 Sponsor/ client Seek agreement , advice secondary support invaluable contributor, provides opinions on result, involving at every possible phase, listen act on their feedback, Test accept
4 Project manager To execute day-today operation, measurement, arranging meeting,
5 Team members Have hierarchy, can raise question decisions offer alternate way of thinking, execute responsibilities offered, updates on progress
6 Support team Includes HR, legal, contract, finance, sys-admin, admin,
23
Project resources
Role Description
7 Analyst Seek inputs, from external sources, Appointment based on repeat experience
8 Critic / Reviewer Critic who has unrealistic standards, final say is of manager, compare results of advice
9 Team builder Brings members together, inject team spirit, energetic self motivated
10 Creative Improvised way of working helps to project team
11 Activator Keen to push things forward, usually goal oriented,
12 Carer A sympathetic person listening to the grievances, safety valve for volatile member
24
Delegate effectively
Right team Seek the member based on track record then potential
Communicate clearly Communicate expectations clearly, exact nature of the tasks, Avoid ignorance
Set realistic targets Understand potential, capability, experience energy while setting the tasks
Monitor progress Indicate clear milestone, define completion in agreement, Have a check list to declare the completion of the tasks, seek inputs on daily basis
Get give feedback Seek updates on performance, check the results, ask the supervisor give feedback setting / reminding the expectations
Encourage accountability Encourage commitment time from team members to complete tasks as plannedchallenge ownership
25
To motivate team
Question motivation Understand reasons liking of challenges, status of the assignment, recognition, salary, security stability. Understand liking disliking act demand high standards of them encourage hard work, think something new always.
Recognize good work Credit members for the tasks well done, be specific on compliment,
Steer them Understand the resistance to change, get the agreement sharing the cons of the old system, support while establishing the change
Encourage change Select employee who dares like change, Support guide to take more, share examples of success,
Set up appraisals Appraise regularly, focus on hard facts quantify., set up measurement
26
Launching a project
  • Halfway pointrevisit again while launching a
    project
  • What are the main constraints of the project?
  • What are the reasons for the project? What are
    the problems of the client which lead to this
    project?
  • Who suggested the project? Vision of the project
  • Who will be main beneficiaries of the project?
  • What would happen if project is failed or
    shelved? (Loss of revenue or profitability?)
  • What are the desired outcome of the project?
  • Who have you involved in the project? Have you
    identified all the resources needed for this
    project?
  • Activities needed to complete the project?
  • Set monitoring process and reporting mechanism?

27
Launching a project
  • Re-launching project
  • Understand the problem
  • Seek main beneficiaries inspiration to push
  • Reestate project objectives
  • Focus on activities
  • Reenergise team
  • Revisit time table
  • Revisit members- right members numbers
  • Consider the risks their handling
  • Focus on monitoring keep close eye on
    performance progress

28
Launching a project
Analysis Detail description
1 Handling uncertainties Ask what if questions alternate paths Workout oddsseek expert advice Assess success to lower the element of errors Identify key uncertainty choose 3 to 5 points Prioritize Try top most important uncertainty Specify impact outcome Simulate the future Hire consultant- Experienced resources when needed Prepare contingency plan
2 Managing information To set up physical information center like LCD Separate the data - group the information Appoint a knowledge coordinator if budget permits
29
Launching a project
Analysis Detail description
3 Effective Communicating Ask questions, encourage open communication Make announcements Listen , pay attention, dont interrupt Prepare weekly reports
4 Preparing project report List the stakeholders Kickoff / launch the project Project a vision Establish a targets Recognize uncertainties
30
Effective Monitoring
Item Description Description
1 Effective monitoring Measure progress Boost team morale Encourage flexibility Assure client Safeguard decisions Prevent collapse
2 Progress reports Provide eazy feedback forms Make reports regular Make reports brief Include basic details Make comparisons Underline problems Start with highlights
3 Review meeting Book a regular meeting slot Be specific Structure the meeting Allow question time Be available Write meeting summary Appoint a meeting leader
31
Effective Monitoring
Item Description Description
4 Email communication Is email the best? Keep email short Read through Dont shout Keep copies ready reference
5 Monitoring schedule- Monitor schedule capture reasons for delay Overestimation of experience skills Low motivation Fail to achieve targets Personality clashes Incomplete prerequisites Less efforts than envisaged In-efficiencies
6 Measures to avoid delay Encourage use of time sheet Face to face meeting Conclude on non-performers, change if needed, it is never late Encourage ideas to improve Cost effective alternatives Judge the work for its quality
32
Effective Monitoring
Item Description Description
7 Monitor the cost Under researched purchases Time delay overrun Underestimated work schedule for the consultants
8 Measures to minimise the cost Invite more bids, negotiate hard Avoid overtime Adopt close down process - release equipment or members if not required
9 Change request Assess impact on efforts, schedule, quality cost, convey to stakeholders get approval Explain change once accepted
33
Scope creep
  • Process of introducing new parameters
    approaches to a completed project plan
  • Factors for scope creep
  • Fear of turning down a client
  • Not realizing or underestimation of impact of
    changing project plan
  • Over-optimism of new suggestion to improve a
    difficult situation
  • Lack of faith in original plan, desire of over
    engineering
  • Effect of scope creep
  • Risking / derailing the project
  • Encourages client to make further suggestions

34
Scope creep
  • Controlling the scope creep
  • Reasons for change to be convincing
  • Check impact of not making changes doing
    nothing
  • Do not be afraid, convey the proposed changes, it
    could hinder the project
  • Managing the risk
  • Identify the risk, probability of occurrence,
    impact, exposure, mitigation plan owner
  • Be objective while avoiding occurrence of the
    risks
  • Develop risk management strategy, close or
    transfer the risk, develop contingency plan
  • Communicate the risks to all stake holders, seek
    feedback, device alternative strategy

35
Softwares
Item Description
1 Project management software Eazier storage retrieval of information Analysis of information Preparing report presentation, check accuracy of data Over-reliance on data Loss of team spirit / communication
2 Speciality software Project management, email, Spread-sheet, word , calendar, database (access), presentation Eazily available, and Efficient Difficulty in integration, we miss bigger picture
3 Integrated Software Calculate project budget Manage/ Monitor schedule task duration, assignee, etc Optimize schedule resources Auto / predefined project report Integration with data Needs training to the users
36
Closing a project
  • Following are advantages closing the project
  • Measure success if objectives have been achieved?
  • Satisfies the team- sense of achievement of
    completing project
  • Paves the way for future teamwork recognizing
    efforts hard work
  • Avoid repeating mistakes create records of
    lesson learnt, derive benefits from mistakes
  • Control expenserelease the resources
  • Improves communication with end users, earns
    respect
  • Offer personal satisfaction, write challenges you
    have faces how did you overcome

37
Closing a project
  • Plan project closure - To arrange a meeting with
    all stake holders communicating formally the
    closure, presenting data of efforts, schedule,
    quality (defect data) and cost (actual
    variances), degree of achievement, change
    requests, feedback, progress reports, positive
    negative points, challenges, risks how those
    were managed, lessons learnt corrective
    actions, performers, emerging leaders,
    productivity, do dont for future projects,
    areas of improvements, etc
  • Release hard soft resources (Hardware, source
    code, software, team members, their access
    rights, project email id)
  • Complete appraisal
  • Celebration thanking Foster a spirit of
    collaboration, improves morale, underline core
    values
  • Seek official approval of closure

38
Thank You
39
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