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The Road Ahead A Look at the South and Rural America


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Title: The Road Ahead A Look at the South and Rural America

The Road AheadA Look at the South and Rural
2003 Southern Institute for Rural
Development September 8, 2003
  • Presented by
  • J. Mac Holladay, CEO
  • Market Street Services, Inc.

What Do We Know?
  • Changing Economy
  • Jobs and the New Economy
  • September 11, 2001
  • Rural America Today
  • The Southern United States

Changing StructureOf The Economy
  • Undergoing continuing fundamental changes in US
  • Until mid-2001, the U.S. experienced the
    strongest growth and development in history
    record lows in unemployment and record growth in
    per capita income.
  • Fortune 500 companies made up 26 of
    nonagricultural workforce 30 years ago and those
    firms have lost over 12 million jobs.
  • In the 1990s, medium and small companies account
    for all of the net job growth across the country.

1979 Fortune 500 Top 25
  • General Motors
  • Exxon
  • Ford
  • Mobil
  • Texaco
  • Standard Oil California
  • IBM
  • General Electric
  • Gulf Oil
  • Chrysler
  • International Telephone and Telegraph
  • Standard Oil Industrial
  • Atlantic Richfield
  • Shell
  • US Steel
  • E.I. duPont
  • Western Electric
  • Continental Oil
  • Tenneco
  • Procter and Gamble
  • Union Carbide
  • Goodyear
  • Sun Oil
  • Caterpillar
  • Eastman Kodak

2002 Fortune 500 Top 25
  • Wal-Mart
  • Exxon/Mobil
  • General Motors
  • Ford
  • Enron
  • General Electric
  • Citigroup
  • Chevron/Texaco
  • IBM
  • Philip Morris
  • Verizon
  • American International Group
  • American Electric
  • Duke Energy
  • ATT
  • Boeing
  • El Paso
  • Home Depot
  • Bank of America
  • Fannie Mae
  • JP Morgan Chase
  • Kroger
  • Cardinal Health
  • Merck
  • State Farm Insurance

Fortune 500 Top 25 By Sector
  • 1979
  • Manufacturing 12
  • Energy 11
  • Communications 2
  • 2002
  • Energy 6
  • Financial 5
  • Manufacturing 5
  • Retail 3
  • Communications 2
  • Health 2
  • Insurance 2

Definition of New Economy
  • It is a knowledge and idea-based economy where
    the keys to wealth and job creation are the
    extent to which ideas, innovation, and technology
    are embedded in all sectors of the economy.
  • Source The State New Economy Index Progressive
    Policy Institute

Employment in the New Economy
  • In the 1990s, nearly 75 of all net new jobs were
    created by gazelle firms (firms that have
    increased annual sales revenue by 20 for 4
    straight years).
  • Americans now change jobs every 3.5 years those
    in their 20s change every 1.1 years.
  • Job Churning the dynamic of jobs created and
    lost in an area - is driven by new technology,
    increased competition, and increasing

Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
What Kinds of Jobs are Coming?
  • Demand for skilled workers will only intensify,
    42 of US jobs in 2010 will require technical
    (vocational) or academic degrees, up from 29 in
  • 8 of the top 10 business groupings that have the
    fastest wage and salary growth are in Services.
  • 8 of 10 fastest growing jobs are in computers.
    Not programmers but software engineers, support
    specialists, network administrators.
  • All told in 2010 167.8 million jobs vs. 158
    million workers. A worsening labor deficit. In
    2000, 146 million jobs, 141 million workers.

Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Required Job Skills are Increasing
Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Fastest Growing Occupations 2000-2010
Five Key Trends in Economic Development
  • Globalization
  • Technology Telecommunications
  • Regionalism
  • Sustainable Development
  • Workforce Development

Current Investments in China
Imports - China
  • Imports are soaring
  • Telecom
  • Power making and transmission equipment
  • Aerospace
  • Computers
  • Appliances
  • Furniture
  • Estimated 900,000 U.S. jobs will be lost to China
    by 2010, with the worst loss in manufacturing.
  • Contributed 31 of furniture imports in 2001,
    will double in a few years.
  • Member of WTO all tariffs are off in 2004.

Source Kiplinger Letter, September 27, 2002
Annual Per Capita Income, 2002
Source World Bank
White-Collar Globalization
  • Western companies are increasingly outsourcing
    knowledge jobs to overseas locations.
  • Types of jobs moving overseas include back-office
    support, processing, accounting, customer
    service, financial analysis, software and chip
    design, and even architectural drafting.
  • Countries with well-educated, English-speaking
    workers are popular destinations for these jobs
    --- India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, Costa
    Rica, Russia, Hungary, and South Africa.
  • Workers in these countries have skills similar to
    their American counterparts, but they work at a
    fraction of the cost.

White-Collar Globalization
September 11, 2001
Rural America Today
U.S. Rural Economy, April 2003
Source Center for the Study of Rural America
Source Center for the Study of Rural
America U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2002
Population Shifts
  • In the 1990s, about 25 of nonmetro counties lost
  • Counties that lost population were characterized
  • Location away from metro areas
  • Low population density
  • Low level of natural amenities (i.e. climate,
    topography, lakes and ponds)
  • From 2000-2001, the number of nonmetro
    outmigrants totaled 2.6 million.
  • Net nonmetro outmigrants totaled more than 1
    million people.
  • Source McGranahan and Beale. Understanding Rural
    Population Loss. Rural America, 17(4), Winter

Source Rural Policy Research Institute (RUPRI)
The Rural Brain Drain
  • Rural communities across the United States are
    having difficulty keeping and attracting young
    and/or educated workers.
  • Even burgeoning rural areas, with tourist or
    recreation-based economies, are having difficulty
    attracting these types of workers - young ones
  • Rural areas that have seen influxes of educated
    workers are primarily in the exurban areas of
    large metropolitan areas (i.e. the new

Rural Income Inequality
  • From 1979 to 1999, the gap between nonmetro and
    central city areas in real median household
    income increased from 11 to 3,124.
  • Over that same period, the difference between
    suburban and nonmetro median household incomes
    rose from 13,771 to 15,984.
  • In 2000, rural earnings per worker averaged
    23,242, about 13,000 less than metro earnings.
  • Additionally, the services sector, a lower paying
    sector, is becoming a larger part of the rural
  • Sources Novack, Nancy. The Income Divide in
    Rural America. The Main Street
  • Economist Center for the Study of Rural
    America October 2002.
  • Mclaughin, Diane. Income Inequality in
    America. Rural America, 17(2), Summer 2002

Source Rural Policy Research Institute (RUPRI)
Rural Regionalism
  • Regional approaches to economic development are
    increasingly seen as ways to combat some of the
    inherent comparative disadvantages in rural
  • Types of regions that have been successful
  • Macro regions large multi-state regions often
    created by Federal legislation, examples include
    the Appalachian Regional Commission and the Delta
  • Self-defined regions can emerge from new
    business opportunities or other factors.
  • Economic regions multi-county regions formed to
    help blur political boundaries in a common
  • Natural resource regions formed to protect
    natural resources such as watersheds or natural
  • Source Drabenstott, Mark and Sheaff, Katharine.
    The New Power of Regions A Policy Focus for
    Rural America A Conference Summary. Center for
    Study of Rural America Federal Reserve Bank of
    Kansas City.

The Southern United States
Decline of Manufacturing Manufacturing Jobs
Lost in the South, 2001-2002
  • Alabama -25,900
  • Arkansas -24,700
  • Florida -45,000
  • Georgia -48,400
  • Kentucky -20,000
  • Louisiana -8,300
  • Mississippi -18,600
  • North Carolina -79,600
  • South Carolina -39,300
  • Tennessee -40,500
  • Virginia -32,200
  • West Virginia -8,200

TOTAL - 390,700 JOBS
Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Net Job Change in the South, 2001-2002
  • Alabama -35,000
  • Arkansas -6,600
  • Florida 72,200
  • Georgia -123,100
  • Kentucky 12,600
  • Louisiana 9,500
  • Mississippi -12,500
  • North Carolina -56,300
  • South Carolina -24,700
  • Tennessee -24,600
  • Virginia -58,800
  • West Virginia -10,900

TOTAL - 258,200 JOBS
Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Index of State EconomicMomentum June 2003(Out
of 50 states)
  • Florida
  • Mississippi
  • Arkansas
  • Kentucky
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Georgia
  • North Carolina
  • Louisiana
  • Alabama
  • West Virginia

Source State Policy Reports
2002 State New Economy Index
  • 2002 1999
  • Maryland 5 11
  • Virginia 8 12
  • Florida 18 20
  • Georgia 22 25
  • North Carolina 26 30
  • Tennessee 39 31
  • South Carolina 41 38
  • Kentucky 42 39
  • Louisiana 45 47
  • Alabama 47 44
  • Mississippi 49 50
  • West Virginia 50 48

Source Progressive Policy Institute
Source U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Percent of Residents Who Lived in a Different
House Five Years Ago, Southern Region, 1999
Source U.S. Census Bureau
Percentage Employment Change, South, U.S., 1994
to July 2003
Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Unemployment Rate, South, U.S., 1993 to 2003
Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Source U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
FIRE Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate TCU
Transportation, Communications, and Utilities.
Per Capita Income, South, U.S., 1990, 2000
Source U.S. Census Bureau
Innovative Rural Practices
Rural America has an exciting frontier of new
opportunities New business relationships and
partnerships that achieve critical mass are
essential to capturing new economic
gains. Thinking regionally offers great power in
building these synergies. In the end, leadership
may be the essential ingredient in forging new
regions in rural America. Mark Drabenstott
Katharine H. Sheaff Center for the Study of Rural
Community Development Foundation Tupelo,
  • Created a broad domestic and international
    business base in the region.
  • Collaborated with government to establish nine
    industrial parks in the area.
  • Created the Tupelo Furniture Market, now the
    second largest furniture market in the U.S.
  • Launched the National Model for Technical
    Education to improve and coordinate career
    training and development within the Tupelo area.
  • Created one-stop Career Centers to assist
    businesses and industries with workforce
    assessment, training and counseling-related

Iowa Cooperative
  • A fledgling region trying to develop
    pharmaceutical crops.
  • Strategy driven by an emerging business
  • Requires critical mass of farmers, communities,
    businesses and support institutions.
  • Cooperative is working to develop a cluster of
    300 to 500 producers growing pharmaceutical
  • Challenges to the effort include
  • Convincing farmers to switch from commodity
    production to crops requiring special production
    and handling procedures.
  • New research is needed on crops best-suited to
    the region.
  • Source Center for the Study of Rural America.

Virginia Enterprise Initiative
  • Established in 1994 by state legislature.
  • Provides grants to community non-profit
    organizations that assist entrepreneurs otherwise
    unable to obtain financing or capital.
  • These non-profits must match state funding from
    banks, the SBA, colleges, or various private
  • Types of assistance offered include
  • Business skills training
  • Personalized technical assistance
  • Microloans from 3,000 to 10,000
  • Follow-up assistance
  • Total funding is over 9 million and has created
    656 businesses and more than 1,600 jobs.
  • Source Carl Vinson Institute of Government,
    University of Georgia. Dismantling Persistent

  • Created with one-third of Georgias tobacco
    settlement to fund local economic development
    efforts in the nonmetro parts of the state.
  • Implemented through two funds
  • Equity Fund provides loans and grants for
    infrastructure development
  • EDGE Fund Economic Development, Growth, and
    Expansion Fund helps communities that are
    competing for businesses from outside the state.
    Money must be used for public infrastructure,
    land acquisition, and site development.
  • Has given more than 50 million and created more
    than 10,000 jobs.
  • Source Carl Vinson Institute of Government,
    University of Georgia. Dismantling Persistent

NC Rural Economic Development Center
  • A non-profit organization created in 1987 through
    initiatives by the North Carolina Commission for
    Jobs and Economic Growth.
  • The first organization of its kind in the U.S.
    devoted exclusively to state rural advancement.
  • Governed by a 50-member Board comprised of
    leaders from a variety of areas.
  • Operates a variety of loan and grant programs for
    infrastructure development, workforce
    development, leadership development, business
    development, and rural Internet access.
  • Identifies four main roles for itself Policy
    Development, Capacity Building, Technical
    Assistance, and Program Operation.
  • FY2001 operating budget 16 million, with 5.5
    million of that provided by the state.

San Juan Forum The Four Corners
  • The San Juan Forum, created in 1991, is a
    non-profit corporation promoting economic
    development in the cross-state Four Corners
    region of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New
  • The Forum ignores state lines and serves as the
    umbrella organization for the various federal,
    state, local and tribal economic development
    interests in the natural economic region.
  • The Forum allows this rural area to form a common
    and unique identity while aggregating demand for
    infrastructure and educational services.
  • The Forum has used its leadership to solicit
    valuable research assistance from surrounding
    colleges, to help build broadband infrastructure,
    and to develop the regions tourism amenities.
  • Source Center for the Study of Rural America

Ozark EcotoursNewton County, Arkansas
  • Newton County Resource Council (a nonprofit
    community development corporation) developed
    ecotourism project because of the need to provide
    employment for the countys low-income residents.
  • Used natural resources to create ecotours led and
    operated by local residents.
  • These residents local knowledge are used an
    integral aspects of these tours.
  • The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as
    responsible travel to natural areas that
    preserves the environment and improves the
    well-being of local people.

  • The future aint what it used to be.
  • Yogi Berra
  • New York Yankees Catcher

The Road Ahead
What We Know
  • Recent Headlines
  • Employment Growth and Decline
  • Potential job growth sectors
  • 2003 - Where are We? Reality and Actions

Recent Headlines
  • Economy grows at 3.1 rate on strong overall
  • (Wall Street Journal, August 29, 2003)
  • Looks like a recovery, feels like a recession
  • (New York Times, September 1, 2003)
  • Bush to add post to help job picture
  • (Atlanta-Journal Constitution, September 2, 2003)
  • Manufacturing improves again
  • (USA Today, September 2, 2003)
  • Productivity jumps in Q2, but weekly jobless
    claims rise
  • (USA Today, September 4, 2003)

Top 10 Cities Employment Growth 2001-2002
  • Elkhart-Goshen, IN (4.6)
  • Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS (4.0)
  • Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR (3.8)
  • McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX (3.5)
  • Santa Fe, NM (3.3)
  • Chico-Paradise, CA (3.1)
  • Tacoma, WA (2.9)
  • Las Vegas, NV (2.8)
  • Atlantic City-Cape May, NJ (2.6)
  • Madison, WI (2.5)

Top 10 Cities Employment Decline 2001-2002
  • Flint, MI (-4.3)
  • Decatur, IL (-3.3)
  • Boulder-Longmont, CO (-3.0)
  • San Jose, CA (-3.0)
  • Florence, AL (-2.9)
  • Wichita, KS (-2.7)
  • Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, MI (-2.6)
  • Elmira, NY (-2.5)
  • Danville, VA (-2.4)
  • Sheboygan, WI (-2.4)

  • We are in uncharted waters. In what sector of
    the economy can we find a driver for recovery
    and how do we make it happen? We are at a loss.
  • Gary Shoesmith
  • Center for Economic Studies
  • Wake Forest University
  • December 2002

Potential Job Growth Sectors
  • Health Care Top to Bottom.
  • Federal Government (and Contractors)
  • Tourism
  • Computer related support, software,
    technicians, programmers.
  • Logistics entire range
  • Headquarters small, international, and
  • Financial Services

What I See September 2003
  • This is not the 1990s, and they will never be
  • Regional economy continues to struggle, but the
    bleeding is slowing.
  • Number and size of projects down sharply - some
    projects in logistics, transportation, and
    financial services.
  • Little business investment, further delays in
    final decisions.
  • Consumer confidence hit its lowest level since
    October 1993 in March, and again in July, but
    increased 5.6 in August.

What I See September 2003
  • Bankruptcies are up and small business starts are
  • The stock market has lost approximately 7.0
    trillion in value since January 2000.
  • Job creation leader is the federal government.
  • State budgets will get worse.
  • The short-term question marks are the aftermath
    of the war with Iraq and dealing with North Korea.

Actions for this Economy
  • Concentrate on improving the quality of the
    workforce it is and will remain the 1 issue in
    economic development.
  • Nurture existing business create
    technology-based system for growth
    companies/businessesdont waste time.
  • Support entrepreneurship in new ways a cultural

Actions for this Economy
  • Recruit carefully and smart, based on asset
    advantages and existing connections clear
    strategy for each cluster or area of emphasis.
  • Look for overlooked assets and opportunities
    multiple strategies are key.
  • Marketing reality quality website and personal
    relationships are the necessities.
  • Remember Quality of Life is very important and it
    is an individual choice.

  • We are going from hunter-gathers to gardeners.
  • Dr. David Kolzow
  • Executive Director
  • Institute for Economic Development
  • University of Southern Mississippi

  • What do we really want? What kind of life and
    what kind of society do we want to bequeath to
    coming generations?
  • To purposefully address it we must harness all
    of our intelligence, our energy and most
    important, our awareness. The task of building a
    truly creative society is not a game of
    solitaire. This game, we play as a team.

Richard Florida The Rise of the Creative Class
The Road AheadA Look at the South and Rural
2003 Southern Institute for Rural
Development September 8, 2003
  • Presented by
  • J. Mac Holladay, CEO
  • Market Street Services, Inc.
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