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Happy Monday!!!


Happy Monday!!! Take out your vocab so I can come around a check it Did you know: there are 216 noodles in a can of Campbell s Chicken Noodle Soup – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Happy Monday!!!

Happy Monday!!!
  • Take out your vocab so I can come around a check
  • Did you know there are 216 noodles in a can of
    Campbells Chicken Noodle Soup

  • Can you identify these 1920s slang word?
  • 1. Applesauce 6. Flat tire
  • 2. Big cheese 7. Lounge Lizard
  • 3. Bees knees 8. Sheba
  • 4. Giggle water 9. Shiek
  • 5. Jalopy 10.The Real McCoy

Interwar Period
  • the Roaring 20s

Postwar Trends
  • League of Nations left much of America divided
  • Returning soldiers faced unemployment or took
    jobs away from women and African-Americans
  • Many responded by becoming fearful of outsiders
  • Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born people
  • Isolationism- policy of pulling away from
    involvement in world affairs

  • People feared the spread of communism-economic
    and political system based on a single-party
    government ruled by a dictatorship
  • In order to equalize wealth and power, communism
    would put an end to private property,
    substituting govt ownership of factories, RR,
    and other businesses
  • The panic in the US began in 1919 after
    revolutionaries in Russia (Bolsheviks) overthrew
    the czarist regime
  • A Communist party formed in the US and 70,000
  • Called it the Red Scare

Limiting Immigration
  • Keep America for Americans became the attitude
    of most Americans
  • As a result of the Red Scare and anti-immigrant
    feelings, the KKK rose again
  • Devoted to 100 Americanism
  • Targeted African-Americans, Roman Catholics, Jews
    and other foreign-born people
  • Congress responded to the nativist pressure by
    limiting immigration from certain countries
  • The Emergency Quota Act 1921 set up a quota
    system that established a maximum number of
    people who could enter the US from each country
  • Law prohibited Japanese immigration

Harding struggles for peace
  • Problems surfaced regarding arms control, war
    debts and reconstruction of war-torn countries
  • 1921, President Warren G. Harding invited several
    nations to the Washington Naval Conference
  • Sec. of State urged no more warships be built for
    10 years, suggested that the 5 major powers (US,
    GB, Japan, France and Italy) scrap many of their
    largest warships
  • Later in 1928, 15 countries signed the
    Kellog-Briand Pact which denounced war as a
    national policy (unfortunately there was not way
    to enforce)

High Tariffs and Reparations
  • New issues arose when it was time for GB and
    France to pay back the 10 million they borrowed
    from the US
  • They had 2 options(1) selling goods to the US
    (2) collecting reparation from Germany
  • 1921, America adopted the Fordney-McCumber Tariff
    which raised taxes on US imports to 60
  • Made it impossible for GB and France to sell
    enough goods to pay the debt
  • GB and France looked to Germany
  • When Germany failed to make the payments, France
    marched in
  • US Banker Charles G. Dawes steps in and came up
    with the Dawes Plan- US investors loaned Germ
    2.5 billion to pay back GB and France who would
    then pay back the US

Scandal Hits Harding
  • Harding cabinet included the Ohio gang, some of
    Hardings poker buddies who soon caused
  • Used their offices to become wealthy through
  • EX head of Vet. Bureau was caught illegally
    selling govt and hospital supplies to private
  • The worst example was the Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Govt had set aside oil-rich lands at Teapot
    Dome, WY and Elk Hills, CA for use by the US Navy
  • Sec. of Interior got the reserves transferred to
    the Interior Dept. and then leased the land to 2
    private oil companies
  • Harding dies of a stroke in 1923 and Calvin
    Coolidge become president (and reelected the next

Industry flourishes
  • Calvin Coolidge (R ) was very pro-business
  • He and his successor (Herbert Hoover) favored
    govt policies that kept taxes down and business
    profits up
  • Goal was the keep govt interference minimal
  • High tariffs on imports, wages rose and so did

Impact of Automobile
  • With the automobile came paved roads
  • Route 66- from Chicago to California with little
    towns on the way
  • New houses had garages or carports and a driveway
  • Gas stations, repair shops, motels, tourist camps
    and shopping centers, Traffic signals early
    1920s, Holland Tunnel (1st underwater tunnel) in
  • Liberated rural families to travel into the city
    for shopping and entertainment
  • Urban sprawl -cities spreading in all directions
  • Became a status symbol

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Airplane Industry
  • Began as a mail carrying service for the USPS
  • With the development of weather forecasting,
    planes began carrying radios and navigation
  • 1927 Pan American Airways inaugurated the 1st
    transatlantic passenger flight

Electrical convenience
  • Gasoline powered much of the economic boom of the
    20s but electricity transformed the nation
  • Electricity was no longer restricted to central
    cities but spread to the suburbs
  • By the end of the 1920s more and more homes had
    electric irons and wealthier homes had
    refrigerators, cooking ranges and toasters

Mass Advertising
  • Advertising agencies hired psychologists to study
    how to appeal to peoples desire for
    youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth
  • Brand names became familiar and luxury items soon
    became necessities
  • Mouthwash was a big example

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Superficial Prosperity
  • During the 20s most Americans believed
    prosperity would go on forever
  • Industries provided another solution to the
    problem of luring customers
  • Easy credit or a dollar down and a dollar
  • The installment plan enabled people to buy
    goods over an extended period of time without
    having to put down much money at the time of

City Life
  • Between 1920-1929, nearly 2 million people left
    rural areas for cities every year
  • City dwellers read and argued about major issues
  • City dwellers tolerated drinking, gambling, and
    casual dating
  • Major battle between traditional and modern values

  • 18th amendment went into effect in January 1920
  • Manufacture, sale, and transportation of
    alcoholic beverages was illegal
  • However, alcohol was allowed for medical and
    religious purposes
  • Reformers thought drinking led to crime, wife and
    child abuse, accidents on the job and other
    serious social problems
  • Support came from south and west and Protestants
  • Was very hard to fund and enforce!

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Speakeasies and Bootleggers
  • To get liquor illegally, drinkers went
    underground to hidden saloons called speakeasies
  • Spoke quietly inside to avoid detection
  • Had to have a card or a secret password
  • People also learned to distill alcohol in secret
  • Bootleggers (smuggled in boot legs)

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Organized Crime
  • Prohibition contributed to organized crime in
    every major city
  • Chicago was notorious because of Al Capone
  • Bootlegging empire netted over 60 million/year

Science v. Religion
  • Fundamentalists-skeptical of scientific knowledge
  • Literal interpretation of the Bible
  • Rejected to theory of evolution
  • Strong support in south and west

Scopes Trial
  • March 1925, Tennessee passed that nations first
    law that made it a crime to teach evolution
  • The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
    promised to defend any teacher who challenged the
  • John T. Scopes, a young biology teacher, accepted
    the challenge
  • Was arrested and put in jail for reading an
    article in class about evolution

Scopes Trial cont.
  • The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes
  • William Jennings Bryan served as special
  • Trial was a fight over evolution and the role of
    science and religion in public schools and
    American society
  • Bryan was questioned for his religious beliefs
  • Ended up admitting that the Bible might be
    interpreted in different ways
  • Scopes was found guilty and fined 100

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Women of the 20s
  • In the rebellious, pleasure-loving atmosphere of
    the 20s, many women began asserting their
    independence and demanded the same freedom as men
  • Flapper-an emancipated young woman who embraced
    new fashions and urban attitudes
  • Close-fitting hats, waist less dresses an inch
    above the knee, skin toned stockings, boyish bob
  • Began smoking cigarettes, drinking in public,
    talking openly about sex
  • Danced the foxtrot, tango, Charleston

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Pop culture
  • More people went to high school- taxes to finance
    schools increased
  • Increased literacy
  • Radio became the most powerful communication
  • Heard news as it happened, sports, radio shows
  • Spent time working crossword puzzles, playing
    mahjong, dance marathons, sports
  • Negro National baseball league
  • Babe Ruth- Yankees

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Entertainment and Art
  • Movies- first without sound then with sound
    called talkies
  • Jazz music
  • Literary boom- F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest

Harlem Renaissance
  • Literary and artistic movement celebrating
    African-American culture
  • Great Migration brought African Americans to the
  • Many moved to Harlem, a neighborhood on the Upper
    West Side of NYC
  • Became the worlds largest black urban community
  • Suffered overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty

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  • Harlem Renaissance encouraged a new pride in
    African-American experiences
  • Wrote about the trials of being black in a white
  • Claude McKay-novelist, poet, urged African
    Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination.
    Wrote of the pain of life in the black ghettos
  • Langston Hughes-poet, described difficult lives
    of working-class African Americans
  • Zora Neale Hurston-portrayed the lives of poor
    Southern blacks

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  • Born in the early 20th century in New Orleans
  • Blended instrumental ragtime and vocal blues
  • Joe King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band
    brought it north
  • Famous jazz musicians Louis Armstrong, Duke
    Ellington, Bessie Smith

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Happy Wednesday!!
  • Take out your 20s packet so I can come around and
    check it
  • Did you know The ZIP in zip code stands for
    zone improvement plan

Interwar Period
  • Causes of the Great Depression

The Good Times
  • The 1920s were a time of superficial prosperity
  • Businesses were doing well
  • Wages were increasing
  • People bought all kinds of luxury items
  • Cars, toasters, washers, vacuums, sewing machines
  • People thought the good times would continue
    forever and bought fancy items on credit or with
    installment plans, assuming they would just pay
    it later

Trouble Ahead
  • As the 1920s advanced, economic prosperity
    slowed, but few noticed
  • Industries were in trouble
  • Railroads, lumbering and mining industries were
    no longer making profits
  • Companies had to start laying people off
  • People without jobs do not have money to spend,
    which hurts other businesses
  • People were also laid off b/c a lot of companies
    began using machines to do the work

Trouble Ahead
  • 2. Farmers were in Debt
  • During WWI, farmers produced a lot of crops and
    sold a lot of crops
  • After WWI farmers should have slowed production,
    but they didnt
  • They were unable to sell all their crops
  • Farmers needed money and took out loans
  • Many farmers never repaid their loans which
    caused rural banks to fail
  • Many farms were foreclosed on
  • Congress tried to help and passed price-supports
    (McNary- Haugen Bill)
  • Govt would buy excess for and sell it overseas
  • President Coolidge vetoed the bill

Trouble Ahead
  • 3. Consumers had less money to spend
  • As businesses failed, wages were cut and people
    could not spend money on extra items
  • Since nobody was buying, more businesses failed,
    causing more unemployment, which caused even less
    money to be spent in stores

Trouble Ahead
  • 4. Living on credit
  • People were living above their means
  • People could not afford to buy items out right so
    they paid for them on credit and assumed they
    would pay it back later
  • Credit Cards
  • Installment Plans -paying off the total cost in
    monthly payments
  • Buying Stocks on the Margin- many wanted to
    invest in the stock market, but could not afford
    to pay the full amount of the stock so they
    borrowed from a broker (took out a loan to pay
    for it)
  • Many couldnt pay back the full amount of their
    loans or were so strapped for cash they couldnt
    spend money on other items, which hurt other
    businesses, causing more people to become

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Trouble Ahead
  • 5. Uneven distribution of wealth
  • Rich got richer, poor got poorer
  • Most earned less than 2,500 a year
  • Had no savings
  • Relied on credit

Hoover takes over
  • 1928- Hoover wins the election
  • Little focus on the economy
  • People think the good times will continue
  • People believed investing in the stock market was
    the key to riches
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average was high (Bull
  • People began engaging in Speculation
  • Buy low, sell high
  • Make quick money
  • Many didnt realize the risk, thought the market
    would continue to increase
  • People began buying Stocks on the Margin
  • Many couldnt afford to pay the full amount of
    the stock so they borrowed money from a broker
  • Makes the market appear stronger than it actually
  • If Stock price declines, people have no way of
    paying off the loan
  • The government did little to discourage excessive

The Stock Market Crashes
  • By early September 1929 many began to question
    the strength of the market
  • People began selling their stocks
  • Black Tuesday- October 29, 1929
  • Confidence in the market collapsed
  • People began selling their stocks for pennies
  • 16 million stocks sold
  • Could not pay back their loans
  • Caused banks to close, by November investors had
    lost 30 billion dollars

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Stop and Think!
  • How did the stock market crash help cause the
    Great Depression?

The Great Depression Begins
  • 1929-1940- time period where the economy
    plummeted and unemployment rose
  • Banks Failed
  • People panicked and went to their banks demanding
    their money
  • Many banks invested the money in the stock market
    and did not have the money to give back
  • Many lost their entire life savings
  • The government did not insure bank accounts
  • Today, FDIC up to 250,000
  • By 1933-11,000 of 25,000 banks failed
  • Businesses Failed
  • The Gross National Product (total output of
    goods) was cut from 104 billion to 59 billion
  • 90,000 businesses failed
  • Unemployment Rose
  • From 3-25

The Great Depression
  • The Depression Spread throughout the world
  • European nations were still trying to recover
    from WWI
  • Wall Street was the center of the financial world
  • Many nations relied on the US for loans
  • Many also relied on the US to buy goods
  • US passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff Act
  • Highest protective tariffs in US History
  • Designed to protect American farmers and
  • It failed-
  • It stopped Europeans from buying American goods
  • Increased unemployment
  • encouraged other nations to pass similar tariffs

Hardships and Suffering
  • The Depression in Cities
  • Many lost their homes, jobs
  • Homelessness increased
  • Shanty towns emerged- little towns consisting of
  • Soup kitchens
  • Bread lines
  • There was no direct relief for families
  • Cash payment or food provided by the govt
  • African-Americans and minorities were hit even

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Hardships and suffering
  • The Depression in Rural Areas
  • Farms were foreclosed on
  • The Dust Bowl
  • drought struck in the 1930s
  • For decades farmers in the Midwest broke up
    farmland, removing the protective grass covering,
    exposing dirt
  • Leaving a lot of land unusable
  • When the drought struck and winds picked up dust
    became unbearable
  • Hardest hit was Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New
    Mexico, and Colorado
  • Many abandoned their farms and moved to California

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Stop and Think!!
  • Why did many farm families leave their land
    during the Great Depression?

Hardships and Suffering
  • Effects on the American family
  • Lots of extra time bc of unemployment
  • Hobos began wandering the streets
  • There was no Direct Relief for families
  • Cash payment or food provided by the govt
  • Some cities tried to provide some relief for
  • New York City- 2.39 per family each week

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Hardships and Suffering
  • Poor diets increased
  • malnutrition increased
  • Overall health decreased
  • Schools shut down
  • wild boys kids who rode the freight trains
  • Very dangerous
  • Depression increased
  • suicide increased

Happy Wednesday!
  • Take out your Stormy Weather movie sheets so we
    can finish the movie
  • Did you know an ant can survive up to 2 days

Interwar Period
  • Hoovers plan

Hoovers approach
  • Hoover tried to reassure Americans that the
    nations economy was sound
  • Americans had to remain optimistic
  • Business as usual
  • Depression is a normal part of the business cycle
  • The economy will fix itself
  • Believed governments role was to encourage and
    facilitate cooperation not control it
  • Americans values individualism therefore Hoover
    opposed any form of federal welfare or direct
  • Felt it would weaken peoples self-respect
  • His answer to the problem was to let individuals,
    charities and local organizations pitch in and

Stop and Think!!
  • Why was Hoover reluctant to help people during
    the Depression?

Cautious steps
  • Hoover called together key leaders in business,
    banking and labor
  • Urged them to work together to find a solution
  • Asked employers not to cut wages or lay off
    workers and asked laborers not to strike
  • Created a special organization to help private
    charities generate contributions
  • None of this worked
  • Shantytowns arose in every city and hobos
    continued to roam

Democrats Win Congress
  • As the difficulties increased the political tides
    turned against Hoover and the Republicans
  • The Democrats took advantage of the anti-Hoover
    sentiments to win more seats in Congress

Peoples reaction to Hoover
  • Farmers burned their corn and wheat and dumped
    their milk on highways rather than sell it at a
  • People were calling shantytowns Hoovervilles
  • Hoover continued to hold firm to his principles

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Hoover Takes Action
  • Backed the creation of the Federal Farm
    Board-intended to raise crop prices by helping
    members to buy crops and keep them off the market
    until prices rose
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932)- lowered
    mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers
    to refinance to avoid foreclosure
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
    authorized up to 2 billion for emergency
    financing for banks, life insurance companies,
    RR, and other large businesses
  • Hoover believed that the money would trickle down
    to the average citizen through job growth and
    higher wages
  • Businesses still failed

Bonus Army
  • In 1932, 10,000-20,000 WWI Vets and their
    families marched in Washington DC and called
    themselves the Bonus Army
  • Supported the Patman Bill under debate that
    authorized the govt to pay a bonus to WWI Vets
    who hadnt be paid adequately for their service
  • Bill was approved in 1924 but was to be paid out
    in 1945 (cash and life insurance) but Vets wanted
    to be paid immediately
  • Built shantytowns in front of the Capitol
  • July 28- Hoover sent troops to disband the Bonus
  • Gassed more than 1,000 people including an 11
    month old baby who died and an 8 yr old who was
    permanently blinded- Hoovers image suffered and
    FDR easily won the next election

Stop and Think!!
  • How did the treatment of the Bonus Army affect
    President Hoover?

Happy Thursday!!!
  • Take out your Economic Briefing Packet so I can
    come around a check it!
  • Did you know Babe Ruth wore a cabbage leaf under
    his baseball cap to keep cool he changed it
    every 2 innings

Interwar Period
  • FDR and the New Deal

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Democrat, elected in the election of 1932
  • Inaugurated in March 1933
  • 20th Amendment-move presidential inauguration to
    January (ratified in Feb. 1933 so FDR missed it)
  • lame duck amendment- shortens time btwn
    election and inauguration
  • Between the time of election and the time he took
    office, FDR worked to pick advisers known as the
    Brain Trust
  • Came up with the New Deal

Hundred Days
  • Period of intense activity lasting from March 9-
    June 16, 1933
  • Congress passed more that 15 major pieces of New
    Deal legislation
  • Expanded the fed. Govts role in the nations
  • First step was the carry out reforms in banking
    and finance
  • Closed all banks (bank holiday) to prevent
    further withdrawals
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act- banks were to be
    inspected, if they couldnt repay debts they
    would remain closed

Fireside Chats
  • Radio talks about issues of public concern,
    explaining in clear, simple language
  • Made people feel like he was talking directly to
  • We have nothing to fear but fear itself

The 3 Rs- Relief
  • Relief bring immediate help to those who need it
  • CCC (Civilian Conservation Corp)- Provided jobs
    for young single males on conservation projects
  • Built new roads, strung telephone lines, planted
  • TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)- provided jobs
    building dams to bring running water and
    electricity to poor regions in the South
  • WPA (Works Progress Administration)- created as
    many jobs as quickly as possible in construction
    of airports, highways, and public buildings.
  • Also hired artists, musicians and actors

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3 R-s- Recovery
  • Recovery pump-priming temporary programs to
    restart the flow of consumer demand
  • AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act)- aid farmers by
    regulating crop production so prices would rise
  • NRA (National Recovery Administration)- reformed
    banking practices and established fair codes of
    competition for business

3 Rs- Reform
  • Reform permanent programs to avoid situations
    causing contractions and Insurance for citizens
    against econ. Disaster
  • FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)-
    protected bank deposits up to 5,000
  • Wagner Act-defined unfair labor practices and
    established the National Labor Relations Board to
    settle disputes between employers and employees
  • SSA (Social Security Act)- provided pension for
    retired workers and their spouses and helped
    people with disabilities

Regulating Banking and Finance
  • Glass-Steagall Act- established the Federal
    Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • Federal Securities Act- required corporations to
    provide complete information on all stock
    offerings and made them liable for any
  • Established the Securities and Exchange
    Commission (SEC)
  • 21st amendment (sell alcohol to raise govt
    revenue by taxing alcohol)

Results of the New Deal
  • By the end of the Hundred Days, millions of
    Americas had benefited from the New Deal programs
  • Public confidence in the nations future had
  • FDR practiced the policy of deficit spending-
    spending more money that the govt receives in
  • Said it was a necessary evil to be used in an
    economic crisis

Stop And Think!!
  • Look over the list of New Deal programs.
    Identify which programs addressed the different
    areas of need
  • You have a limited amount of time to do this so
    start working!!!

Critics of the New Deal
  • Many critics believed the New Deal interfered
    with the workings of a free-market economy
  • Fed. Govt had too much control over agriculture
    and industry
  • American Liberty League- believed the New Deal
    violated respect for rights of individuals and
  • 3 of the toughest critics expressed views that
    appealed to the poor Father Coughlin, Dr.
    Francis Townsend, and Huey Long

FDR and the Supreme Court
  • Schechter v. US (1935) struck down the National
    Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) as
  • Said it gave legislative power to the executive
  • Butler v. US (1937) struck down the Agricultural
    Adjustment Act (AAA) saying that agriculture is a
    local matter and should be regulated by the
    states not the fed. Govt
  • Overall FDRs New Deal was defeated in 7 of 9 SC

FDRs Response
  • Judiciary Reorganization Bill
  • Allowed him to appoint 6 new Supreme Court
  • Also called the court packing bill
  • Never happened
  • 1937, an elderly justice retired and FDR
    appointed a liberal justices, shifting the
    balance of the Court
  • Over the next 4 years because of resignations,
    FDR appointed 7 new judges

End of the Great Depression?
  • In 1938, FDR scaled back on the New Deal policies
    and unemployment rose again
  • Production and unemployment wouldnt match
    pre-1929 levels until the US entered WWII and
    industries began production of war materials
  • However, the New Deal DID provided short-term
    relief to many!

Long Term Impact
  • People now looked to the govt for help in times
    of need
  • Govt is responsible for social welfare
  • Thousands of federal jobs were created to
    maintain new agencies
  • Govt became active in settling labor disputes
  • Greatly regulated business- 40 hr work week,
    minimum wage, etc.
  • Ushered in an era of increased taxes paid by
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