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Keith Brander ICESGLOBEC Coordinator Cod and Climate Change Programme Biodiversity objectives for fi

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... food-webs where the energy flow in the ecosystem has been severely disturbed' ... of system to absorb disturbance and reorganize, while undergoing change, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Keith Brander ICESGLOBEC Coordinator Cod and Climate Change Programme Biodiversity objectives for fi


1
Keith BranderICES/GLOBEC CoordinatorCod and
Climate Change ProgrammeBiodiversity
objectives for fisheries management why, what
and how?
2
Objective preservation or rehabilitation of
biodiversity where it is perceived as being under
threat due to fishing or aquaculture activities
3
Why is biodiversity a good thing?
  • It just is! Intrinsic value. Beauty.
  • (how much are people prepared to pay or forgo for
    this?)
  • Future potential value (the new penicillin)
  • Loss of biodiversity results in
  • less effective and simplified food-webs where
    the energy flow in the ecosystem has been
    severely disturbed
  • less resilience slow recovery of
    over-exploited systems
  • less stability in the ecosystem - the
    jellyfish scenario
  • Loss of fisheries productivity (e.g. adverse
    genetic change)

4
Bergen Declaration Stakeholders, along with
scientists, managers and politicians, should be
involved at different stages of the decision
process to promote openness, transparency and
responsibility
5
  • Loss of biodiversity results in
  • less effective and simplified food-webs where
    the energy flow in the ecosystem has been
    severely disturbed
  • less resilience very slow recovery
  • less stability in the ecosystem
  • Loss of fisheries productivity (e.g. adverse
    genetic change)

Can we justify all these propositions? Is more
biodiversity always better?
6
Devils Advocate
  • We need to justify the propositions on which the
    biodiversity action plan for fisheries is based
  • We need to evaluate the cost of preserving
    biodiversity

7
An 18th C thought experiment
  • The King of France has asked you to devise a
    strategy for sustainable fisheries and
    biodiversity in the Bassin d Arcachon.
  • A new report (Duhamel du Monceau, 1771) and an
    earlier one (Le Masson du Parc, 1727), show the
    species composition, with a high proportion of
    large, long lived species e.g. Raia batis.
  • Euler (1760) published the basic demographic
    equation, which can be used to estimate the
    mortality rate which such species can sustain.

8
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9
Report to the king
  • Vulnerability and population decline due to
    fishing can be predicted from a life history
    model
  • Some species have resilient life histories and
    others are sensitive to exploitation
  • You cant make an omelette without breaking eggs
    if you want a fishery some species will
    disappear
  • Losing top predators will produce higher yields
    from other desirable species, like sole
  • In 250 years they will have forgotten that big
    long-lived species used to be common here and
    they will be worrying about biodiversity of other
    things
  • Your majesty will unfortunately be among the
    extinctions

10
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11
The common skate grows to nearly 3 m long. It
used to be common from Morocco to Northern Norway
(including the western Baltic and Bassin
dArcachon), but is now rare and locally extinct.
12
If your majesty would like oysters for dinner,
then please note that in 300 years most of the
oysters will be a new species introduced from
Japan
13
The rise of aquaculture
  • Fishing pressure has been a threat to
    biodiversity for hundreds of years (but has got a
    lot worse recently)
  • Aquaculture in 2003 produced less than half as
    much as capture fisheries production, but has
    increased by 50 since 1997, while capture
    production decreased by 5
  • This switch is like the agrarian revolution
    (involving enclosure ownership elimination of
    pests, predators and competitors selective
    breeding
  • Aquaculture poses different threats to
    biodiversity and brings the marine situation
    closer to terrestrial

14
Co-evolution of social-ecological systems
resilience, adaptability, transformability
  • resilience capacity of system to absorb
    disturbance and reorganize, while undergoing
    change, so as to retain function, structure,
    identity and feedbacks
  • adaptability capacity of actors to influence
    resilience
  • transformability capacity to create a new
    system when ecological, economic, social
    conditions make existing system untenable

Us folks
15
Agrarian revolutions examples of
transformability
  • Ownership rights enclosure - elimination of
    pests, predators and competitors selective
    breeding
  • Fisheries moving in this direction. Should one
    encourage this while seeking also to preserve
    natural habitat?

16
Climate and biodiversity Climate induced changes
affect distribution and biodiversity Marine
ecosystems respond more rapidly than terrestrial
systems.
17
Rapid spread of tropical species along the
continental slope Should we saythe ecosystem
is changing orthe ecosystem is
moving? Should we be concerned about the
conservation of particular species in
traditional locations or is it OK if they have
moved elsewhere? What about the conservation of
ecosystem functions? Is that allowed to move
too? Is fish production affected? Should we be
managing differently?
18
Fisheries-induced adaptive changes
  • What should the objectives of managing
    fisheries-induced adaptive changes be?
  • What management tools will help us achieve the
    objectives?
  • How do adaptive changes affect growth, maturity,
    fecundity, survival and stock/recruit
    relationships?
  • Which species are vulnerable, under existing
    exploitation patterns?

19
What should the objectives of managing
fisheries-induced adaptive changes be?
  • Conserve biodiversity (resilience, continuing
    adaptive capacity). How much biodiversity?
    Where?
  • Prevent undesirable change (e.g. small, less
    productive fish)
  • Selectively neutral
  • Promote desirable change

20
ICES WG on Application of Genetics in Fishereis
and Mariculture (2004 and 2005)
  • Recommend PMRN for
  • restoration of the genetic composition of the
    stock
  • sustainable harvest at current exploitation
    regimes while reducing the impact as far as
    possible

21
What management tools will help us achieve the
objectives?
  • Reference points and the precautionary approach
  • EcoQ metrics e.g. PMRN
  • Adaptive management (i.e. try and move in the
    right direction, monitor progress, get better at
    it)
  • Add weight to existing management measures (e.g.
    allow more old fish to survive)

22
Objective preservation or rehabilitation of
biodiversity where it is perceived as being under
threat due to fishing or aquaculture activities
23
Conclusions
  • Current biodiversity objectives assume that more
    is better
  • This is naïve (or incomplete) because it leaves
    out details which matter, such as
  • Spatial, temporal and taxonomic composition
  • Cost
  • The Bergen Declaration encourages an iterative
    process, which includes improving the objectives
    and we have a responsibility to work towards this

24
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