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LEGAL AND FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT

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LEGAL AND FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT Jean-Pierre HANNEQUART Directeur G n ral IBGE / Pr sident ACR+ KIEV,25-26 NOVEMBER 2013 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LEGAL AND FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT


1
LEGAL AND FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD WASTE
MANAGEMENT
  • Jean-Pierre HANNEQUART
  • Directeur Général IBGE / Président ACR
  • KIEV,25-26 NOVEMBER 2013

2
PLAN
  • A/ LEGAL FRAMEWORK
  • THE BASIC LEGAL OBLIGATIONS FOR WASTE
  • THE WASTE HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE
  • THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE
  • THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS
  • B/ ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK
  • GLOBAL VIEW ON ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
  • ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL
  • ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT WASTE LEVEL
  • THE EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSABILITY

3
A / LEGAL FRAMEWORK

4
GLOBAL LEGAL VIEW ON EU WASTE LAW
BASIC LEGAL OBLIGATIONS (1)
  • .

Restrictions on the Use of Hazardous Substances
in WEEE (2002/95/EC)
5
BASIC LEGAL OBLIGATIONS (2)
  • Waste management without endangering human
    health, harming the environment and
  • Without risk to water, air, soil, plants or
    animals
  • Without causing a nuisance (noise, odours)
  • Without adversely affecting countryside or places
    of special interest
  • Prohibition of abandonment, dumping, uncontrolled
    disposal of waste
  • Permit requirement for waste treatment facilities
  • Traceability of hazardous waste
  • Waste Management Plans by Member States

6
THE WASTE HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE (1)
  • (Article 4 /Directive 2008/98)
  • The following waste hierarchy shall apply as a
    priority order
  • (a) prevention
  • (b) preparing for re-use
  • (c) recycling
  • (d) other recovery, e.g. energy recovery
    and
  • (e) disposal.

7
THE WASTE HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE (2)
ORDER OF PRIORITIES BEST
ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOME ( LIFE CYCLE THINKING)
8
THE WASTE HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE (3)
  • priority orderin legislation and policy
    (art.4/Directive 2008/98)

gt legally binding hierarchy for treatment
investments gt legally binding hierarchy for
waste subventions
9
THE WASTE HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE (4)
  • priority orderexcept
  • If its not the best overall environmental
    outcome
  • If its justified by life-cycle thinking
  • (art.42 / Directive 2008/98)

LCT can and should be applied to waste
management as an essential complement to the
waste hierarchy in view of its ability to
integrate all the variables that influence the
environmental performance
LCA is a tool used to evaluate the potential
environmental impacts of a product, process or
activity throughout its entire life cycle by
quantifying the use of resources and
environmental emissions
10
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (1)
Article 3 (12) / DIRECTIVE 2008/98 Waste
Prevention" means measures taken before waste is
created including the re-use of products that
reduce  a) the quantity of waste  b) the adverse
impacts of generated waste   c) the content of
harmful substances in the waste
  • PREVENTION MUST BE QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
  • PREVENTION INCLUDES THE RE-USE OF PRODUCTS

11
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (2)
3 RE-USE LEVELS
12
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (3)
  • WASTE PREVENTION IS NOT  MINIMIZATION OF WASTE
     

13
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (4)
  • Article 11 (Directive 2008/98)
  • Member States shall take measures, as
    appropriate, to promote the re-use of products
    and preparing for re-use activities, notably by
    encouraging the establishment and support of
    re-use and repair networks, the use of economic
    instruments, procurement criteria, quantitative
    objectives or other measures.
  • Article 29
  • Member States shall establish waste
    prevention programmes no later than 12 December
    2013.

14
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (5)
  • ( WASTE PREVENTION PROGRAMMES)
  • Member States shall determine appropriate
    and specific qualitative or quantitative
    benchmarks for waste prevention measures in order
    to monitor and assess the progress of the
    measures and may determine specific qualitative
    or quantitative targets and indicatorsothers
    than those fixed by comitology (art.29
    /directive 2008/98)
  • 3 CONCEPTS ARE REQUIRED
  • BENCHMARKS comparisons of performances and
    methods with the goal of assessing and improving
    waste prevention
  • TARGETS objectives for levels of performance
  • INDICATORS instruments for measurement and
    verification of targets
  • Benchmarking is a legal obligation Member
    States shall build both qualitative or
    quantitative standards
  • Some quantitative targets and indicators could be
    harmonized this must be done by a European
    regulatory procedure

15
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (6)
Which targets ?
Waste Type Activity Waste Type Activity Generation (kg/hab./y) Potential waste reduction(kg/hab./y)
1 BIO-WASTE 220 40
Green scaping Green scaping 90 10
Smart gardening Smart gardening 90 10
Act against food waste Act against food waste 30 10
Home, community on-site composting Home, community on-site composting 100 20
2 PACKAGING 150 25
Encouraging refillable/returnable bottles Encouraging refillable/returnable bottles 35 12
Promoting tap water Promoting tap water 6 2
Encouraging reusable bags Encouraging reusable bags 2 1
Fight against excess packaging Fight against excess packaging 107 10
3 PAPER WASTE 100 15
Reducing unwanted unaddressed mail Reducing unwanted unaddressed mail 15 4
Encourage dematerialisation through ICT Encourage dematerialisation through ICT 75 9
Reducing kitchen, tissue and towel paper Reducing kitchen, tissue and towel paper 10 2
4 BULKY WASTE 52 12
Promote clothes other textiles waste prevention Promote clothes other textiles waste prevention 15 4
Promote furniture waste prevention Promote furniture waste prevention 20 4
Promote WEEE prevention Promote WEEE prevention 17 4
5 NAPPIES OTHER WASTE 78 8
Swap to reusable nappies and incontinence pads Swap to reusable nappies and incontinence pads 18 2
Other municipal waste prevention strategies Other municipal waste prevention strategies 60 6
TOTAL TOTAL 600 100
16
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (7)
EX BIOWASTE PREVENTION VIA GREEN GARDENING
EU BENCHMARK -10 (of 90) kg
17
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (8)
EX ACT AGAINST FOOD WASTAGE(food 20-30 of
total CO2 emissions)
EU BENCHMARK -10 (of 30) kg
18
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (9)
EX COMPOSTING AT SOURCE(individuals,
neighbourhood, green areas)
EU BENCHMARK -20 (of 100) kg
19
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (10)
EX PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION VIA TAP WATER
PROMOTION
Country Bottled Water Consumption per Person in Leading Countries, 2004 (in liters) Packaging weight kg/pers/year
Italy 183.6 6,1
Belgium Luxembourg 148.0 4,9
France 141.6 4,7
Spain 136.7 4,6
Germany 124.9 4,2
Switzerland 99.6 3,3
Cyprus 92.0 3,1
Czech Republic 87.1 2,9
Austria 82.1 2,7
Portugal 80.3 2,7
EU BENCHMARK -2 (of 6) kg
20
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (11)
EX PAPER WASTE PREVENTION VIA THE REDUCTION OF
UNWANTED MAIL
EU BENCHMARK -4 (of 15) kg
21
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (12)
EX OFFICE DEMATERIALISATION
EU BENCHMARK -9 (of 75) kg
22
THE WASTE PREVENTION PRINCIPLE (13)
  • PARTICIPATE IN THE EUROPEAN WEEK
  • FOR WASTE REDUCTION
  • Engagements labeled as EWWR actions through a
    registration process based on common criteria
    across Europe
  • Themes include
  • Too much waste
  • Better production
  • Better consumption
  • A longer life for products
  • Less waste thrown away
  • Organizers include
  • Andorra-Vlaanderen (BE), Brussels Gewest (BE),
    Wallonie (BE), Estonia, France, Ireland, Italië,
    Portugal, Catalonia (ES), Gipuzkoa (ES), Asturias
    (ES), lles Balears (ES), Valencia (ES), Navarra
    (ES), Zweden, Greater London (UK), Belfast (UK),
    Wales (UK), Scotland (UK) and more!

www.ewwr.eu
23
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS(1)
ART 11
  • Recycling any recovery operation by which
    waste materials are reprocessed into products,
    materials or substances whether for the original
    or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing
    of organic material but does not include energy
    recovery and the reprocessing into materials that
    are to be used as fuels or for backfilling
    operations.

24
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS (2)
  • (Art. 11/DIRECTIVE 2008/98
  •   By 2020, the preparing for re-use and
    recycling of
  • 50 by weight of at least paper, metal, plastic
    and glass from household and possibly other
    origins as far as these waste streams are similar
    to waste from households
  • 70 by weight of non-hazardous construction
    demolition waste
  • ( can include transition periods for Member
    States which, in 2008, recycled less than 5 of
    either categories of waste )

25
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS(3)
  • Check presentation from EC

26
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS(4)
  Directive Year Recovery targets Recycling targets Collection targets
Landfill of biodegradable municipal waste 1999/31/EC 2006 Reduction to 75 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 75 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 75 of the amount generated in 1995
Landfill of biodegradable municipal waste 1999/31/EC 2009 Reduction to 50 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 50 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 50 of the amount generated in 1995
Landfill of biodegradable municipal waste 1999/31/EC 2016 Reduction to 35 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 35 of the amount generated in 1995 Reduction to 35 of the amount generated in 1995



27
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS (5)
  Directive Year Recovery targets Recycling targets Collection targets
Packaging waste 1994/62/EC 2008 60 55  
End-of-Life Vehicles 2000/53/EC 2006 85 incl. Reuse 80 incl. reuse 100
End-of-Life Vehicles 2000/53/EC 2015 95 incl. Reuse 85 incl. reuse 100
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC 2006  70 80(differs acc. to WEEE categories) 50 80 incl. reuse(differs acc. to WEEE categories) Min. 4 kg per inhabitant per year
Batteries and accumulators 2006/66/EC 2012     25
Batteries and accumulators 2006/66/EC 2016     45
Batteries and accumulators 2006/66/EC 2011   5075 efficiency (differs acc.to battery type)  
Tyres 1999/31/EC 2006 Zero landfill of tyres Zero landfill of tyres Zero landfill of tyres
28
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS (6)
  •  DIRECTIVE 94/62 amended by 2004/12 on
    PACKAGING
  • 55 - 80 including min.
  • 60 glass
  • 60 paper
  • 50 metal
  • 22,5 plastic
  • 15 wood

29
THE WASTE RECYCLING/RECOVERY TARGETS (7)
LOOK AT LRAS PERFORMANCES
30
B / ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

31
GLOBAL VIEW OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
Subsidies / Financial aids
Tax rebates
Eco-taxes
Alternative currency
Green certificates
EPR fees
Deposit refunds
Raw material taxes
Life cycle
Waste collection taxes (PAYT)
Incineration taxes
Landfill taxes
Tax rebates
Subsidies
32
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT WASTE LEVEL (1)
  • property taxes
  • waste service fees
  • user-based fees
  • PAYT

33
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT WASTE LEVEL (2)
  • cfr. Dresden-GermanyBEFORE AND AFTER  PAYT 
  • 2007 2008
  • Total 318 kg 281
  • Residual 228 148
  • Recyclables 90 133

PAYT examples
  • Cfr
  • Bjuv-Sweden WEIGHT-BASE FEE
  • (kg/household/year)
  • 1999
    2000
  • Waste Collected 302 kg 245
  • Residual Waste 246 136
  • Recycled Waste 56 109
  • Cfr . FLANDERS
  • /-0.60 EUR per grey waste bags
  • (1993-1996)
  • Separate waste 82 to 155 kg/inh/y
  • Residual waste -22 to -140 kg/inh/y

Source EUNOMIA /REICHENBACH
34
Country Landfill Tax (/t) Incineration Tax (/t) Landfill Ban Banned Materials / Wastes
Austria (87)/26 7 2004 Biodegradability and other criteria
Finland 30 2005 Biodegradable and compostable waste
Germany 2001 Biodegradability and other criteria
Ireland 30 In consideration 2009 Waste that is not pre-treated
Italy 26 2003/ 2007 Biodegradability and other criteria
Belgium-Flanders 60 7 1998/2000 Unsorted wastes, sorted and non-sorted wastes for recovery, combustible residual fraction from sorting, combustible wastes
Belgium-Wallonia 3 2004 Various
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT WASTE LEVEL (3)
SourceEUNOMIA
35
Country Landfill Tax Incinera- tion Tax Landfill Ban
Denmark 50 44 1997 Combustible waste
France 9.15 2002 Ultimate Waste Flows
The Netherlands 85 1996 Various, incl household waste
Norway 40 Pollutant based From mid-2009 Biodegradable waste
Sweden 43 Varies with energy generation 20022006 Combustible wasteOrganic waste
Czech Republic 16 1997 Paper, 2004 BMW
Estonia 8 2008 Unsorted waste
Slovakia 7.9
Slovenia 2001
Spain - Catalonia 10 5 None
United Kingdom 56 Under consideration by devolved administrations
36
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (1)
  • ECOTAXES
  • Examples
  • Danish and Dutch taxes on packaging based on
    environmental impacts
  • Irish tax on plastic bags
  • French VAT reduction on reuse products and
    activities
  • Some local German taxes on one-way items

37
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (2)
  • MANDATORY DEPOSIT
  • examples
  • Scandinavian systems on packaging
  • German deposit (2005-2006) on all one way
    containers for beer, water and soft drinks
    (except ecologically advantageous packaging)

38
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (3)
  • EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY (EPR)
  • a policy approach in which a producers
    responsibility for a product is extended to the
    post-consumer stage of a products life cycle
    (OECD)
  • Objectives
  • Design of environmentally sound products
  • Integration of environmental costs
  • Improved waste management and recycling

39
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (4)
  • Various EPR Schemes

Some Member States
  • Packaging
  • Batteries accumulators
  • End-of-life vehicles
  • Electric electronic equipment
  • Paper
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Textiles
  • Tyres
  • Waste oils
  • Pesticides
  • Furniture

EU Directives
  • (Packaging )
  • Batteries accumulators
  • End-of-Life vehicles
  • Electric electronic equipment

40
Various EU rules onEPR
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (5)
Producers have to - Reach (ind. or coll. )
collection targets - Consider waste mgt at the
conception phase - Finance household WEEE
treatment
WEE Directive
Producers have to - Reach collection targets -
Finance information campaigns
BATTERIES Directive
  • Ec. Operators have to
  • - put in place collection schemes
  • reach quantitative reuse-recycling targets

ELV Directive
Packaging Directive
Shared responsibility
  • OR Management of returned products
  • OR Financial responsibility for such activities
  • OR Information about re-usability or
    recyclability
  • OR Design of products to reduce their
    environmental impacts

WASTE FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE
41
ECONOMICS INSTRUMENTS AT PRODUCT LEVEL (6)
Evolution of total contributions perceived for
regulated EPR streams (except tires) in France,
between 1992 and 2015
Packaging lt 50
From 1,4 Bn collected /- 700 M redistributed to
municipalities (Total costs for MSW /- 7 Bn)
Emballages gt 90
42
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