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IH682 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT Credits 4 (L = 4, P = 0) SCHEME OF TEACHING Topic No Name of Topics Marks (Theory) Lectures Hrs (Theory) 1 Introduction to waste ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Topic No Name of Topics Marks (Theory) Lectures Hrs (Theory)
1 Introduction to waste, definitions, types, characteristic, physical and chemical property. 15 10
2 Solid waste management 15 10
3 Hazardous waste management Definitions, types, EPA, RCRA, CERCLA international act for hazardous waste, Environmental impact assessment 10 6
4 Volume reduction, strength reduction, equalization and proportioning of wastewater 15 10
5 Hazardous waste treatment technology- Physical treatment, chemical treatment, biological treatment. 8 5
6 Major industrial waste Dairy industry, Pharmaceuticals industry, Textile industry, Pesticide waste, Acid waste in chemical industry, Metal plating industry, Petrochemical, Glass industry waste, Paint waste, hazardous household waste, waste oils, PCB waste, mine waste 22 12
7 Biomedical waste and its management. 8 3
8 ACTS Hazardous waste act and rules, biomedical waste act, etc 7 4
Total 100 60
TOPICS SUBTOPICS   N01Introduction to waste,
definitions, types, characteristic, physical and
chemical property. Sampling, method,
preservation of liquid waste sample BOD, COD,
ThoD, TOC, TOD and Bioassay test Effluent
treatment for domestic waste, ET for Industrial
waste in a detail, functions of different
pathways, limitation, problems and its
solutions Difference between industrial and
municipal waste, environmental impact of
industrial waste. Chlorine, ozone, UV treatment
of waste. Neutralization of waste
Waste any materials unused and rejected as
worthless or unwanted sewage - waste matter
carried away in sewers or drains or Sewage is
water-carried waste, in solution or suspension,
that is intended to be removed from a community.
Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99
water and is characterized by volume or rate of
flow, physical condition, chemical constituents
and the bacteriological organisms that it
contains waste matter from domestic or industrial
establishments that is carried away in sewers or
drains for dumping or conversion into a form that
is not toxic Old French assewer, derived from the
Latin exaquare, "to drain out (water) The term
"wastewater" is a broad, descriptive term. 
Generally it includes liquids and waterborne
solids from domestic, industrial or commercial
uses as well as other waters that have been used
(or "fouled") in man's activities, whose quality
has been degraded, and which are discharged to a
sewage system.  The term "sewage" has been used
for many years and generally refers to waters
containing only sanitary wastes.  However,
"sewage" technically denotes any wastewaters
which pass through a sewer. .  Domestic
wastewaters originate principally from domestic,
household activities but will usually include
waters discharged from commercial and business
buildings and institutions as well as ground
water.  Surface and storm waters may also be
present.  Domestic wastewaters are usually of a
predictable quality and quantity. Sources and
Types of Wastewater Domestic wastewaters consist
primarily of liquid discharges resulting from
sanitary facilities, bathing, laundering and
cooking activities as well as from other
Industrial Wastewaters Industrial wastewaters
are the discharges of industrial plants and
manufacturing processes.  Industrial wastewaters
can represent, collectively, an important part of
community wastewaters and must be considered for
successful wastewater treatment plant operation. 
In some locations industrial wastewater
discharges are collected together with other
community wastewaters and the mixed wastes are
treated together.  In other instances, the
industry may provide some pretreatment or partial
treatment of its wastewaters prior to discharge
to the municipal sewers.  In still other
situations, the volume and character of the
industrial waste is such that separate collection
and disposal is necessary.  Industrial
wastewaters vary widely in composition, strength,
flow and volume, depending on the specific
industry or manufacturing establishment in the
community.    Typical industries which produce
significant volumes of wastewaters include paper
and fiber plants, steel mills, refining and
petrochemical operations, chemical and fertilizer
plants, meat packers and poultry processors,
vegetable and fruit packing operations and many
more.  Industrial discharges may consist of very
strong organic wastewaters with a high oxygen
demand, or contain undesirable chemicals which
can damage sewers and other structures.  They may
contain compounds which resist biological
degradation or toxic components which interfere
with satisfactory operation of the wastewater
treatment plant.  A less obvious source which
must be considered an industrial waste, is
thermal discharge since it lowers dissolved
oxygen values.  Many industries use large
quantities of cooling water, with the electric
power industry being the largest user.  However,
the primary metal and chemical industry also use
substantial quantities of cooling waters.   
understanding of physical, chemical, and
biological characteristics of wastewater is very
important in design, operation, and management of
collection, treatment, and disposal of
wastewater. The nature of wastewater includes
physical, chemical, and biological
characteristics which depend on the water usage
in the community, the industrial and commercial
contributions, weather, and infiltration/inflow.
Sampling of Wastewaters .  The object of
sampling is to collect a portion of wastewater
small enough in volume to be conveniently handled
in the laboratory and still representative of the
wastewater to be examined. REPRESENTATIVE
 SAMPLING A sample should be taken in a way that
will represent  the  wastewater  being  treated.
 No matter  how  good  the  lab  analysis  is,
 if  the sample  was  not  correctly  collected,
 the  lab  data will  not  be  correct.  With
 the  large  changes  in composition  and  flow
 rate,  getting  a  represen- tative sample can
be very hard. Careful thought, planning, and
training must be used to develop and  carry  out
 a  good  sampling  program.  It must be
collected in such a manner that nothing is added
or lost in the portion taken and no change occurs
during the time between collection and laboratory
examination.  Unless these conditions are met,
laboratory results may be misleading and worse
than no results. 
  1. The sample should be taken where the wastewater
    is well mixed.  This is most easily accomplished
    if the sampling point is located where the
    wastewater flow is turbulent, for example, at a
    tap on the discharge side of a pump, where a free
    fall from a pipe line occurs, where the discharge
    from a pipe is against a baffle as at the inlet
    of a tank, or just as the flow enters a pipe as
    at the effluent line from a tank.
  2. Large particles should be excluded.  Large
    particles are all those greater than one-quarter
    inch in diameter.  This is reasonable because if
    one large piece was included in a one-gallon
    sample, it would mean that wastewater would
    contain one million large pieces per million
    gallons of wastewater.  Raw wastewater should be
    sampled after screening where screens or
    comminutors are used.
  3. No deposits, growths or floating material that
    have accumulated at the sampling point should be
    included.  Obviously, such material would not be
    representative of the wastewater.  This may be
    difficult if sampling is at a manhole, but it can
    be done if care is used.
  4. Samples should be examined as soon as possible. 
    If held for more than one hour, they should be
    cooled by immersion of the sample bottle in ice
    water.  Bacterial decomposition of wastewater
    continues in the sample bottle.  After one hour,
    the changes due to such decomposition are
    appreciable.  Cooling the sample greatly retards
    bacterial action.
  5. The collection of proper samples should be made
    as easy as possible.  Sampling points should be
    readily accessible, proper equipment should be at
    hand, safety precautions established, and
    protection of personnel from inclement weather
    provided, for the easier it is to take proper
    samples, the more likely it will be done.
  6. Sample preservation may be necessary for some
    chemical constituents. 

  There are two types of samples that may be
collected, depending on the time available, the
tests to be made and the object of the tests.   
 Catch or Grab Samples Catch or grab samples
are not representative of the average wastewater
since they reflect only the condition at the
instant of sampling.  However, in many plants the
time available for sampling is so limited that
catch samples must be used.  Composite Samples
Composite samples indicate the character of the
wastewater over a period of time.  The effects of
intermittent changes in strength and flow are
eliminated.  The portion used should be collected
with sufficient frequency to obtain average
results.  If the strength and flow do not
fluctuate rapidly, hourly portions over a 12 hour
period are satisfactory.  If the fluctuations are
rapid, half-hourly or quarter-hourly samples may
be required.  The period of sampling may be
varied covering four, eight or twelve hours,
depending on the personnel available, the use to
be made of the results, and effluent monitoring
requirements.  Generally, integrated samples are
used to determine the character of the wastewater
to be treated and the efficiency of the treatment
Equipment An aluminum dipper six inches in
diameter and approximately four inches deep with
a long handle is convenient for collecting
wastewater from tanks and channels.  For sampling
from manholes a one-quart pail which can be
fastened to a wooden  pole with a harness snap is
used.  Graduated cylinders, sample bottles, and
some means of refrigeration are also needed. 
Special technique is required for collecting
samples for dissolved oxygen and for
bacteriological examination.   
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Preservation Once a sample is taken, the
constituents of the sample should be maintained
in the same condition as when collected. When it
is not possible to analyze collected samples
immediately, samples should be preserved
properly. Biological activity such as microbial
respiration, chemical activity such as
precipitation or pH change, and physical activity
such as aeration or high temperature must be kept
to a minimum. Methods of preservation include
cooling, pH control, and chemical addition.
Freezing is usually not recommended. The length
of time that a constituent in wastewater will
remain stable is related to the character of the
constituent and the preservation method used.
Grab sample volumes of one litre are recommended.
The larger the volume of sewage analysed the
higher the theoretical sensitivity to detect
poliovirus circulation in the source population.
In practice volumes larger than 1 litre are
difficult to handle in the laboratory and may be
replaced by several parallel regular samples.
Composition of Wastewater Wastewaters consist
of water in which solids exist as settleable
particles, dispersed as colloids, which are
materials that do not settle readily, or solids
in a dissolved state.  The wastewater mixture
will contain large numbers of microscopic
organisms, mostly bacteria, that are capable of
consuming the organic component (fats, proteins
and carbohydrates) of the mixture and bringing
about rapid changes in the wastewater.  Since the
sources of wastewater as well as the inputs are
highly variable and since there is also an active
microbial component, the composition of all
wastewaters is constantly changing..  The solid
components of wastewaters actually represents a
very small part of most discharges, usually less
than 0.1 percent by weight.   
 composed  of  many  materials  that are broken
down into three general areas. These areas  are
 the  physical,  chemical,  and  biological
characteristics  of  wastewater PHYSICAL
  CHARACTERISTICS The physical characteristics of
wastewater include those items that can be
detected using the physical  senses.   They  are
 temperature,  color, odor,  and  solids CHEMICAL
   CHARACTERISTICS The chemical characteristics
of wastewater of special  concern  to  the
 Utilities main  are  pH,  DO (dissolved
 oxygen),  oxygen  demand,  nutrients, and  toxic
  three   biological   organisms   present   in
wastewater are bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
Typically, a domestic wastewater will contain
from 100,000 to 1,000,000 microorganisms per
milliliter.  These microbes have their origin
from two general sources  sanitary wastes and
the soil.  Both wastewaters and soils contain
large numbers of microorganisms -- especially
bacteria.  Generally the microorganisms can be
regarded as a natural living part of the organic
matter found in wastewaters and their presence is
most important because they serve a primary
function in the degradation of wastes in
biological wastewater treatment.
Physical Characteristics
  • Solids
  • - Total solids residue after evaporating all
  • (50 volatile and 50 fixed)
  • (Volatileorganic. Fixedinorganic
  • - Suspended solids residue retained on a
  • (75 volatile and 25 fixed).
  • - Dissolved solids residue passing through a
  • filter (40 volatile and 60 fixed).
  • - Settleable solids residue after one hour
    settling in an
  • Imhoff cone (ml/L) (the indicator of primary

Chemical Characteristics
  • Organics Predominant biodegradable fraction,
  • -Protein -Fats, Oils, and
  • -Carbohydrates -Surfactants (detergents)
  • -Urea
  • Priority pollutants
  • Industrial solvents, pesticides, etc.
  • Pre-treatment standards control concentrations to
    trace levels

Chemical Characteristics cont.
  • Inorganic Matter
  • Nitrogen from protein and urea.
  • NH2, NH3, NH4 forms ammonia and organics.
  • An essential nutrient for growth of bacteria.
  • Oxygen Demand
  • NH4 2O2 NO3- 2 H H2O

Chemical Characteristics cont.
  • Phosphorous phosphate (PO4-3)
  • Inorganic-detergents
  • organic-food and metabolic wastes
  • Trace nutrients S, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, Mo,
    etc. . . . . . plentiful

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8.1 Composition of waste
Composition of waste
Waste from industrialized countries Characteris
tics high content of packaging made of paper,
plastic, glass and metal Moisture Content
Low Density Low Waste from developing
countries Characteristics large amounts of
inerts such as sand, ash, dust and stones and
high moisture levels because of the high usage
of fresh fruit and vegetables. Moisture
Content High Density High
8.2 Municipal Vs Industrial
Municipal Vs Industrial
Municipal waste includes - bulky waste (e.g.
white goods, old furniture, mattresses) - yard
waste, leaves, grass clippings, street sweepings,
the content of litter containers. - market
cleansing waste, if managed as waste It
includes waste originating from - households -
commerce and trade, small businesses, office
buildings and institutions (schools, hospitals,
government buildings)
Constituent Concentration, mg/l
Strong Medium Weak
Total solids 1200 700 350
Dissolved solids (TDS)1 850 500 250
Suspended solids 350 200 100
Nitrogen (as N) 85 40 20
Phosphorus (as P) 20 10 6
Chloride1 100 50 30
Alkalinity (as CaCO3) 200 100 50
Grease 150 100 50
BOD52 300 200 100
Wastewater Characteristics
  • Wastewater Composition
  • Key design issues
  • Solids density, particle size, level of Volatile
    Suspended Solids
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand
  • Temperature
  • Ammonia
  • Nutrient levels

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Oxygen Demand It is the amount of oxygen used by
bacteria and other wastewater organisms as they
feed upon the organic solids in the wastewater.
BOD BOD is defined as the amount of oxygen
required by the bacteria while stabilizing
decomposable organic matter under aerobic
condition. It is written as by BOD or BOD520. It
is the amount of oxygen required by aerobic
bacteria to decompose/stabilized the organic
matter at a standard temperature of 20oC for a
period of 05 days. For domestic sewage 05 days
BOD represents approx. 2/3 times of demand for
complete decomposition. COD By definition the COD
is the amount of oxygen required to stabilized
the organic matter chemically, i.e. the COD is
used as a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the
organic matter contents of a sample that is
susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical
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Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D. is the amount
of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological
organisms in a body of water to break down
organic material present in a given water sample
at certain temperature over a specific time
period. The term also refers to a chemical
procedure for determining this amount. This is
not a precise quantitative test, although it is
widely used as an indication of the organic
quality of water. The BOD value is most commonly
expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per
litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20
C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the
degree of organic pollution of water. Carbonaceous
biochemical oxygen demand or CBOD is a method
defined test measured by the depletion of
dissolved oxygen by biological organisms in a
body of water in which the contribution from
nitrogenous bacteria has been suppressed. CBOD is
a method defined parameter is widely used as an
indication of the pollutant removal from
Biochemical Oxygen Demand, or BOD The amount of
organic material that can rot in the sewage is
measured by the biochemical oxygen demand. BOD is
the amount of oxygen required by micro-organisms
to decompose the organic substances in sewage.
Therefore, the more organic material there is in
the sewage, the higher the BOD. It is among the
most important parameters for the design and
operation of sewage treatment plants. BOD levels
of industrial sewage may be many times that of
domestic sewage. Dissolved oxygen is an important
factor that determines the quality of water in
lakes and rivers. The higher the concentration of
dissolved oxygen, the better the water quality.
When sewage enters a lake or stream,
micro-organisms begin to decompose the organic
materials. Oxygen is consumed as micro-organisms
use it in their metabolism. This can quickly
deplete the available oxygen in the water. When
the dissolved oxygen levels drop too low, many
aquatic species perish. In fact, if the oxygen
level drops to zero, the water will become
septic. When organic compounds decompose without
oxygen, it gives rise to the undesirable odours
usually associated with septic or putrid
Typical BOD5 (mg/L)   Meat packing waste 5,000
   Domestic wastewater 300    Wastewater
treatment plant effluent lt30 mg/L BOD5 Experiment
-Typical DO Curves    
Typical BOD Curve
Typical BOD5 variation of domestic wastewater
  • Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD) is the
    calculated amount of oxygen required to oxidize a
    compound to its final oxidation products.
    However, there are some differences between
    standard methods that can influence the results
    obtained for example, some calculations assume
    that nitrogen released from organic compounds is
    generated as ammonia, whereas others allow for
    ammonia oxidation to nitrate. Therefore in
    expressing results, the calculation assumptions
    should always be stated.
  • In order to determine the ThOD for glycine
    (CH2(NH2)COOH) using the following assumptions
  • In the first step, the organic carbon and
    nitrogen are converted to carbon dioxide (CO2)
    and ammonia (NH3), respectively.
  • 2. In the second and third steps, the ammonia is
    oxidized sequentially to nitrite and nitrate.
  • 3. The ThOD is the sum of the oxygen required for
    all three steps.

chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly
used to indirectly measure the amount of organic
compounds in water. Most applications of COD
determine the amount of organic pollutants found
in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or
wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water
quality. It is expressed in milligrams per liter
(mg/L also referred to as ppm (parts per
million), which indicates the mass of oxygen
consumed per liter of solution.
The basis for the COD test is that nearly all
organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon
dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under
acidic conditions. The amount of oxygen required
to oxidize an organic compound to carbon dioxide,
ammonia, and water is given by
This expression does not include the oxygen
demand caused by the oxidation of ammonia into
nitrate. The process of ammonia being converted
into nitrate is referred to as nitrification. The
following is the correct equation for the
oxidation of ammonia into nitrate
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Bioassay test The term 'bioassay' as it applies
to the area of Earth observation can be defined
as ' A measurement of the effects of a substance
on living organisms'. The BOD test serves an
important function in stream pollution-control
activities. It is a bioassay procedure that
measures the amount of oxygen consumed by living
organisms while they are utilizing the organic
matter present in waste, under conditions similar
in nature. For results of the BOD test to be
accurate, much care must be taken in the actual
process. For example, additional air cannot be
introduced. Temperature must be 20C, which is
the usual temperature of bodies of water in
nature. A five-day BOD test is used in
environmental monitoring. This test is utilized
as a means of stating what level of contamination
from pollutants is entering a body of water. In
other words, this test measures the oxygen
requirements of the bacteria and other organisms
as they feed upon and bring about the
decomposition of organic matter. Time and
temperature, as well as plant life in the water,
will have an effect on the test. High BOD burdens
or loads are added to wastewater by food
processing plants, dairy plants, canneries,
distilleries and similar operations, and they are
discharged into streams and other bodies of water
Table . Composition of Typical Residential Untreated Wastewater. Table . Composition of Typical Residential Untreated Wastewater. Table . Composition of Typical Residential Untreated Wastewater. Table . Composition of Typical Residential Untreated Wastewater.
Constituent Unit Range Typical
Total Solids mg/L 300-1200 700
Dissolved mg/L 250-850 500
   Fixed mg/L 150-550 150
   Volatile mg/L 100-300 150
Suspended mg/L 100-400 220
   Fixed mg/L 30-100 70
   Volatile mg/L 70-300 150
Setteable mg/L 50-200 100
BOD5 mg/L 100-400 250
TOC mg/L 100-400 250
COD mg/L 200-1,000 500
Total Nitrogen mg/L 15-90 40
   Organic mg/L 5-40 25
   Ammonia mg/L 10-50 25
   Nitrite mg/L 0 0
   Nitrate mg/L 0 0
Total Phosphorous mg/L 5-20 12
   Organic mg/L 1-5 2
   Inorganic mg/L 5-15 10
Chloride mg/L 30-85 50
Sulfate mg/L 20-60 15
Alkalinity mg/L 50-200 100
Grease mg/L 50-150 100
Total Coliform colonies/100 mL 106-108 107
VOCs µg/L 100-400 250
Major parameters of domestic waste Water
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Unit Operations/Processes, Their Functions and
Units Used for Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Unit Operations/Processes Functions Treatment Devices
Screening Removal of large floating, suspended and settleable solids Bar racks and screens of various description
Grit Removal Removal of inorganic suspended solids Grit chamber
Primary Sedimentation Removal of organic/inorganic settleable solids Primary sedimentation tank
Aerobic Biological Suspended Growth Process Conversion of colloidal, dissolved and residual suspended organic matter into settleable biofloc and stable inorganics Activated sludge process units and its modifications, Waste stabilisation ponds, Aerated lagoons
Aerobic Biological Attached Growth Process same as above Trickling filter, Rotating biological contactor
Anaerobic biological growth processes Conversion of organic matter into CH4 CO2 and relatively stable organic residue Anaerobic filter, Fluid bed submerged media anaerobic reactor, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, Anaerobic rotating biological contactor
Anaerobic Stabilization of Organic Sludges same as above Anaerobic digestor
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  • The benefits of waste minimisation are both
    environmental and financial and wide in their
  • coverage. Some of the main benefits include the
  • improved bottom line through improved process
  • reduced burden on the environment, with improved
    public image and compliance with legislation
  • better communication and involvement of employees
    and therefore greater commitment to the business

Schedule-I Standards for Emission or Discharge ofEnvironmental Pollutants from various Industries
Caustic Soda Industry
Man-Made Fibres (Synthetic)
Petroleum Oil Refinery
Sugar Industry
Thermal Power Plants
Cotton Textile Industries (Composite and Processing)
Composite Woolen Mills
Dye and Dye Intermediate Industry (New Revised Standard)
Electroplating Industries
(All related Standards Notified on 30th March, 2012)
Cement Plants
Stone Crushing Unit
 Coke Ovens
   (Omitted as per Gazette Notification 31st Marcn,2012)
Synthetic Rubber
Small Pulp and Paper Industry
Fermentation Industry (Distilleries, Maltries and Breweries)
Leather Tanneries
Fertilizer Industry
Iron Ore Mining and Ore Processing
Calcium Carbide
Carbon Black
Copper, Lead and Zinc Smelting (New Revised Standard)
Nitric Acid (Emission Oxides of Nitrogen)
Sulphuric Acid Plant
Iron Steel (Integrated)
(All related Standards Notified on 31st March, 2012)
Thermal Power Plants
Natural Rubber Industry
Asbestos Manufacturing Units (Including all ProcessesInvolving the use of Asbestos)
Calor Alkali (Caustic Soda)
Large Pulp and Paper
Integrated Iron and Steel Plants (Omitted)
Re-Heating (Reverberatory) Furnaces
Thermal Power Plants
Small Boilers
Coffee Industry
Aluminium Plants
Stone Crushing Unit
Petrochemicals (Basic Intermediates)
Hotel Industry
Pesticide Manufacturing and Formulation Industry
(New Revised Standard)
Tannery (After Primary Treatment)
Paint Industry (Waste Water Discharge)
Inorganic Chemical Industry (Waste Water Discharge)
Bullion Refining (Waste Water Discharge)
Dye Dye Intermediate Industry (Waste Water Discharge)
Noise Limits for Automobiles (Free Field) at One Meter indB(A) at the Manufacturing Stage to be achieved by the Year1992.
Domestic appliances and Construction Equipments at the manufacturing stage to be achieved by the year, 1993
Glass Industry
Lime Kiln
Slaughter House, Meat Sea Food Industry
Food and Fruit Processing Industry
Jute Processing Industry
Large Pulp Paper News Print/Rayon Grade Plants ofCapacity above 24000 MT Per Annum
Small Pulp and Paper (Paper Plant of Capacity upto 24000 MT /Annum
Common Effluent Treatment Plants
Natural Rubber Processing Industry(New Revised Standard
Bagasse-Fired Boilers
Man-made Fibre Industry (Semi-Synthetic)
Ceramic Industry
Viscose Filament Yarn
Starch Industry
Beehive Hard Coke Oven
Briquette Industry (Coal)
Soft Coke Industry
Edible Oil Vanaspati Industry
Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry (New Revised Standard)
Flour Mills
Boilers (Small)
Pesticides Industry
Oil Drilling and Gas Extraction Industry
Pharmaceutical (Manufacturing and Formulation) Industry
Brick Kilns
Soda Ash Industry (Solvay Process)(New Revised Standard)
Emission Standard for SO From Cupola Furnace
Specifications of Motor Gasoline for Emission Related Parameters
Specification of Diesel Fuel for Emission related Parameters
Coke Oven Plants
Specifications of Two-Stroke Engine Oil
Battery Manufacturing Industry
Environmental Standards for Gas/Naptha-Based ThermalPower Plants
Standards/Guidelines for Control of Noise Pollution FromStationary Diesel Generator (DG) Sets (Omitted)
Temperature Limit for Discharge of Condenser Cooling Waterfrom Thermal Power Plant
Environmental Standards for Coal Washeries
Water Quality Standards for Coastal Waters Marine Outfalls
Emission Regulations for Rayon Industry
Emission Standards for New Generator Sets(upto 19 KW run on Petrol and Kerosene with implementation Schedule
Noise Standards for Fire Crackers
Standards for Coal Mines
Noise Limit for Generator Sets run with Petrol or Kerosene(New Revised Standard)
Standards for Effluents from Textile Industry
Primary Water Quality Criteria for Bathing Water
Noise Limit for Generator Sets run with Diesel(New Revised Standard)
Emission Limits for New Diesel Engines (upto 800 KW) forGenerator Sets (Gensets) Applications
Emission Standards for Diesel Engines (Engine Rating more than 0.8 MW (800 KW) for Power Plant, Generator Set applications and other Requirements
Boilers using Agricultural Waste as Fuel
Guidelines for Pollution Control in Ginning Mills
Sponge Iron Plant (Rotary Kiln)
Common Hazardous Waste Incinerator
Incinerator for Pesticide Industry
Refractory Industry
Cashew Seed Processing Industry
Plaster of Paris Industry
Back up Of hw
  • Topic No3 of MIHS Hazardous waste management
  • Back up collected by Prof.J.H.Patel BVM
  • ,

Topic No3 Hazardous Waste Management(6 lectures
10 marks )
3.1 Definitions Types EPA,RCRA,CERCLA ,
INTERNATIONAL Act for hazardous
waste, Environmental Impact Assessment 3.2 Cradle
to grave approach, Priority in Hazardous Waste
management, Superfund Amendment and
Reauthorization Act 1986, Dose Response
Relationship, Effect of Hazardous waste on
Aquatic System and how do they enter the food
chains routes of entry ,fate of toxicants in body
Introduction and Define
  • Waste materials are a part of high standard of
  • Manufacture of products results in waste
  • Some are persistent, toxic, flammable, corrosive,
    or explosive
  • Annual hazardous waste generation is one

Is the waste a hazardous waste?
Statute The term ''hazardous waste'' means a
solid waste, or combination of solid wastes,
which may (A) cause, or significantly
contribute to an increase in mortality or an
increase in serious irreversible, or
incapacitating reversible, illness or (B) pose a
substantial present or potential hazard to human
health or the environment when improperly
treated, stored,transported, or disposed of, or
otherwise managed.
Statutory Definition of Solid Waste USA
.any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste
treatment plant, water supply plant or air
pollution control facility, and other discarded
material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or
contained gaseous material...
Statutory Definition of Hazardous Waste
A solid waste, or a combination of solid wastes,
which because of its quantity, concentration, or
physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics
may 1) Cause, or significantly contribute to an
increase in mortality or an increase in serious
irreversible, or incapacitating reversible,
illness or 2) Pose a substantial present or
potential hazard to human health or the
environment when improperly treated, store
transported, or disposed of, or otherwise
A Solid waste is hazardous if it
  • Exhibits any of the characteristics of a
    hazardous waste
  • Has been named as a hazardous waste and listed
    as such in the regulations
  • Is a mixture containing a listed hazardous
    waste and a non-hazardous solid waste
  • Is a waste derived from the treatment, storage,
    or disposal of a listed waste

Definition of Hazardous Waste Under the RCRA of
1976, the term hazardous waste means a solid
waste, or combination of solid wastes, that,
because of its quantity, concentration, or
physical, chemical, or infectious
characteristics, may 1. cause or significantly
contribute to an increase in mortality or an
increase in serious irreversible or
incapacitating reversible illness or 2. pose a
substantial present or potential hazard to human
health or the environment when improperly
treated, stored, transported, or disposed of or
otherwise managed.
Hazardous wastes include chemical, biological,
flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances.
They may be in a solid, liquid, sludge, or
gaseous (contained) state and are further defined
in various federal acts designed to protect the
public health and welfare, including land, air,
and water resources. A waste is regarded as
hazardous if it is lethal, nondegradable, and
persistent in the environment, can be magnified
biologically (as in food chains), or otherwise
causes or tends to cause detrimental cumulative
Hazardous Materials Regulations
  • Hazardous materials are regulated by three
  • government agencies
  • Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Administration
  • Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR)
  • The International Fire and Building Codes also
    regulate hazardous materials.

What is EPA
  • U.S. Environmental Protection
  • Agency (EPA)

  • Hazardous wastes are those wastes that could be
    harmful to the health of human, other organisms,
    or the environment
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1976
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) 1980
  • Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
    (SARA) 1986

  • Defining RCRA

I. What is the Resource Conservation Recovery
Act (RCRA)?
The RCRA of 1976, as amended, expands the
purposes of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965.
It promotes resource recovery and conservation
and mandates government (federal and state)
control of hazardous waste from its point of
generation to its point of ultimate disposal,
including a manifest identification and
permitting system. Legislation was prompted by
the serious dangers associated with the improper
handling and disposal of hazardous waste. The
most common problems associated with the disposal
of hazardous waste, in addition to public
opposition, are groundwater pollution from
lagoons, landfills, dumps, sludge disposal, other
land disposal systems, spills, and unauthorized
Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)
  • 1970 National Materials Policy Act (amended
  • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    (amended SWDA further)
  • 1980 SWDA Amendments
  • 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
    (integration and amendment of RCRA and SWDA)
  • All are collectively referred to as RCRA

What is RCRA?
  • The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
    (RCRA) was passed in 1976 as an amendment to the
    Solid Waste Disposal Act. Amendments were added
    to expand the program in 1984. The program set
    three goals
  • To protect human health and the environment.
  • To reduce waste and conserve energy and natural
  • To reduce or eliminate the generation of
    hazardous waste as expeditiously as possible.

Hazardous Waste Regulations
  • EPA regulates hazardous waste by authority of
    the Resource Conservation Recovery Act.
  • RCRA controls include
  • Identification of hazardous wastes
  • Tracking wastes from cradle to grave
  • Setting standards for generators of wastes,
    transporters of wastes, and Treatment, Storage
    Disposal Facilities

Primary RCRA requirements
  • RCRA requires that you
  • Ensure that containers are labeled with a
    description of their contents
  • Do not have more than the maximum permissible
    volumes of waste stored in your lab
  • Ensure that lids and caps are securely fastened
    at all times, except when putting wastes into the
  • Ensure that all materials are properly segregated
  • Use containers that are compatible with the waste
    you are putting into them
  • Use containers that are intact (no cracks, holes,
  • Ensure that spills and overfills do not occur
  • Ensure that mismanagement does not occur

  • Defining CERCLA

  • The Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act and the Superfund
    Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA
  • Superfund (CERCLA) 1980 enacted to respond to
    spills and past disposal of HW into the
  • Focus on contamination of sites in the past
  • Reauthorized as SARA in 1986
  • Went from 1.8 billion to 8.5 billion, Community
    Right to Know

  • Superfund
  • CERCLA HW any CWA, CAA, Toxic Substances
    Control Act or RCRA chemical
  • Any substance with potential to harm human health
  • Except petroleum and natural gas
  • Environmental Release
  • Triggers action under Superfund
  • Spilling, leaking, or disposal of HW into the

  • Superfund
  • National Contingency Plan (NCP)
  • Site ranking, assessment, feasibility studies,
    and cleanup actions
  • Site ranking National Priority List (NPL)
  • Site Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessment (PA) paper study
  • Site Inspection (SI) walk around site
  • Hazard Ranking System (HRS) ranking based on PA
    and SI, extent of contamination, toxicity, threat

  • Elements of Superfund Cleanup
  • Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS)
  • RI - defining site contamination
  • FS - establishing engineering design
  • Record of Decision (ROD)
  • The appropriate design is selected.
  • Operable Units (OU)
  • Division of large sites into manageable smaller
  • Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate
    Requirements (ARARs)
  • how clean is clean

Is similar Legislation in India?
Indian Legal Definition (HW (MH) Rules of 2003
(amnd)) hazardous waste means any waste which by
reason of any of its physical, chemical,
reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or
corrosive characteristics causes danger or is
likely to cause danger to health or environment,
whether alone or when in contact with other
wastes or substances, and shall include- wastes
listed in column (3) of Schedule-1 wastes
having constituents listed in Schedule-2 if their
concentration is equal to or more than the limit
indicated in the said Schedule and wastes
listed in Lists A' and B' of Schedule-3
(Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or
export of hazardous wastes in accordance with
rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the
hazardous characteristics listed in Part-B of
Schedule 3.
  • RCRA Hazardous Waste definition
  • Is it a solid waste?
  • Is the waste a hazardous waste?
  • Characteristic wastes
  • Ignitability
  • Corrosivity
  • Toxicity
  • Reactivity
  • Listed wastes
  • nonspecific sources
  • specific sources
  • acutely hazardous
  • non-acutely hazardous

RCRA Hazardous Waste definition
Characteristic wastes Ignitability A liquid
which has a flash point less than 140 degrees F
is regulated as an ignitable hazardous waste.
Examples include most organic solvents. Wastes
that pose a fire hazard during routine
management. Fires not only present immediate
dangers of heat and smoke but also can spread
harmful particles (and gases) over wide
areas. Corrosivity A waste aqueous solution
having a pH of less than or equal to 2, or
greater than or equal to 12.5 is considered to be
a corrosive hazardous waste. Wastes requiring
special containers because of their ability to
corrode standard materials or requiring
segregation from other wastes because of their
ability to dissolve toxic contaminants.
Ignitable Waste Characteristics
  • Flashpoint less than 140 F or 60 C
  • Oxidizing materials
  • Solids which are combustible through reaction or
    will ignite and burn vigorously persistently
  • Ignitable compressed gases
  • Examples Oil based paint, aerosol cans,
    cylinders, paint thinner, solvent or oil soaked
    rags, nitrates, acetone, toluene, epoxy,
    turpentine, etc.

Examples of hazardous waste types generated by
businesses and industries are given in Hazardous
wastes that are characterized as ignitable,
Characteristics Readily assimilated by aquatic
animals, fat soluble, concentrated through food
chain (biomagnified), persistent in soil and
sediments Readily assimilated by aquatic animals,
fat soluble, subject to biomagnification,
persistent, chemically similar to
chlorinated hydrocarbons Nonbiodegradable,
persistent in sediments, toxic in solution,
subject to biomagnification May cause cancer when
inhaled, aquatic toxicity not well
understood Variably persistent, inhibits
oxygen metabolism Largest single class of
priority toxics, can cause damage to central
nervous system and liver, not very persistent
Pollutant Pesticides Generally chlorinated
hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
used in electrical capacitors and
transformers, paints, plastics,
insecticides, other industrial products Metals
antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper,
lead, mercury, nickel, selenium,
silver, thallium, zinc Asbestos Cyanide Halogenate
d aliphatics used in fire extinguishers, refriger
ants, propellants, pesticides, solvents for
oils and greases and dry cleaning
Examples of hazardous waste types generated by
businesses and industries are given in Hazardous
wastes that are characterized as ignitable,
Ethers Used mainly as solvents for
polymer plastics Phthalate esters Used
chiefly in production of polyvinyl chloride and
thermoplastics as plasticizers Monocyclic
aromatics (excluding phenols, cresols, and
phthalates) used in manufacture of
other chemicals, explosives, dyes, and pigments
and in solvents, fungicides, and herbicides Phenol
s large-volume industrial compounds used chiefly
as chemical intermediates in production of
synthetic polymers, dyestuffs, pigments, pesticide
s, and herbicides
Potent carcinogen, aquatic toxicity and fate not
well understood Common aquatic pollutant, moderate
ly toxic but teratogenic and mutagenic properties
in low concentrations aquatic invertebrates are
particularly sensitive to toxic
effects persistent and can be biomagnified Centra
l nervous system depressant can damage liver and
kidneys Toxicity increases with degree
of chlorination of phenolic molecule very
low concentrations can taint fish flesh and
impart objectionable odor and taste to drinking
water difficult to remove from water
by conventional treatment carcinogenic in mice
Corrosive Waste Characteristics
  • pH less than 2 or greater than 12.5
  • Examples
  • Acids (pH less than 7) Muriatic acid,
    hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, sulfuric acid,
    phosphoric acid, solder flux, etc.
  • Bases (pH greater than 7) Sodium hydroxide,
    ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, bicarbonates,
    sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

  • Reactivity
  • Any chemical waste which reacts violently with
    air and/or water or liberates toxic gases is
    considered to be a reactive hazardous waste.
  • wastes that, during routine management, tend to
    react spontaneously, react vigorously with air or
    water, are unstable to shock or heat, generate
    toxic gases, or explode.

RCRA Hazardous Waste definition
Characteristic wastes Toxicity Toxicity is
determined by a laboratory test known as the
"Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure", or
TCLP. The TCLP test must be conducted on any
waste which contains any of the specified TCLP
contaminants. Wastes that, when improperly
managed, may release toxicants in sufficient
quantities to pose a substantial hazard to human
health or the environment. Toxic wastes are
harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed. When
toxic wastes are disposed of on land,
contaminated liquid may drain (leach) from the
waste and pollute groundwater.
Toxic Waste Characteristics
  • Heavy Metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag)
  • Examples Solder, Mercury Thermometers, Lead
  • Solvents
  • Examples Paint Thinner, Acetone, Methanol,
    Toluene, Xylenes
  • Pesticides and Herbicides
  • Examples Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor,

Toxicity is identified through a laboratory
procedure called the toxicity characteristics
leaching procedure, which replaces the extraction
procedure leach test. Organic chemicals, metals,
and pesticides regulated under the toxicity rule
are reported in Table in next slide.
New Constituents Benzene Carbon
tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene Chloroform m
-Cresol o-Cresol p-Cresol 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-
Dichloroethane 1,1-Dichloroethylene 2,4-Dinitrotol
uene Heptachlor (and its hydroxide) Hexachloro-1,3
-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Meth
yl ethyl ketone Nitrobenzene Pentachlorophenol Pyr
idine Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethylene 2,4,5-
Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Vinyl
Regulatory Levels (mg/ l) 0.50 0.50 0.03 100.0 6.0
200.0 d 200.0 200.0 7.5 0.50 0.70 0.13
e 0.008 0.5 0.13 e 3.0 200.0 2.0 100.0 f 5.0
e 0.7 0.5 400.0 2.0 0.20
Old EP Constituents Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromiu
m Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Endrin Lindane Meth
oxychlor Toxaphene 2,4-Dichlorophenoxycetic
acid 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy propionic acid
Regulatory Levels (mg / l) 5.0 100.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 0
.2 1.0 5.0 0.02 0.4 10.0 0.5 10.0 1.0
Generation of Hazardous Waste The major
generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries
studied by the EPA are as follows, more or less
in order of the quantities produced . primary
metals, . organic chemicals, . electroplating, .
inorganic chemicals, . textiles, . petroleum
refining, and . rubber and plastics.
Examples of Hazardous Waste Generated by Business
and Industries
Waste Type Strong acids and bases, spent
solvents, reactive wastes Heavy-metal paint
wastes, ignitable wastes,used lead acid
batteries, spent solvents Heavy-metal solutions,
waste inks, spent solvents, spent electroplating
wastes, ink sludges containing heavy metals Waste
toluene and benzene Paint wastes containing heavy
metals, ignitable solvents, strong acids and
bases Ignitable paint wastes, spent solvents,
strong acids and bases Heavy-metal dusts,
ignitable wastes, flammable solvents, strong
acids and bases Ignitable wastes, spent
solvents Paint wastes containing heavy metals,
strong acids and bases, cyanide wastes,
sludges containing heavy metals
Waste Generators Chemical manufacturers Vehicle
maintenance shops Printing industry Leather
products manufacturing Paper industry Construction
industry Cleaning agents and cosmetics manufactu
ring Furniture and wood manufacturing
and refinishing Metal manufacturing
1984 RCRA Ammendments In 1984, the RCRA was
amended to require double liners or the
equivalent and leachate collection systems at
hazardous waste surface impoundments and
landfills. Variances from groundwater monitoring
to characterize the water quality before, during,
and after operation are not allowed. The Act as
amended in 1984 applies to generators producing
as little as 220 lb (100 kg) of hazardous waste
in a calendar month, which must be sent to a
state or federal approved facility. The RCRA as
amended also prohibits land disposal of certain
classes of untreated hazardous wastes beyond
specified dates unless it can be demonstrated to
the EPA that there will be no migration of
hazardous constituents from the land disposal
unit for as long as the wastes remain hazardous.
Land disposal includes landfill, surface
impoundment (treatment and surface
storage), waste pile, injection well, land
treatment facility, salt dome or salt bed
formation, and underground mine or cave.
Changing times - Hazardous Waste, international
  • 1978 - Directive 78/319/EEC on Toxic and
    Dangerous Waste
  • 1983-89 OECD Decisions on hazardous waste
  • 1984 - Directive 84/631/EEC on Transfrontier
    Shipment of Waste
  • 1989 - Basel Convention on the Transboundary
    Movement of Hazardous and other Wastes and their
  • 1991 - Directive 91/689/EEC on Hazardous Waste
  • 1992 - OECD Decision C92 (39) Final on the
    Control of Wastes Destined for Recovery
  • 1993 - Regulation 259/93/EEC on the Transboundary
    Movements of Waste (WSR)
  • 2001 - OECD Decision revised C2001(109) Final
  • 2006 - WSR Revised

Changing regulations - impact on complexity
European Regu.
What is? CERCLA    Comprehensive Environmental
Response Compensation and Liability Act CERCLA -
also known as "Superfund" - provides a national
system for identifying and cleaning up
contaminated sites. The Superfund program is
administered by EPA. Several states also have
associated state-level Superfund programs.
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 CERCLA
(Superfund) regulates leachate and other
releases of hazardous substances from inactive
and abandoned hazardous waste sites or from sites
operating prior to November 1980. Businesses that
produce between 220 and 2000 lb of hazardous
wastes in a calendar month are also
regulated. Most of the existing hazardous waste
sites were created by the petroleum and chemical
industries. Some municipal landfills received
mixed solid waste, including toxic and hazardous
commercial and industrial waste, in addition to
small quantities of household cleaners, solvents,
and pesticides. The result was pollution of the
soil, groundwater, and surface water due to the
infiltration and percolation of rain and snow
melt, dissolution, and migration in the waste. In
addition, toxic gases could be released from
evaporating liquids, sublimating solids, and
chemical reactions. CERCLA comes into play when
hazardous waste sites are identified and
Other Laws of USA Other laws controlling
hazardous substances are Clean Air Act
(EPA)regulates the emission of hazardous air
pollutants. Clean Water Act (EPA)regulates the
discharge of hazardous pollutants into the
nations waters. Marine Protection, Research, and
Sanctuaries Act (EPA)regulates waste disposal at
sea. Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA)regulates hazards in the workplace,
including worker exposure to hazardous
substances. Hazardous Materials Transportation
Act (Department of Transportation) regulates the
transportation of hazardous materials. Atomic
Energy Act (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)regulat
es nuclear energy production and nuclear waste
HMTA    Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
The HMTA provides for the safe transportation of
hazardous materials. Regulations developed from
the HMTA cover shipment preparation and labeling,
handling, routing, emergency and security
planning, incident notifications, and liability
HSWA    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of
1984 The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of
1984 amended RCRA by establishing additional
waste management requirements under RCRA, and
adding Subtitle I, which imposes management
requirements for underground storage tanks (USTs)
that contain petroleum or hazardous substances.
Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Enacted in 1976 by EPA as an amendment to the
    Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)
  • Main objectives
  • Protect human health the environment
  • conserve valuable material energy resources
  • Established "Cradle-to-grave" management and
    tracking of hazardous waste
  • EPA inspectors have same authority as FBI/ATF

RCRAs Three Interrelated Programs
Subtitle D
Subtitle C
Subtitle I
Underground Storage Tank Program
Solid Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Management
Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes
  • Solid waste
  • Discarded
  • Not excluded
  • Hazardous waste
  • Solid waste
  • Listed waste or exhibit characteristics of
    hazardous waste
  • Not excluded

Defining a Solid waste RCRA
Defining Hazardous waste
Three Lists of Hazardous Wastes
  • Non-specific Source Wastes
  • Specific Source Wastes
  • Commercial Chemical Products

Listed Waste Categories
  • Non-specific Sources (F list) e.g. solvent
    wastes, electroplating wastes, metal heat
    treating wastes
  • Specific Sources (K list) e.g. wood
    preservation, inorganic pigment manufacturing,
    organic chemical manufacturing
  • Commercial Chemical Products (U and P lists)
    listed unused products on these lists become
    hazardous wastes at the point when they are to be
    disposed of

(No Transcript)
Lists Can be Very Specific
  • F007 Spent cyanide plating bath solutions from
    electroplating operations
  • F008 Plating bath residues from the bottom of
    plating baths from electroplating operations
    where cyanide is used in the process
  • K008 Oven residue from production of chrome
    oxide green pigments
  • K027 Centrifuge and distillation residues from
    toluene diisocyanate production

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