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Title: England

Aztec Empire
Ottoman Empire
Songhai Empire
Mayan Empire
Mughal India

Incan Empire
World History 10 Sol Review
  • Rebirth of classical knowledge, birth of the
    modern world
  • Spread of the Renaissance from the Italian city
    states to northern Europe

The Praise of Folly
Contributions of the Renaissance
  • Accomplishments in the visual artsMichelangelo,
    Leonardo da Vinci
  • Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays,
  • Accomplishments in intellectual ideas
  • MachiavelliThe Prince (Government)

Which idea about leadership would Machiavelli
most likely support, according to his book The
  • leaders should do whatever is necessary to
    achieve their goals
  • leaders should fight against discrimination and
  • leaders should listen to the desires of the
  • elected leaders should be fair and good

Which was a major characteristic of the
  • conformity
  • humanism
  • mysticism
  • obedience

One factor that enabled the Renaissance to
flourish in Northern Italy was that the region
  • a wealthy class that invested in the arts
  • a socialist for of government
  • limited contact with the Byzantine Empire
  • a shrinking middle class

In the Renaissance period, which factor was
emphasized by the philosophy of humanism?
  • superiority of medieval thought
  • devotion to religion
  • value of the individual
  • D. obedience to government officials

Traditional trade patterns linking Europe with
Asia and Africa
  • Silk roads across Asia to the Mediterranean basin
  • Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
  • Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
  • Northern European links with the Black Sea
  • Western European sea and river trade
  • South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia
  • Importance of trade patterns
  • Exchange of products and ideas

Advancements exchanged along trade routes
  • Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China)
  • Textiles, numeral system (India and Middle East)
  • Scientific transferMedicine, astronomy,

Location and importance of world religions in
1500 a.d.
  • JudaismConcentrated in Europe and the Middle
  • ChristianityConcentrated in Europe and the
    Middle East
  • IslamParts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe
  • HinduismIndia and part of Southeast Asia
  • BuddhismEast and Southeast Asia

(No Transcript)
Role of the printing press
  • Growth of literacy was stimulated by the
    Gutenberg printing press.
  • The Bible was printed in English, French, and
  • These factors had an important impact on
    spreading the ideas of the Reformation and

Conflicts that challenged the authority of the
Church in Rome
  • Merchant wealth challenged the Churchs view of
  • German and English nobility disliked Italian
    domination of the Church.
  • The Churchs great political power and wealth
    caused conflict.
  • Church corruption and the sale of indulgences
    were widespread and caused conflict.

  • Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
  • ViewsSalvation by faith alone, Bible as the
    ultimate authority, all humans equal before God
  • Actions95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church
  • John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
  • ViewsPredestination, faith revealed by living a
    righteous life, work ethic
  • ActionsExpansion of the Protestant Movement

Protestants Continued
  • King Henry VIII (the Anglican tradition)
  • ViewsDismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome
  • ActionsDivorced broke with Rome headed the
    national church in England appropriated lands
    and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England

Reformation in Germany
  • Princes in Northern Germany converted to
    Protestantism, ending authority of the Pope in
    their states.
  • The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy
    Roman Empire continued to support the Roman
    Catholic Church.
  • Conflict between Protestants and Catholics
    resulted in devastating wars (e.g., Thirty Years

Reformation in England
  • Anglican Church became a national church
    throughout the British Isles under Elizabeth I.
  • The Reformation contributed to the rise of

Reformation in France
  • Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots
    freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later
  • Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the
    Thirty Years War from a religious to a political

Catholic Counter Reformation
  • Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and
    reasserted its authority.
  • Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to
    spread Catholic doctrine around the world.
  • Inquisition was established to reinforce Catholic

Martin Luthers Ninety-Five Theses were a call
  • religious revolt against the German
  • princes
  • reforms within the Roman Catholic Church
  • greater papal authority
  • crusades to spread Christianity

Which was a result of the Protestant Reformation
in Europe?
  • the Catholic Church accepted the
  • dominance of the new Protestant religions in
    Italy, France, and Germany
  • B. Spain became a predominately Protestant
  • Catholic Church leaders refused to make any
    changes in church practices
  • the power of the Catholic Church in Europe was

Which factor helped most to bring about the
Protestant Reformation?
  • the Catholic clergy had lost faith in their
  • Islam was attracting many converts in Western
  • kings and princes in Northern Europe resented the
    power of the Catholic Church
  • the exploration of the Americas led to the
    introduction of new religious ideas

In Spain, an effect of the Inquisition during the
16th century was to
  • prevent the introduction of Protestant
  • religions
  • reintroduce Moorish culture to the Iberian
  • encourage the development of the Industrial
  • implement the ideas of the Renaissance in major

Which was not a result of the Anglican
  • A. Henry VIII broke with Rome in order to
    divorce his wife.
  • B. The Anglican Church became the national
    church of England.
  • Business and wealth increased after the Catholic
    Church was forced out.
  • D. Elizabeth brought the Catholic Church back to

Who is responsible for starting the Anglican
  1. Martin Luther
  2. King Henry VIII
  3. John Calvin
  4. Gutenberg

Factors contributing to the European discovery of
lands in the Western Hemisphere
  • Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in
  • Support for the diffusion of Christianity
  • Political and economic competition between
    European empires
  • Innovations in navigational arts (European and
    Islamic origins)
  • Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator

Establishment of overseas empires and decimation
of indigenous populations
  • PortugalVasco da Gama
  • SpainChristopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez,
    Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan
  • EnglandFrancis Drake
  • FranceJacques Cartier

Means of diffusion of Christianity
  • Migration of colonists to new lands
  • Influence of Catholics and Protestants, who
    carried their faith, language, and cultures to
    new lands
  • Conversion of indigenous peoples

  • Expansion of overseas territorial claims and
    European emigration to North and South America
  • Demise of Aztec, Maya, and Inca Empires
  • Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial
    rule in Latin America
  • Forced migration of some Africans into slavery
  • Colonies imitation of the culture and social
    patterns of their parent country

  • European trading posts along the coast
  • Trade in slaves, gold, and other products
  • Asia
  • Colonization by small groups of merchants (India,
    the Indies, China)
  • Influence of trading companies (Portuguese,
    Dutch, British)

Columbian Exchange
  • Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as
    corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed European
  • European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles
    of American Indians (First Americans).
  • European diseases like smallpox killed many
    American Indians (First Americans).

Impact of the Columbian Exchange
  • Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the
    use of African slaves.
  • Slavery was based on race.
  • European plantation system in the Caribbean and
    the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and
    damaged the environment.
  • The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and
    the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were

Export of precious metals
  • Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia)
  • Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas
  • Impact on Spain and international trade

Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations
  • developed advanced and complex societies before
    the arrival of the Europeans-(math-calendar)
  • established extensive trade with Pacific Rim
  • were strongly influenced by their contact with
    Asian and African civilizations
  • were relatively large, but not well organized

In Latin America, the Maya and the Aztec
civilizations were similar in that they
  1. Showed little evidence of urbanization
  2. Lacked a strong central government
  3. Developed complex mathematical and calendar
  4. Used military weapons superior to those of

Which was an immediate result of the European Age
of Exploration?
  • A. Islamic culture spread across Africa
  • and Asia
  • B. European influence spread to the Western
  • C. independence movements developed in Asia and
  • D. military dictatorships were established
    throughout Europe

A major result of the Age of Exploration was
  • a long period of peace and prosperity for
  • the nations of Western Europe
  • extensive migration of people from the Western
    Hemisphere to Europe and Asia
  • the end of regional isolation and the beginning
    of a period of European global domination
  • the fall of European national monarchies and the
    end of the power of the Catholic Church

Which of these events during the Age of
Exploration was a cause of the other three?
  • Europeans brought food, animals, and
  • ideas from one continent to another
  • advances in learning and technology made long
    ocean voyages possible
  • European diseases had an adverse effect on the
    native populations of new territories
  • warfare increased as European nations competed
    for land and power

The Native American population of Mexico in 1492
has been estimated at 25 million the population
in 1608 has been estimated at 1.7 million. This
decrease in population was mainly a result of
  • crop failures brought on by poor weather
  • emigration of Native Americans to Europe and
  • wars between various native groups
  • diseases introduced by the Spanish

In Latin America during the early period of
Spanish colonialism, the deaths of large numbers
of the native people led to
  • a decline in Spanish immigration to
  • the Americas
  • the removal of most Spanish troops from the
  • the importation of slaves from Africa
  • improved health care in the colonies

The influence of African culture on some areas of
Latin America was largely a result of the
  • American Revolution
  • building of the Panama Canal
  • success of Communist Revolutions
  • Atlantic slave trade

One result of the European conquest of Latin
America was that in Latin America
  • Spanish became the major spoken
  • language
  • Native American cultures flourished
  • the Aztec religion spread
  • many parliamentary democracies were established

The printing press, the astrolabe, and the
Mercator projection were technological advances
that contributed to the
  • exploration and overseas expansion of the
    colonial empires
  • unification of Germany and Italy in the late
  • growth of industry in Latin America during the
    late 1900s
  • spread of Islam in the 700s and 800s

Ottoman Empire
  • (Asia Minor)
  • Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire
  • Southwest Asia
  • Southeastern Europe, Balkan Peninsula
  • North Africa
  • Development of the Ottoman Empire
  • Capital at Constantinople renamed Istanbul
  • Islamic religion as a unifying force that
    accepted other religions
  • Trade in coffee and ceramics

Mughal Empire (North India)
  • Contributions of Mughal rulers
  • Spread of Islam into India
  • Art and architectureTaj Mahal
  • Arrival of European trading outposts
  • Influence of Indian textiles on British textile
  • Trade with European nations
  • Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed
    for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing
    Coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent.

  • Exports
  • Slaves (triangular trade)
  • Raw materials
  • Imports
  • Manufactured goods from Europe, Asia, and the
  • New food products (corn, peanuts)

  • Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade
  • Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences
    and trade
  • Increase in European demand for Chinese goods
    (tea, porcelain)

  • Characterized by powerless emperor ruled by
    military leader (shogun)
  • Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign

Both Japan and China decided to limit trade with
Europe during much of the 16th and 17th centuries
because the Japanese and the Chinese
  • had few products to sell to the Europeans
  • held religious beliefs that prohibited contact
    with foreigners
  • thought European technology would hinder any
    effort to modernize
  • believed they would receive no benefit from
    increased contact with the Europeans

Which is not a characteristic of the Ottoman
  • A. Spanned 3 continents Asia, Africa and
  • Europe
  • B. Traded coffee and ceramics
  • C. Treated conquered people as second class
  • D. Converted Constantinople into their capital
    of Istanbul

Accomplishments of the Mughal Empire were
  • Trade with the Europe, Taj Mahal, and
  • textile production
  • B. Isolation, conversion to Christianity, and
  • C. Exploration, colonization of the Americas,
    and agriculture
  • D. Istanbul, trade in coffee and ceramics, and

Commercial Revolution
  • Mercantilism An economic practice adopted by
    European colonial powers in an effort to become
    self-sufficient based on the theory that
    colonies existed for the benefit of the mother

Commercial Revolution
  • European maritime nations competed for overseas
    markets, colonies, and resources.
  • A new economic system emerged.
  • New money and banking systems were created.
  • Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved.
  • Colonial economies were limited by the economic
    needs of the mother country.

Pioneers of the scientific revolution
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Developed heliocentric
  • Johannes Kepler Discovered planetary motion
  • Galileo Galilei Used telescope to support
    heliocentric theory
  • Isaac Newton Discovered Laws of Gravity
  • William Harvey Discovered circulation of the

Importance of the scientific revolution
  • Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of
  • Formulation of the scientific method
  • Expansion of scientific knowledge

Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted
the idea that knowledge should be based on
  • the experiences of past civilizations
  • experimentation and observation
  • emotions and feelings
  • the teachings of the Catholic Church

Which was a result of the Commercial Revolution
  • decline in population growth in Europe
  • shift of power from Western Europe to Eastern
  • spread of feudalism throughout Western Europe
  • expansion of European influence overseas

Which system developed as a result of the
Commercial Revolution
  • manorialism
  • communism
  • bartering
  • market economy

According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies
should be
  • acquired as markets and sources of raw materials
  • considered an economic burden for the colonial
  • grated independence as soon as possible
  • encouraged to develop their own industries

Which statement best describes the effects of the
works of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei,
Sir Isaac Newton, and René Descartes?
  • The acceptance of traditional authority was
  • The scientific method was used to solve problems.
  • Funding to education was increased by the English
  • Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed.

Which was a characteristic of the policy of
mercantilism followed by Spanish colonial rulers
in Latin America?
  • the colonies were forced to develop local
    industries to support themselves
  • Spain sought trade agreements between its
    colonies and the English colonies in North
  • the colonies were required to provide raw
    materials to Spain and to purchase Spanish
    manufactured goods
  • Spain encouraged the colonies to develop new
    political systems to meet colonial needs

Absolute Monarchies
  • Characteristics of
  • Centralization of power
  • Concept of rule by divine right
  • Absolute monarchs
  • Louis XIVFrance, Palace of Versailles as a
    symbol of royal power
  • Frederick the GreatPrussia, emphasis on military
  • Peter the GreatRussia, westernization of Russia

Development of the rights of Englishmen
  • Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
  • The restoration of Charles II
  • Development of political parties/factions
  • Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)
  • Increase of parliamentary power over royal power
  • English Bill of Rights of 1689

How did Louis XIV of France achieve absolute rule?
  • Built Versailles and had lower nobles live with
  • B. Attempted to westernize France
  • C. Had lower nobles exchange land to becoming
    officers in the army
  • D. Overthrew Charles I in the Glorious

Which was not a result of the Glorious Revolution?
  • A. The end of the monarchy in England
  • The signing of the English Bill of
  • Rights
  • C. The establishment of a strong Parliament
  • D. William and Mary became king and queen of

Which best describes the Divine Right of Kings?
  • The kings power is given by the people
  • B. The kings power is given by Parliament
  • C. The kings power is given by God
  • D. The kings power is given by the queen

Louis XIV of France, Frederick the Great of
Prussia, and Peter the Great of Russia were all-
  1. Kings who allowed democratic reforms in their
  2. Descended from the same queen, Victoria of
  3. Absolute rulers of their nation
  4. Kings who were killed by their own people

The Enlightenment
  • Applied reason to the human world, not just the
    natural world
  • Stimulated religious tolerance
  • Fueled democratic revolutions around the world

Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
  • Thomas Hobbes LeviathanThe state must have
    central authority to manage behavior.
  • John Lockes Two Treatises on GovernmentPeople
    are sovereign monarchs are not chosen by God.
  • Montesquieus The Spirit of LawsThe best form of
    government includes a separation of powers.

Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseaus The Social
    ContractGovernment is a contract between rulers
    and the people.
  • VoltaireReligious toleration should triumph over
    religious fanaticism separation of church and

Influence of the Enlightenment
  • Political philosophies of the Enlightenment
    fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
  • Thomas Jeffersons Declaration of Independence
    incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America
    and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment

We hold these truths to be self-evident that
all men are created equal, that they are endowed
by their creator with certain unalienable rights,
that among these are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness.The ideas expressed in
the quotation are based primarily on the writings
  1. Niccolo Machiavelli
  2. John Locke
  3. Charles Darwin
  4. Charlemagne

Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily
interested in
  • changing the relationship between people and
    their government
  • supporting the divine right theory
  • debating the role of the church in society
  • promoting increased power for European monarchs

The writings of the Enlightenment philosophers in
Europe encouraged later political revolution with
their support of
  • socialism
  • imperialism
  • the natural rights of man
  • the divine right monarchies

Which statement reflects an argument of
Enlightenment philosophers against the belief in
the divine right of kings?
  • god has chosen all government rulers
  • independence is built by military might
  • a capitalist economic system is necessary for
  • the power of the government is derived from the

John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be
most likely to support
  • a return to feudalism in Europe
  • a society in which the people chose the ruler
  • a government ruled by a divine right monarchy
  • a society ruled by the Catholic Church

Man is born free and everywhere he is in
chains.--Everyone has the natural right to life,
liberty, and property.--Slavery, torture, and
religious persecution are wrong.During which
period in European history would the ideas in
these statements have been expressed?
  • Pax Romana
  • Age of Exploration
  • Enlightenment
  • Age of Imperialism

  • Causes of the French Revolution
  • Influence of Enlightenment ideas
  • Influence of the American Revolution
  • Events of the French Revolution
  • Storming of the Bastille
  • Reign of Terror

  • Outcomes of the French Revolution
  • End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI
  • Rise of Napoleon
  • Influence of the American and French Revolutions
    on the Americas
  • Independence came to French, Spanish, and
    Portuguese colonies
  • Toussaint LOuvertureHaiti
  • Simon BolivarSouth America

  • Legacy of Napoleon
  • Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Awakened feelings of national pride and growth of
  • Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
  • Balance of power doctrine
  • Restoration of monarchies
  • New political map of Europe
  • New political philosophies (liberalism,

Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
  • National pride, economic competition, and
    democratic ideals stimulated the growth of
  • The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to
    widespread discontent in Europe.
  • Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased
    nationalistic tensions.
  • In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain
    expanded political rights through legislative
    means and made slavery illegal in the British

Which statement is a valid generalization about
the immediate results of the French Revolution of
  • the Roman Catholic Church increased its power and
  • the French middle class gained more power
  • the revolution achieved its goal of establishing
    peace, democracy, and justice for all
  • the revolution had little impact outside France

A study of revolutions would most likely lead to
the conclusion that pre-Revolutionary governments
  • are more concerned about human rights than the
    governments that replace them
  • refuse to modernize their armed forces with
    advanced technology
  • attempt to bring about the separation of
    government from religion
  • fail to meet the political and economic needs of
    their people

The French people supported Napoleon Bonaparte
because they hoped he would
  • adopt the ideas of the Protestant Reformation
  • restore Louis XVI to power
  • provide stability for the nation
  • end British control of France

Representative artists, philosophers, and writers
  • Johann Sebastian Bach Composer
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Composer
  • Eugène DelacroixPainter
  • VoltairePhilosopher
  • Miguel de CervantesNovelist

New forms of art and literature
  • Paintings depicted classical subjects, public
    events, natural scenes, and living people
  • New forms of literature evolvedthe novel (e.g.,
    Cervantes Don Quixote).

  • All-weather roads improved year- round transport
    and trade.
  • New designs in farm tools increased productivity
    (agricultural revolution).
  • Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of

Which was not an artist from the Napoleonic Era?
  • A. Amadeus Mozart
  • B. Johann Sebastian Bach
  • C. Leonardo de Vinci
  • D. Eugene Delacroix

  • motivated European nations to compete for
    colonial possessions. European economic,
    military, and political power forced colonized
    countries to trade on European terms.
    Industrially-produced goods flooded colonial
    markets and displaced their traditional
    industries. Colonized peoples resisted European
    domination and responded in diverse ways to
    Western influences.

Unification of Italy
  • Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to
    northern Italy.
  • The Papal States (including Rome) became the last
    to join Italy.

Unification of Germany
  • Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification
    of Germany through war and by appealing to
    nationalist feelings.
  • Bismarcks actions were seen as an example of
    Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve
    and hold power.
  • The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of
    the German state.

Nationalism is most likely to develop in an area
that has
  • land suited to agriculture
  • adequate industry to supply consumer demands
  • a moderate climate with rivers for irrigation
  • common customs, language, and history

In a number of European countries in the 1800s,
which situation occurred as a result of the
influence of the French Revolution?
  • increase in religious conflict
  • rise of nationalistic movements
  • decentralization of governmental power
  • economic depression

The best example of the success of nationalism in
Europe is the
  • development of socialism in France
  • Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
  • establishment of the Common Market
  • unification of Germany

Industrial Revolution
  • Origin in England, because of its natural
    resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention
    and improvement of the steam engine
  • Spread to Europe and the United States
  • Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries

Industrial Revolution continued
  • Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement
  • Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage
  • Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw
    materials and markets throughout the world

Technological advances that produced the
Industrial Revolution
  • James WattSteam engine
  • Eli WhitneyCotton gin
  • Henry BessemerProcess for making steel

Advancements in science and medicine
  • Edward JennerDeveloped smallpox vaccination
  • Louis PasteurDiscovered bacteria

Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on
industrialized countries
  • Population increase
  • Increased standards of living for many, though
    not all
  • Improved transportation
  • Urbanization
  • Environmental pollution
  • Increased education
  • Dissatisfaction of working class with working
  • Growth of the middle class

  • Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations
  • Role of market competition and entrepreneurial
  • Impact on standard of living and the growth of
    the middle class
  • Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and
    the unequal distribution of wealth in society

Socialism and Communism
  • Karl Marxs Communist Manifesto (written with
    Friedrich Engels) and Das Capital
  • Response to the injustices of capitalism
  • Importance of redistribution of wealth to the

The nature of work in the factory system
  • Family-based cottage industries displaced by the
    factory system
  • Harsh working conditions with men competing with
    women and children for wages
  • Child labor that kept costs of production low and
    profits high
  • Owners of mines and factories who exercised
    considerable control over the lives of their

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery
  • The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor
    on American plantations.
  • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave
    trade and then slavery.

Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Women and children entering the workplace as
    cheap labor
  • Introduction of reforms to end child labor
  • Expansion of education
  • Womens increased demands for suffrage

The rise of labor unions
  • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase
    wages and improve working conditions
  • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers,
    including women and children
  • Wanted worker rights and collective bargaining
    between labor and management

By the 1700s, in which nation were conditions
best suited for the Industrial Revolution?
  1. France
  2. England
  3. Germany
  4. Spain

Which of these was a problem caused by the
Industrial Revolution?
  1. Reduced spending on military goods
  2. Sharing of profits with workers
  3. Exploitation of children in factory jobs
  4. Increase in isolationists policies

Which one of these was not a reason the
Industrial Revolution began in Britain?
  • Access to natural resources like coal,
  • iron ore, and water ways
  • B. Stability from not having had wars fought
    within its borders
  • C. Freedoms of the individual granted by the
  • D. A strong monarchy that demanded more
    efficient production

Which best describes Urbanization?
  • The movement of people from the city
  • to the country
  • B. The movement of people from the city to the
  • C. The movement of people from the country to
    the city
  • d. The movement of people from the country to
    the coast

Which best describes the philosophy of Adam Smith?
  • A. That government should control
  • business in order to provide for the good of
    the public
  • B. That government should not interfere with
  • C. That people should control aspects of
    business for the common good
  • D. That people should control aspects of the

Which does not describe results of the Industrial
  • A. Child labor laws being enacted
  • Men competing with women and
  • children for work
  • C. The demand of womens suffrage
  • The decrease in demand for
  • education

Which describes a philosophy of Karl Marx?
  • Self interest brings low prices and more jobs
  • B. The haves take advantage of the have nots
  • The government should not
  • interfere with industry
  • D. There is no struggle between classes

Capitalism is
  • A. Public control of industry
  • B. Investing for future profit
  • C. Investing in government
  • D. Public control of labor

Forms of imperialism
  • Colonies
  • Protectorates
  • Spheres of influence

Imperialism in Africa and Asia
  • European domination
  • European conflicts carried to the colonies
  • Christian missionary efforts
  • Spheres of influence in China
  • Suez Canal
  • East India Companys domination of Indian states
  • American opening of Japan to trade

Responses of colonized peoples
  • Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer
    Rebellion in China)
  • Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist
    party founded in the mid-1800s)

The Boxer Rebellion of the early 20th century was
an attempt to
  • eliminate poverty among the Chinese peasants
  • bring western-style democracy to China
  • restore trade between China and European nations
  • remove foreign influences from China

Which was not a factor in European attitudes
toward imperialism?
  • A. The hopes to convert many to Christianity
  • To create larger empires by dominating foreign
  • C. To gain more culture with the knowledge of
    foreign achievements
  • D. The desire to further open trade with Asia
    and Africa

Causes of World War I
  • Alliances that divided Europe into competing
  • Nationalistic feelings
  • Diplomatic failures
  • Imperialism
  • Competition over colonies
  • Militarism

  • Major events
  • Assassination of Austrias Archduke Ferdinand
  • United States enters war
  • Russia leaves the war
  • Major leaders
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

Outcomes and global effects
  • Colonies participation in the war, which
    increased demands for independence
  • End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and
    Austro-Hungarian empires
  • Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and
    social disruption

Treaty of Versailles
  • Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and loss
    of territory and pay reparations
  • Limited the German military

Which was not a factor leading to World War I?
  • A. Slavery
  • B. Nationalism
  • C. Competition over colonies
  • D. Alliances that divided Europe

Which monarchies did not end as a result of World
War I?
  • A. The Ottoman
  • B. The German
  • C. The British
  • D. The Russian

Which best describes the outcome of the Treaty of
  • Germany must admit guilt, pay
  • reparations, and limit army
  • B. Germany must be divided, occupied, and limit
  • C. Germany must give up cities, pay reparations,
    and limit army
  • D. Germany must be occupied, accept foreign rule,
    and limit army

Causes of 1917 revolutions
  • Defeat in war with Japan in 1905
  • Landless peasantry
  • Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II
  • Military defeats and high casualties in World War

Rise of communism
  • Bolshevik Revolution and civil war
  • Vladimir Lenins New Economic Policy
  • Lenins successorJoseph Stalin

League of Nations
  • International cooperative organization
  • Established to prevent future wars
  • United States not a member
  • Failure of League because it did not have power
    to enforce its decisions

The mandate system
  • The system was created to administer the colonies
    of defeated powers on a temporary basis.
  • France and Great Britain became mandatory powers
    in the Middle East.

Causes of worldwide depression
  • German reparations
  • Expansion of production capacities and dominance
    of the United States in the global economy
  • High protective tariffs
  • Excessive expansion of credit
  • Stock Market Crash (1929)

Impact of world depression
  • High unemployment in industrial countries
  • Bank failures and collapse of credit
  • Collapse of prices in world trade
  • Nazi Partys growing importance in Germany Nazi
    Partys blame of European Jews for economic

Which is not an event of the Russias rise to
  • A. Nicholas was a weak king
  • B. Defeats in World War I
  • Joseph Stalin succeeding Vladimir
  • Lenin
  • D. Economic growth

Which was not a cause of the Global Depression?
  • A. German reparations
  • Expansion of U.S. business into
  • Europe
  • C. The Communist Revolution
  • D. The Credit System

U.S.S.R. during the Interwar PeriodJoseph Stalin
  • Entrenchment of communism
  • Stalins policies (five-year plans,
    collectivization of farms, state
    industrialization, secret police)
  • Great Purge

Germany during the Interwar PeriodAdolf Hitler
  • Inflation and depression
  • Democratic government weakened
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Extreme nationalism
  • National Socialism (Nazism)
  • German occupation of nearby

Italy during the Interwar PeriodBenito Mussolini
  • Rise of fascism
  • Ambition to restore the glory of Rome
  • Invasion of Ethiopia

Japan during the Interwar PeriodHirohito and
Hideki Tojo
  • Militarism
  • Industrialization of Japan, leading to drive for
    raw materials
  • Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of

Which did not play a role in the rise of the
Nazis in Germany?
  • A. Severe inflation from the Global
  • Depression
  • B. Anti-Semitism
  • C. Weak Democratic government
  • D. Alliance with the U.S.

Which does not describe Benito Mussolinis rise
to power?
  • A. Rise of the Fascist Party
  • B. War against Germany
  • C. Desire to restore Roman Empire
  • D. The conquest of Ethiopia

Which best describes Japan under Hirohito?
  • A. Industrialization of Japan
  • B. Alliances with other countries
  • C. Economic depression
  • D. Return to isolation

Economic and political causes of World War II
  • Aggression by totalitarian powers (Germany,
    Italy, Japan)
  • Nationalism
  • Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Weakness of the League of Nations
  • Appeasement
  • Tendencies towards isolationism and pacifism in
    Europe and the United States

Major events of the war (1939-1945)
  • German invasion of Poland
  • Fall of France
  • Battle of Britain
  • German invasion of the Soviet Union
  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
  • D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe)
  • Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Major leaders of the war
  • Franklin D. RooseveltU.S. President
  • Harry TrumanU.S. President after death of
    President Roosevelt
  • Dwight D. EisenhowerU.S. general
  • Douglas MacArthurU.S. general
  • George MarshallU.S. general
  • Winston ChurchillBritish prime minister
  • Joseph StalinSoviet dictator
  • Adolf HitlerNazi dictator of Germany
  • Hideki TojoJapanese general
  • HirohitoEmperor of Japan

Elements leading to the Holocaust
  • Totalitarianism combined with nationalism
  • History of anti-Semitism
  • Defeat in World War I and economic depression
    blamed on German Jews
  • Hitlers belief in the master race
  • Final solutionExtermination camps, gas chambers
  • Genocide The systematic and purposeful
    destruction of a racial, political, religious, or
    cultural group

Examples of other genocides
  • Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman Empire
  • Peasants, government and military leaders, and
    members of the elite in the Soviet Union by
    Joseph Stalin
  • The educated, artists, technicians, former
    government officials, monks, and minorities by
    Pol Pot in Cambodia
  • Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda
  • Muslims and Croats by Bosnian Serbs in former

Outcomes of World War II
  • European powers loss of empires
  • Establishment of two major powers in the world
    The United States and the U.S.S.R.
  • War crimes trials
  • Division of EuropeIron Curtain
  • Establishment of the United Nations
  • Marshall Plan
  • Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    (NATO) and Warsaw Pact

Efforts for reconstruction of Germany
  • Democratic government installed in West Germany
    and West Berlin
  • Germany and Berlin divided among the four Allied
  • Emergence of West Germany as economic power in
    postwar Europe

Efforts for reconstruction of Japan
  • U.S. occupation of Japan under MacArthurs
  • Democracy and economic development
  • Elimination of Japanese offensive military
    capabilities United States guarantee of Japans
  • Emergence of Japan as dominant economy in Asia

Which is not an event of World War II?
  • A. The bombing of Pearl Harbor
  • B. The Invasion of Poland
  • C. The Battle of Britain
  • D. The battle of Waterloo

The Holocaust refers to
  • A. The treatment of POWs by the Japanese
  • The attempted genocide of European
  • Jews
  • C. The carpet bombing of Germany
  • D. The Fall of France

The two Superpowers that emerged from World War
II were
  • A. Germany and France
  • B. Britain and Italy
  • C. Japan and Britain
  • D. U.S. and Soviet Union

The Marshall Plan was a/an
  • U.S. attempt to rebuild Europe into
  • democratic countries
  • B. Soviet attempt to rebuild Europe into
    communist countries
  • C. German attempt to reestablish the Nazi regime
  • D. Attempt to grant independence to all colonies

Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948)
  • The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of
    Eastern Europe
  • Rivalry between the United States and the
  • Democracy and the free enterprise system v.
    dictatorship and communism
  • President Truman and the Policy of Containment
  • Eastern EuropeSoviet satellite nations the Iron

Characteristics of the Cold War (1948-1989)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) v. the
    Warsaw Pact
  • Korean Conflict
  • Vietnam War
  • Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence

Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe (1989-)
  • Soviet economic collapse Nationalism in Warsaw
    Pact countries Tearing down of Berlin Wall
    Breakup of U.S.S.R. Expansion of NATO

Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China
  • Containment Policy for preventing the expansion
    of communism
  • Division of China into two nations at the end of
    the Chinese civil war
  • Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)Nationalist China
    (island of Taiwan)
  • Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong)Communist China
    (mainland China)
  • Continuing conflict between the two Chinas
  • Communist Chinas participation in Korean Conflict

Conflicts and revolutionary movements in Vietnam
  • Role of French Imperialism
  • Leadership of Ho Chi Minh
  • Vietnam as a divided nation
  • Influence of policy of containment
  • The United States and the Vietnam War
  • Vietnam as a reunited communist country today

The Peoples Republic of China was established by
communists who were led by ----
  1. Deng Xiaoping
  2. Mao Zedong
  3. Chiang Kai-shek
  4. Qiang Jing

Which was not a contended area of the Cold War?
  • A. East and West Germany
  • B. North and South Korea
  • C. North and South Vietnam
  • D. East and West Japan

Containment best describes
  • A. The attempt to contain communism
  • in Asia
  • B. The attempt to contain communism in America
  • C. The attempt to contain democracy in
  • Europe
  • D. The attempt to contain democracy in South

Which is not a characteristic of the rise of
communism in China?
  • The establishment of a
  • democratic island of Taiwan
  • The rise of Mao Zedong as a
  • leader
  • C. Chinese troops fighting in Korea
  • D. The bombing of Japan

Deterrence is best described as
  • A. The threat of nuclear weapons to
  • bring other countries under control
  • B. The presence of nuclear weapons
  • designed to keep enemies from attacking
  • C. The use of nuclear weapons to devastate
  • D. The use of nuclear weapons on non-military

Regional setting for the Indian independence
  • Indian sub-continent
  • British India
  • India
  • Pakistan (former West Pakistan)
  • Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)
  • Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)

Evolution of the Indian independence movement
  • British rule in India
  • Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi
  • Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance
  • Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines,

The independence movement in Africa
  • Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)
  • Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War
  • Pride in African cultures and heritage
  • Resentment toward imperial rule and economic
  • Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France,
    Belgium, and Portugal Influence of superpower
    rivalry during the Cold War

Examples of independence movements and subsequent
development efforts
  • West AfricaPeaceful transition
  • AlgeriaWar for Independence from France
  • Kenya (Britain)Violent struggle under leadership
    of Kenyatta
  • South AfricaBlack South Africans struggle
    against apartheid

  • Mandates in the Middle East
  • Established by the League of Nations
  • Granted independence after World War II
  • Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by
    religious differences
  • French Mandates in the Middle East
  • Syria
  • Lebanon
  • British Mandates in the Middle East
  • Jordan
  • Palestine (part became independent as the State
    of Israel)

Gandhis use of passive resistance gained
independence for
  • A. Syria from the French
  • B. India from the British
  • C. Algeria from the French
  • D. Palestine from the British

Apartheid was the
  • A. System of separation in Palestine
  • Use of non-violent methods in
  • India
  • System of segregation in South
  • Africa
  • Use of mandates in the Middle East

The conflict between Hinduism and Islam created
which country?
  • A. Kenya
  • B. Congo
  • C. Pakistan
  • D. Jordan

Which did not encourage the independence movement
of African colonies?
  • A. Resentment towards imperial rule
  • B. Pride in African culture
  • C. U.N. charter of self determination
  • D. The spread of Christianity

Religions-- Judaism
  • Monotheism
  • Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct
  • TorahWritten record and beliefs of Hebrews

Religions-- Christianity
  • Monotheism
  • Jesus as Son of God
  • Life after death
  • New TestamentLife and teachings of Jesus
  • Establishment of Christian doctrine by early
    church councils

  • Monotheism
  • Muhammad the prophet
  • Koran
  • Five Pillars of Islam
  • Mecca and Medina

  • FounderSiddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
  • Four Noble Truths
  • Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
  • Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other
    parts of Asia, resulting from Asokas
    missionaries and their writings

Religions-- Hinduism
  • Many forms of one deity
  • Caste system
  • Reincarnation
  • KarmaFuture reincarnation based on present

Geographical distribution of worlds major
  • JudaismConcentrated in Israel and North America
  • Christianity Concentrated in Europe, North and
    South America
  • IslamConcentrated in the Middle East, Africa,
    and Asia
  • HinduismConcentrated in India
  • BuddhismConcentrated in East and Southeast Asia

Judaism, Islam, and Christianity share a belief
  • the central authority of the Pope
  • a prohibition of the consumption of port
  • reincarnation and the Four Noble Truths
  • monotheism and ethical conduct

When I go to the office, I put on my shirt and I
take off my caste when I come home, I take off
my shirt and I put on my caste.What is the main
idea of this quotation?
  • the caste system continues to influence Indian
  • the caste system has been reflected by most
  • successful urban workers in India belong the same
  • the Indian government officially supports the
    Caste system

Who is the Prophet of Islam?
A. Muhammad B. Akbar C. Al-Khwarizmi D. Babur
The Islamic Holy Book is the
A. Torah B. New Testament C. Quran D. Vedas
Which of the following beliefs is held by
Muslims, Jews, and Christians? A. Belief in
reincarnation B. Belief in Jesus as the
messiah C. Belief in one God D. Belief in
What Religion did the Aryans practice?
A. Christianity B. Daoism C. Hinduism D. Islam
1. Reincarnation 2. Dharma 3. Karma
The three topics listed above are the three
important concepts of A. Buddhism B.
Hinduism C. Confucianism D. Daoism
Who taught the Four Noble Truths?
A. Buddha B. Moses C. Jesus D. Confucius
Who is given credit for spreading Buddhism
throughout Asia?
A. Muhammad B. Buddha C. Asoka D. Brahman
What religion did Christianity break away from?
A. Judaism B. Islam C. Mythology D. Hinduism
  • Migrations of refugees and others
  • Refugees as an issue in international conflicts
  • Migrations of guest workers to European cities
  • Ethnic and religious conflicts
  • Middle East
  • Northern Ireland
  • Balkans
  • Africa
  • Asia

Impact of new technologies
  • Widespread but unequal access to computers and
    instantaneous communications
  • Genetic engineering and bioethics

Contrasts between developed and developing
  • Geographic locations of major developed and
    developing countries
  • Economic conditions
  • Social conditions (literacy, access to health
  • Population size and rate of growth

  • Factors affecting environment and society
  • Economic development
  • Rapid population growth
  • Environmental challenges
  • Pollution
  • Loss of habitat
  • Ozone depletion

Social challenges
  • Poverty
  • Poor health
  • Illiteracy
  • Famine
  • Migration

Relationship between economic and political
  • Free market economies produce rising standards of
    living and an expanding middle class, which
    produces growing demands for political freedoms
    and individual rights. Recent examples include
    Taiwan and South Korea.

Economic interdependence
  • Role of rapid transportation, communication, and
    computer networks
  • Rise and influence of multinational corporations
  • Changing role of international boundaries
  • Regional integration (European Union)
  • Trade agreementsNorth American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • International organizations United Nations (UN),
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)

A major environmental problem affecting Latin
America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia
has been
  • A. air pollution
  • B. Deforestation
  • C. disposal of nuclear waste
  • D. acid rain

Many scientist believe that the greenhouse
effect is the result of
  • overgrazing on land in developing
  • nations
  • B. using large amounts of gasoline, oil, and
    coal in developed nations
  • C. testing nuclear weapons in violation of the
    Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  • D. using natural fertilizers to increase crop

Which conclusion can be drawn from the
information in the chart?
  • A. Developing countries are instituting programs
    to limit the growth of their populations.
  • B. Infant mortality is a greater problem in
    Africa than in Asia.
  • C. The nations with relatively low birthrates
    have relatively high per capita incomes.
  • D. The national birthrate is determined by many
    different factors

In many Latin American nations, reliance on the
production of a single cash crop has led to
  • economic dependence on other
  • nations
  • B. rapid repayment of foreign loans
  • C. a high per capita Gross National Product
  • D. development of a strong industrial economy
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