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Title: Exploring Our World Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: Stacey Smith Created Date: 2/1/2007 7:00:27 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Splash Screen

Splash Screen
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Physical
Features Section 2 Climate Regions Visual Summary
Chapter Intro 1
Human-Environment Interaction If you rode in a
car or a bus to school today, that vehicles fuel
probably came from the region of North Africa,
Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. This region is
the worlds leading producer of petroleum and
natural gastwo of the main energy sources that
power modern society. How have natural resources
made this region a key player in world affairs?
Chapter Intro 2
Section 1 Physical Features The physical
environment affects how people live. For
centuries, the people of North Africa, Southwest
Asia, and Central Asia have adapted to survive in
this dry region. During the past century,
however, the increasing global need for petroleum
and natural gas has brought new wealth and
changing lifestyles to the area.
Chapter Intro 2
Section 2 Climate Regions Places reflect the
relationship between humans and the physical
environment. Many areas of North Africa,
Southwest Asia, and Central Asia have harsh
environments. As a result, people have settled in
areas that can support large populations, such as
river valleys. One of the most important
challenges facing the regions people is how to
manage water resources to meet their current
needs while protecting supplies for the future.
Chapter Intro-End
Section 1-Main Idea
The physical environment affects how people live.
Section 1-Key Terms
Content Vocabulary
  • silt
  • alluvial plain
  • sedimentary rock
  • phosphate
  • poaching
  • refinery

Academic Vocabulary
  • intense
  • expose

Section 1-Key Terms
The people of Turkeys Göreme Valley dwell in
cliffside apartments carved by nature. These
mountain homes have storerooms on lower levels
and family living quarters that include kitchens.
Telephone-like devices allow family members to
communicate from different floors. Wind and rain,
as well as volcanoes and earthquakes, have shaped
the rock and valleys of this land. Read on to
find out about the landforms of North Africa,
Southwest Asia, and Central Asia.
Section 1-Polling Question
Should the United States government fund research
for technology that reduces our dependence upon
foreign oil? A. Yes B. No
  1. A
  2. B

Section 1
According to myth, the ancient hero Hercules
split a mountain in half with his sword, forming
the Strait of Gibraltar. On the European side of
the strait is the massive Rock of Gibraltar. On
the North African side is the Jebel Musa.
Together, these rocks are known as the Pillars of
Section 1
The Regions Landforms
This region includes a variety of landforms that
affect how and where people live.
Section 1
The Regions Landforms (cont.)
  • The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and
    Central Asia extends from the Atlantic coast of
    northwestern Africa to the middle of Asia.
  • The region is surrounded by oceans, seas, and
    gulfs that have helped people trade more easily
    with the rest of Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Section 1
The Regions Landforms (cont.)
  • The Strait of Gibraltar separates Africa and
    Europe and links the Mediterranean Sea with the
    Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Dardanelles Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and
    the Bosporus Strait together link the
    Mediterranean and Black Seas and separate Europe
    from Asia.

Section 1
The Regions Landforms (cont.)
  • The Suez Canal is a human-made waterway that
    allows ships to pass from the Mediterranean Sea
    to the Red Sea.
  • North of the Arabian Peninsula, the Strait of
    Hormuz allows oil tankers to enter and leave the
    Persian Gulf.

Section 1
The Regions Landforms (cont.)
  • The Khyber Pass is a narrow gap between mountains
    in the Hindu Kush, used for centuries as a trade
    route linking Southwest Asia to other parts of
  • The ancient Egyptians relied on the Niles yearly
    flooding, which not only supplied water, but also
    carried siltsmall particles of rich soil that
    made the land fertile for growing crops.

Section 1
The Regions Landforms (cont.)
  • Ancient Mesopotamia was located on an alluvial
    plain, an area of fertile soil left by the
    flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Section 1
Which mountain range is found in the North Africa
region? A. Zagros B. Hindu Kush C. Tian
Shan D. Atlas
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Section 1
Natural Resources
The land in this region is rich in energy
Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Oil is common in the Persian Gulf because the
    land is made up of sedimentary rock, or rock
    created when layers of material are hardened by
    the intense weight of more materials piled above.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Over millions of years, heat and pressure below
    the Earths surface helped turn the remains of
    sea animals and plants into oil.
  • Some of the regions countries have used the
    wealth gained from selling oil to develop new
    industries and provide benefits to the regions

North Africa and Southwest Asia Oil Reserves and
Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Television and the Internet have exposed the
    cultures of the oil-rich countries to ideas from
    other parts of the world.
  • Sometimes this results in conflicts between
    people who support new ways and people who favor
    traditional customs and values.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Coal, iron ore, and fish are also important
    resources in the region, as are phosphates,
    mineral salts used to make fertilizer.
  • Only Lebanon has enough timber to support a
    lumber industry.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Poachingor illegal fishing or huntingof
    sturgeon, the fish whose eggs are used to make
    caviar, has harmed the Caspian Sea and hurt the
    regions fishing industry.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • The Aral Sea was damaged during the 1960s when
    irrigation projects drained water from the two
    main rivers that feed the sea.
  • The water in the Aral Sea also became
    saltierunfit for drinking and harmful to the
    seas fish populations.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Farmland is both helped and harmed by irrigation.
  • Because the climate is dry, when irrigation water
    evaporates, it leaves behind a deposit of salt on
    the land that makes it less fertile or even
    worthless for farming.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • The Aswan High Dam on Egypts upper Nile River
    controls the rivers floodwaters and enables
    farmers to grow and harvest food throughout the
  • A disadvantage of the dam is that it has blocked
    the flow of silt down the river, forcing farmers
    to turn to chemical fertilizers, which can
    pollute the Nile.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • The Aswan High Dam also causes less freshwater to
    flow downriver.
  • This allows saltwater to back up into the Nile,
    ruining some farmlands.

Section 1
Natural Resources (cont.)
  • Air pollution is a growing problem in the region.
  • A large number of cars in the region are older,
    and they release more pollutants.
  • Chemicals released by refineries, the facilities
    that turn petroleum into gasoline and other
    products, also pollute the air.

Section 1
Building dams and dikes in the Aral Sea have
resulted in A. Water levels rising B. A
reduction of salt levels C. Fish stocks
growing D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Section 1-End
Section 2-Main Idea
Places reflect the relationship between humans
and the physical environment.
Section 2-Key Terms
Content Vocabulary
  • wadi
  • erg
  • oasis
  • steppe
  • nomad
  • dry farming
  • aquifer
  • rationing
  • desalinization

Academic Vocabulary
  • sparse
  • adequate

Section 1-Key Terms
A shadoof looks like an abstract sculpture, but
it serves a vital purpose watering dry land
areas in parts of North Africa. A bucket is
attached by a rope at one end of the shadoofs
beam and balanced by a weight at the other end. A
person pulls on the rope, which lowers the bucket
into a well, filling it with water. Releasing the
rope raises the bucket, which can then be emptied
into a ditch to water the soil. Read the section
to learn more about how the regions dry climate
affect those who live there.
Section 2-Polling Question
How have water shortages affected your life?
A. A great deal B. Very little C. A moderate
amount D. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Section 2
Although the Sahara region has the worlds
hottest temperatures and very little rainfall,
scientists believe aquifers underneath the desert
might hold as much as 4 billion gallons of water!
Section 2
A Dry Region
Large areas of desert greatly affect life in the
Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • Dry continental air masses warmed by the sun blow
    over much of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and
    Central Asia, creating mostly desert land with a
    dry, hot climate.

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • The Sahara, the worlds largest desert, covers
    much of North Africa. Summer temperatures can
    climb as high as 136F (58C), but winter
    temperatures are cooler, averaging about 55F
  • Only about 3 inches (8 cm) of rain fall each year
    in the Sahara. Dry riverbeds called wadis fill
    with water when it rains.

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • Most of the Sahara is dry land covered with rock
    or gravel.
  • About 20 percent of the desert is covered by
    ergs, or large sand dunes.
  • The Sahara also contains oases where the land is
    fertile as a result of water from a spring or

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • In the south of the Arabian Peninsula lies the
    Rub al Khali, or Empty Quarter, desert, which
    averages only about 4 inches (10 cm) of rainfall
    per year.

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • In Central Asia, rain shadow areas created by
    high peaks along with dry continental winds have
    formed large desertsthe Kara-Kum and the Kyzyl
  • Both deserts have hot summers but very cold
    winters because they are in the middle latitudes.

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • Bordering the regions deserts are dry, treeless,
    but grassy plains called steppes.
  • Steppes are found in areas north of the Sahara,
    in Turkey, and to the east in Central Asia.
  • Steppe areas receive more rainfallbetween 4 and
    16 inches (10 and 41 cm) per yearthan do deserts.

Section 2
A Dry Region (cont.)
  • Some people on the steppe live as nomads, moving
    across the steppes to find food and water for
    their herds.
  • Others in the steppes practice dry farming, a
    method in which land is left unplanted every few
    years so that it can store moisture.

Water Resources
Section 2
Which region has the highest concentration of
population? A. Highlands of Central Asia
B. Coastal areas in North Africa C. Steppes of
Turkey D. The Arabian Peninsula
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Section 2
The Need for Water
The lack of water is a growing problem in this
Section 2
The Need for Water (cont.)
  • Rainfall is sparse over much of the region, so
    the growing population does not have adequate
    water to meet its needs.
  • A large amount of water is used to irrigate dry

Section 2
The Need for Water (cont.)
  • Some countries, such as Libya, now draw water
    from aquifers, or underground rock layers though
    which water flows.
  • Governments, such as those of Jordan and Syria,
    are dealing with water shortages by rationing, or
    making a resource available to people in limited

Section 2
The Need for Water (cont.)
  • Another approach to managing water is
    desalinization, a process for making seawater

Section 2
Why is there a shortage of water in these
regions? A. Rainfall is sparse. B. Poor
countries cannot afford desalinization
technology. C. High temperatures cause surface
water to evaporate rapidly. D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Section 2-End
VS 1
  • The seas bordering the region provide trade
    routes that connect Europe, Asia, and Africa.
  • Physical features include mountains, low-lying
    plains and plateaus, and coastal plains.
  • Early civilizations based on agriculture
    developed along several of the regions rivers.
  • Tectonic plate movements can cause earthquakes
    in some parts of the region.

VS 2
Natural Resources
  • The region holds much of the worlds oil and
    natural gas reserves.
  • Coal, iron ore, and phosphates are among the
    other valuable mineral resources found in the

VS 3
  • Human activities have damaged the Caspian and
    Aral Seas in recent decades.
  • Dams and too much irrigation have made areas of
    land less useful for farming.
  • Air pollution is a growing problem.

VS 4
  • Vast deserts with dry climates cover much of the
  • The Sahara, the worlds largest desert, covers
    almost all of North Africa.
  • Most people live in steppe areas and coastal
    plains that receive adequate rainfall.
  • The regions generally dry climate and a growing
    population have led to a water shortage.

Figure 1
Figure 2
PP Trans
DFS Trans 1
DFS Trans 2
silt small particles of rich soil
alluvial plain area built up by rich fertile soil
left by river floods
sedimentary rock type of rock formed when layers
of sediment, or dirt from the ocean floor, are
compressed together and harden
phosphate chemical salt used to make fertilizer
poaching illegal fishing or hunting
refinery facility that turns petroleum into
gasoline and other products
intense existing in an extreme degree
expose to put on display to leave without
shelter or protection
wadi dry riverbed that fills with water when rare
rains fall in a desert
erg large areas of soft sands and dunes in the
oasis fertile area that rises in a desert
wherever water is regularly available
steppe partly dry grassland often found on the
edges of a desert
nomad person who lives by moving from place to
place to follow herds of migrating animals to
hunt or to lead herds of grazing animals to fresh
dry farming agriculture that conserves water and
uses crops and growing methods suited to semiarid
aquifer underground layer of rock through which
water flows
rationing making a resource available in limited
desalinization process of treating seawater to
remove salts and minerals and make it drinkable
sparse few or scattered
adequate enough to satisfy a particular
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