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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Economic
Growth Section 2 Westward Bound Section 3 Unity
and Sectionalism Visual Summary
3
Chapter Intro
Economic Growth Essential Question What effects
did the Industrial Revolution have on the U.S.
economy?
4
Chapter Intro
Westward Bound Essential Question How did land
and water transportation affect westward
expansion?
5
Chapter Intro
Unity and Sectionalism Essential Question How
were nation-building issues resolved in the early
1800s?
6
Chapter Time Line
7
Chapter Time Line
8
Chapter Preview-End
9
Section 1-Essential Question
What effects did the Industrial Revolution have
on the U.S. economy?
10
Section 1-Key Terms
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
  • cotton gin
  • interchangeable parts
  • patent
  • factory system
  • capitalism
  • capital
  • free enterprise

Academic Vocabulary
  • contribute
  • element

11
Section 1-Key Terms
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Eli Whitney

12
Section 1-Polling Question
Which type of job appeals to you the most?
A. Factory work B. Farm work C. Office work
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

13
Section 1
The Growth of Industry
New technology changed the way things were made.
14
Section 1
The Growth of Industry (cont.)
  • The invention of tools and machinery to make the
    production of goods easier and faster led to the
    Industrial Revolution.
  • The geography of New England contributed to the
    development of the Industrial Revolution there.
  • Farming was difficult with New Englands poor
    soil.

Technology and Industry
15
Section 1
The Growth of Industry (cont.)
  • There was an abundance of rivers and streams for
    water power.
  • Resources such as coal and iron deposits were
    close.
  • The area had many ports.

Technology and Industry
16
Section 1
The Growth of Industry (cont.)
  • In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin,
    which quickly and efficiently removed the seeds
    from cotton fiber.
  • Whitney used interchangeable parts, which allowed
    for the production of different kinds of goods on
    a large scale.
  • In 1790 Congress passed a patent law to protect
    the rights of inventors.

Technology and Industry
17
Section 1
The Growth of Industry (cont.)
  • Francis Cabot Lowell began the factory system,
    where all manufacturing steps are brought
    together in one place to increase efficiency.
  • Under capitalismthe economic system of the
    United Statesindividuals put their capital into
    a business, hoping that the business will be
    successful and make a profit.

Technology and Industry
18
Section 1
The Growth of Industry (cont.)
  • The major elements of free enterprise are
    competition, profit, private property, and
    economic freedom.

Technology and Industry
19
Section 1
Which of the following was a result of the
invention of the cotton gin? A. It encouraged
farmers in the Northeast to begin planting
cotton. B. It led to a dramatic increase in
Southern cotton production. C. It had no impact
on the demand for cotton. D. It encouraged many
plantation owners to free their enslaved
workers.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

20
Section 1
Agriculture Expands
Agriculture expanded and remained the leading
occupation of most Americans in the 1800s.
21
Section 1
Agriculture Expands (cont.)
  • Farms in the Northeast were small and marketed
    their goods locally.
  • Southern plantation owners used enslaved workers
    from Africa to help meet the increased demand for
    cotton.
  • Farmers also moved west and focused on raising
    cash crops such as corn and wheat.

Population of the United States, 1820
22
Section 1
In which area of the country was cotton the major
crop? A. The North B. The South C. The West
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

23
Section 1
Economic Independence
The growth of factories and trade led to the
development of corporations and cities.
24
Section 1
Economic Independence (cont.)
  • Large businesses called corporations began to
    develop rapidly in the 1830s when legal obstacles
    to their formation were removed.
  • New cities developed along rivers, and older
    cities grew as centers of commerce and trade.
  • Fire and disease both posed very real threats in
    these early cities.
  • Cities offered more opportunities for jobs and
    leisure activities.

25
Section 1
How were corporations financed? A. They received
money from the federal government. B. One
wealthy individual provided all of the
money. C. Shares of ownership called stock were
sold. D. Taxes collected from citizens funded
the corporations.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

26
Section 1-End
27
Section 2-Essential Question
How did land and water transportation affect
westward expansion?
28
Section 2-Key Terms
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
  • census
  • turnpike
  • canal
  • lock

Academic Vocabulary
  • reveal
  • region

29
Section 2-Key Terms
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
  • Robert Fulton
  • De Witt Clinton

30
Section 2-Polling Question
What is your favorite way to travel? A. By
car B. By boat C. By plane
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

31
Section 2
Moving West
Transportation routes such as roads improved as
settlers moved west, and steamboats greatly
improved the transport of goods along rivers.
32
Section 2
Moving West (cont.)
  • In 1790 the first United States census showed
    that 4 million people lived in the United States,
    mostly east of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • The 1820 census revealed that the population of
    the United States had grown to 10 million, and
    nearly 2 million people had moved west of the
    Appalachians.

Western Settlement
33
Section 2
Moving West (cont.)
  • Many turnpikes were developed to make
    transportation and relocation easier.
  • Construction on the National Road, which linked
    western lands to the east coast, began in 1811.
  • Barges could carry far larger loads than wagons,
    but river travel had problems.
  • Most rivers flowed north to south, not east to
    west.

34
Section 2
Moving West (cont.)
  • Traveling against the current by barge was
    extremely difficult and slow.
  • Developed by Robert Fulton, steamboats that could
    travel against strong river currents ushered in a
    new age in river travel.

Roads Tying the Nation Together
35
Section 2
What territory became a state in 1803?
A. Indiana B. Louisiana C. Michigan D. Ohio
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

36
Section 2
Canals
Business and government officials developed a
plan to build a canal to link the eastern and
western parts of the country.
37
Section 2
Canals (cont.)
  • De Witt Clinton led a group that developed a plan
    to link New York City with the Great Lakes region
    via a canal across New York State.
  • The Erie Canal opened on October 26, 1825.
  • A series of locks provided a way to raise and
    lower boats at places canal levels changes.

Canals, 18201860
38
Section 2
Canals (cont.)
  • By 1850, the United States had more than 3,600
    miles of canals.

Canals, 18201860
39
Section 2
Why was the Erie Canal necessary? A. The French
and Spanish prevented travel on the Mississippi
River. B. Steamboats were unable to travel
upstream to northern cities. C. Most major
rivers in the eastern United States flowed
north to south. D. Native Americans prevented
travel on the National Road.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

40
Section 2
Western Settlement
Americans continued to move westward, settling
near rivers so they could ship their goods to
market.
41
Section 2
Western Settlement (cont.)
  • Two waves of westward settlement resulted in the
    admission of several new states.
  • The first wave began before the 1790s, and
    resulted in the creation of Vermont, Kentucky,
    Tennessee, and Ohio.
  • The second wave began between 1816 and 1821, and
    resulted in the creation of Indiana, Illinois,
    Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri.

42
Section 2
Western Settlement (cont.)
  • Pioneers tended to settle in communities along
    large rivers so they could ship their crops and
    goods more easily.

43
Section 2
Why did pioneer families tend to setting in
communities along major rivers? A. To gain
greater protection from Native Americans B. To
make it easier for them to travel
east C. Because they provided fresh drinking
water D. So that they could more easily ship
their crops to market
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

44
Section 2-End
45
Section 3-Essential Question
How were nation-building issues resolved in the
early 1800s?
46
Section 3-Key Terms
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
  • sectionalism
  • state sovereignty
  • American System

Academic Vocabulary
  • intense
  • internal

47
Section 3-Key Terms
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
  • Missouri Compromise
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Gibbons v. Ogden
  • Adams-Onís Treaty
  • Monroe Doctrine

48
Section 3-Polling Question
Rate your agreement with the following statement
I take pride in the region of the country where I
live. A. Strongly agree B. Somewhat
agree C. Somewhat disagree D. Strongly disagree
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

49
Section 3
The Era of Good Feelings
After the War of 1812, a new spirit of
nationalism spread throughout the United States.
50
Section 3
The Era of Good Feelings (cont.)
  • Republican James Monroe was elected president in
    1816 with almost no opposition.
  • The Federalist Party, weakened by doubts of their
    loyalty during the War of 1812, barely existed as
    a national party.
  • The time period was known as the Era of Good
    Feelings because political differences among
    citizens seemed to fade.
  • Monroe won a second term in 1820 with all but one
    electoral vote.

51
Section 3
Which principle of the Federalist Party remained
even after the Party itself dissolved?
A. Support for tariffs to protect
industry B. The abolishment of taxation
altogether C. Support of state sovereignty D. The
dissolution of the national bank
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

52
Section 3
Sectionalism and the American System
Regional differences brought an end to the Era of
Good Feelings.
53
Section 3
Sectionalism and the American System (cont.)
  • The Era of Good Feeling ended as Americans
    developed an intense allegiance to the region
    they came from, resulting in sectionalism.
  • States rights became an issue as North and South
    differed over the institution of slavery, the
    need for tariffs, a national bank, and other
    internal improvements such as canals and roads.

54
Section 3
Sectionalism and the American System (cont.)
  • Three regional spokespersons emerged in Congress.
  • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina emerged as a
    chief supporter state sovereignty and an
    opponent of national programs.
  • Daniel Webster of New England supported
    protective tariffs and spoke eloquently against
    sectionalism.

55
Section 3
Sectionalism and the American System (cont.)
  • Henry Clay from Kentucky was a War Hawk who
    advocated the American System and tried to
    resolve sectional disputes.
  • The Missouri Compromise provided for the
    admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine
    as a free state, preserving the balance between
    North and South.

The Missouri Compromise
56
Section 3
Sectionalism and the American System (cont.)
  • The Supreme Court strengthened the federal
    governments powers with the case McCulloch v.
    Marylanda dispute over state taxation of the
    National Bank.
  • In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court further
    empowered congressional legislation over
    interstate commerce.

57
Section 3
Which of these is not part of Henry Clays
American System proposal? A. Protective
tariffs B. The admission of Maine as a free
state C. A program of internal improvements D. A
national bank
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

58
Section 3
Foreign Affairs
The United States defined its role in the
Americas with the Monroe Doctrine.
59
Section 3
Foreign Affairs (cont.)
  • In the 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty, the United States
    and Britain agreed to limit the number of naval
    vessels on the Great Lakes and remove weapons
    located along the border of the United States and
    British Canada.
  • The Convention of 1818 set the boundary between
    the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel.

60
Section 3
Foreign Affairs (cont.)
  • With the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819, the United
    States gained East Florida, and Spain also
    abandoned all claims to West Florida.
  • By 1824, Spain had lost control of most of its
    territory in South America.

61
Section 3
Foreign Affairs (cont.)
  • In 1823, the president issued the Monroe
    Doctrine which declared
  • The United States would not interfere with any
    existing European colonies in the Americas.
  • North and South America were off-limits for any
    future European colonization.

62
Section 3
Which of the following was NOT part of the
Missouri Compromise? A. Missouri would be
admitted as a slave state. B. Maine would be
admitted as a free state. C. Florida was
admitted as a slave state. D. Slavery was
banned in a certain portion of the Louisiana
Territory.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

63
Section 3-End
64
VS 1
65
VS 2
66
VS-End
67
Figure 1a
68
Figure 1b
69
Figure 2
70
Figure 3
71
Figure 4a
72
Figure 4b
73
Figure 5
74
Figure 6
75
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76
LT 1B
77
S2 Trans Menu
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78
DTP Trans 2
79
LT 2
80
S3 Trans Menu
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81
DTP Trans 3
82
Vocab1
cotton gin a machine that removed seeds from
cotton fiber
83
Vocab2
interchangeable parts uniform pieces that can be
made in large quantities to replace other
identical pieces
84
Vocab3
patent a document that gives an inventor the sole
legal right to an invention for a period of time
85
Vocab4
factory system system bringing manufacturing
steps together in one place to increase
efficiency
86
Vocab5
capitalism an economic system based on private
property and free enterprise
87
Vocab6
capital money for investment
88
Vocab7
free enterprise the freedom of private businesses
to operate competitively for profit with minimal
government regulation
89
Vocab8
contribute help to cause an event or situation
90
Vocab9
element one part of a larger whole
91
Vocab10
census official count of a population
92
Vocab11
turnpike a road that one must pay to use the
money is used to pay for the road
93
Vocab12
canal an artificial waterway
94
Vocab13
lock in a canal, an enclosure with gates at each
end used in raising or lowering boats as they
pass from level to level
95
Vocab14
reveal show something that was hidden
96
Vocab15
region an area inside a larger area
97
Vocab16
sectionalism loyalty to a region
98
Vocab17
state sovereignty the concept that states have
the right to govern themselves independent of the
federal government
99
Vocab18
American System policies devised by Henry Clay to
stimulate the growth of industry
100
Vocab19
intense exhibiting strong feeling
101
Vocab20
internal within a location such as a nation or
state
102
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