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Chapter 4: Sacred Scripture: The Inspired Word of God

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Title: Chapter 4: Sacred Scripture: The Inspired Word of God


1
Chapter 4 Sacred Scripture The Inspired Word
of God
  • FAITH AND REVELATION

2
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The Bible, consisting of two Testamentsthe Old
    and the New, each containing many individual
    books written over a long period of timeis one
    book whose principal author is God.
  • The inner unity of Scripture is found in Christ
    and his Covenant, which are hidden in the Old
    Testament and revealed in the New Testament.

3
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • What are the two parts of the Bible?
  • The Old Testament books were written before the
    time of Christ, and the New Testament books were
    written after Christ. 
  • What is the essential relationship between the
    two Testaments?
  • The New Testament fulfills and completes the
    Old. 

4
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • What is the overall story told by the Old
    Testament?
  • It recounts the long journey of salvation history
    toward redemption.

5
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • THE OLD LAW PREPARED THE WAY FOR THE GOSPEL
  •  
  • God speaks throughout.
  • In the Old Testament, God spoke through prophets
    in the New, he spoke through his Son.
  • Given that it is a collection of many books, why
    is the Bible called the Bible, or Book, and
    not the Bibles, or Many Books?
  • This name reflects the inner unity of these books
    due to God being their principal author.

6
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • The analogy of faith
  • Because of the absolute unity among the truths
    contained in the Bible, each truth can help
    understand the other truths and the total plan of
    Revelation.
  • How does the Person of Christ express the Bibles
    inner unity?
  • Both Testaments are centered on Christ the Old
    Testament prepares the way for Christ, who is
    revealed in the New Testament. 
  • How is Christ present in the Old Testament?
  • He is present in prophesies he fulfills and in
    types, that is, events that prefigure him.
  • How is the Church prefigured in the Old
    Testament?
  • The Chosen People in the Old Testament prefigure
    the People of God in the New Testament, which is
    the Church.

7
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • Guided Exercise
  • Work with a partner to answer the following
    question in writing.
  •  
  • Based on the allegorical spiritual sense of
    Sacred Scripture presented in the last chapter,
    explain how Christ is prefigured in the Old
    Testament in the manna in the desert.

8
1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel
  • Sidebar THE OLD TESTAMENT IS FULFILLED IN
    CHRIST
  •  
  • How is the entire Old Testament fulfilled in
    Christ?
  • As a series of covenants between God and his
    people, the Old Testament is fulfilled in the New
    Covenant between the Person of Jesus Christ and
    his people. In this way, the New Testament is
    hidden in the Old, and the Old is revealed in the
    New.

9
2. The Old Testament Law and History
  • THE BOOKS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
  •  
  • How many books are in the Old Testament?
  • There are forty-six books in the Old Testament. 
  • Over what period of time were the books of the
    Old Testament written?
  • They were written over a period of nearly 1500
    years, from the time of the Exodus through about
    a century before the coming of Christ. 
  • What are the four basic genres of books found in
    the Old Testament?
  • The Old Testament includes law, history, wisdom,
    and prophecy.

10
2. The Old Testament Law and History
  • THE LAW
  • What different names are given to the first five
    books of the Bible?
  • The Books of the Law, the Torah (Hebrew for
    Law), the five Books of Moses, and the
    Pentateuch are used.

11
2. The Old Testament Law and History
12
2. The Old Testament Law and History
13
3. The Old Testament Wisdom and Prophecy
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What is the aim of the wisdom literature of the
    Bible?
  • What is the content of the prophetic books?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The seven books of wisdom tell stories in poetry
    or prose and offer advice to help guide life
    according to Gods wisdom.
  • The eighteen prophetic books warned Israel over
    her infidelity, consoled her in her sufferings,
    and foretold the Messiah, Jesus.

14
3. The Old Testament Wisdom and Prophecy
  • WISDOM
  • What is the subject of Job?
  • It is about the suffering of the innocent.
  • Which is the greatest book of religious poetry,
    and to whom is it attributed?
  • The Psalms are attributed to King David.
  • What is the subject of Ecclesiastes?
  • The vanity of worldly things is decried.

15
3. The Old Testament Wisdom and Prophecy
  • PROPHECY
  • To what extent is it true to say that the
    prophets warned, comforted, and predicted?
  • Often the prophets warned of coming disaster if
    the people of Israel would not return to God.
    When disaster struck, the prophets gave the
    people messages of comfort. Many prophets also
    predicted the coming of the Messiah.
  • Which prophet has some of the clearest prophecies
    of Christ?
  • Isaiah prophesied clearly the Messiah.
  • What were peoples reactions to Jeremiahs
    foretelling the destruction of Judah?
  • They hated him for giving unpleasant news.

16
3. The Old Testament Wisdom and Prophecy
  • Sidebar What Is Prophetic Literature?
  • How many prophetic books are in the Old
    Testament?
  • There are eighteen.
  • What is a prophet?
  • A prophet is called by God or speaks on Gods
    behalf, announcing his message.

17
3. The Old Testament Wisdom and Prophecy
18
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What are the four genres of books in the New
    Testament?
  • What are the basic features of the Gospels of
    Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The New Testament mirrors the Old Testament with
    books of law, history, wisdom, and prophecy.
  • St. Matthew shows Christ to be the heir to
    Davids Kingdom. St. Mark shows Christ to be the
    leader of a new Exodus. St. Luke composed his
    Gospel for Gentile Christians. St. John completes
    the other three Gospels, emphasizing Christ as
    the incarnate Word of God.

19
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • THE NEW TESTAMENT
  • What is the essential relationship between the
    Old and New Testaments?
  • The New Testament does not replace but fulfills
    the Old.
  • What is the Old Testament without the New
    Testament?
  • It is a collection of tragic stories and
    unfulfilled promises. 
  • What is the Old Testament with the New Testament?
  • It is the story of the gradual unfolding of Gods
    plan of salvation, which reaches its climax in
    the Death and Resurrection of Christ.

20
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • What is the essential content of the New
    Testament?
  • It is the story of the life and teachings of
    Jesus Christ and the earliest years of the
    Church.
  • What were the two phases by which the Gospels
    came to be written?
  • First was oral tradition, by which the Apostles
    handed on what Christ had said and done. Second
    was the written Gospels, by which the Sacred
    Authors wrote down some of what had been handed
    on by word of mouth.
  • Which were the first written Christian works?
  • Most likely the Epistles of St. Paul were first.

21
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
22
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • THE GOSPELS
  •  
  • Why are the Gospels the heart of all the
    Scriptures?
  • They are our principal source of knowledge
    regarding the life and teachings of Jesus
    Christ. 
  • Who are the authors of the four Gospels?
  • Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John wrote them. 
  • What is an Evangelist?
  • He is an author of one of the Gospels. Extension
    The word comes from Greek euangelion, which means
    good news.
  • What were the personal relationships between the
    Evangelists and Christ?
  • Sts. Matthew and John were disciples of Christ
    and eyewitnesses of the events they narrate. Sts.
    Mark and Luke were disciples of the Apostles.

23
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • The Gospel of St. Matthew
  • Who was St. Matthew?
  • He was an Apostle of Christ, also called Levi,
    and originally a tax collector.
  • What was the original audience and primary aim of
    St. Matthews Gospel?
  • St. Matthew wrote for Jewish Christians living in
    Palestine to show Jesus is the Messiah, the
    Christ.
  • What are some distinctive characteristics of St.
    Matthews Gospel?
  • Two are the genealogy of Christ, which echoes the
    Book of Genesis, and his extensive use of direct
    quotes from Christ.

24
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • The Gospel of St. Mark
  • What was the relationship between Sts. Peter and
    Mark?
  • They had something of a father-and-son
    relationship. St. Peter was the source of much of
    St. Marks Gospel. 
  • Who was St. Marks original audience?
  • He probably wrote to Gentile Christians in Rome. 
  • What seems to have been St. Marks main interest?
  • He emphasized what Christ did more than what he
    said. 
  • Why is it relatively easy to read St. Marks
    Gospel in one sitting?
  • It is the shortest Gospel and reads quickly.

25
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • The Gospel of St. Luke
  • When was the Gospel of St. Luke written?
  • It was likely written after those of Sts. Matthew
    and Mark.
  • Why is there reason to believe there were a
    number of accounts of Christs life circulating
    among Christians by the time St. Luke had set out
    to write his Gospel?
  • He wrote that he wanted to give an orderly
    account of Christs life. This implies there may
    have been other, partial accounts that did not
    provide as complete a history of Christs life.
  • With which Apostle is St. Luke most associated?
  • St. Luke accompanied St. Paul on some of his
    missionary journeys.

26
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • Who was St. Lukes probable original audience?
  • He wrote to Gentile converts.
  • Did St. Luke get all his information about Christ
    second hand?
  • No. St. Luke was likely an eyewitness to many of
    the events described in his Gospel.
  • From whom did St. Luke learn of the Annunciation,
    the Birth of Christ, the visit of the shepherds,
    and the finding of the Christ child in the
    Temple?
  • He probably learned these from the Blessed Virgin
    Mary herself.
  • How does St. Lukes occupation as a physician
    show itself in his Gospel?
  • St. Lukes Gospel takes a detailed interest in
    Christs healings.

27
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
  • The Gospel of St. John
  • Who wrote the Gospel of St. John?
  • The disciple whom Christ loved, the Apostle St.
    John, wrote it. 
  • When was St. Johns Gospel written?
  • His was the last Gospel written, probably about
    AD 100. 
  • What is the relationship between St. Johns
    Gospel and the Synoptic Gospels?
  • St. Johns Gospel presupposes the other Gospels
    existence and was written to complete them. St.
    Johns Gospel uses a different, more theological
    language, and it includes events not contained in
    the other Gospels.

28
4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels
29
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What is Acts of the Apostles?
  • What is the purpose of the Epistles?
  • What is the message of the Book of Revelation?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • St. Luke followed his Gospel with the Acts of the
    Apostles, a history of the apostolic Church.
  • The Epistles, which is the wisdom literature of
    the New Testament, addressed problems of the
    early Church to live holy lives.
  • The Book of Revelation promises the fulfillment
    of the New Covenant.

30
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
  • With what element of suspense does each Gospel
    end?
  • Each Gospel ends with Christ risen from the dead
    and instructing his disciples to spread the
    Gospel, but they had not yet received the Holy
    Spirit. 
  • Why did St. Luke write the Acts of the Apostles?
  • Inspired by the Holy Spirit, St. Luke knew future
    generations could benefit from a record of
    important events from the apostolic Church. 
  • What is the relationship between St. Lukes
    Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles?
  • The Acts of the Apostles is a sequel to St.
    Lukes Gospel. 
  • What have archeologists and historians confirmed
    about the Acts of the Apostles?
  • Every detail of St. Lukes narrative that can be
    verified has turned out to be exactly accurate.
    Therefore, he is an extraordinarily reliable
    record-keeper.

31
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • THE EPISTLES
  • Which New Testament books were written earliest?
  • The Epistles likely were written first. 
  • What is an epistle?
  • It is a letter intended for a specific audience
    the Epistles in the New Testament were written
    often in response to particular problems in the
    early Church.
  • How do the Epistles illustrate Christian life in
    the apostolic Church?
  • They clarified and extended the teachings of the
    Apostles and corrected early errors. 
  • Who wrote most of the Epistles?
  • St. Paul wrote most of them.

32
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • How are the Epistles of St. Paul arranged?
  • They are arranged generally from longest to
    shortest rather than the order in which they were
    written. 
  • Who made up St. Pauls original audiences?
  • Nine of St. Pauls letters were written to
    churches in various cities of the Roman Empire,
    and four were written to individuals. 
  • What is the importance of the Epistle to the
    Hebrews?
  • It shows how the Old Testament is fulfilled in
    the life of Christ.
  • What are the Catholic Epistles?
  • They are letters written to the entire Church
    rather than to a particular church or individual.

33
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • THE BOOK OF REVELATION
  • What is the literary form of the Book of
    Revelation?
  • It is a prophetic book. 
  • How does the Book of Revelation convey its
    message?
  • It uses symbols, allegories, and metaphors.
  • Who is the author of the Book of Revelation?
  • It is attributed to St. John, the Apostle and
    Evangelist, the disciple whom Christ loved.

34
5. The New Testament Books of History, Wisdom,
and Prophecy
  • What is the basic message of the Book of
    Revelation?
  • There will be great tribulation, but God will
    preserve his people and bring them into the New,
    heavenly Jerusalem. 
  • How is Revelation an apt conclusion to Sacred
    Scripture?
  • The Book of Genesis begins with Creation, and the
    Book of Revelation ends with the New Creation.
    Genesis recounts the Fall of all people, and
    Revelation recounts the final salvation of all
    the faithful.

35
6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How was the canon of Sacred Scripture determined?
  • KEY IDEA
  • The canon of Sacred Scripture was determined by
    the Magisterium of the Church. The canon of the
    Old Testament followed the Septuagint, which was
    used by the Apostles, while the canon of the New
    Testament was based on apostolic origin,
    orthodoxy of content, and catholicity.

36
6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture
  • THE CANON OF SACRED SCRIPTURE
  • What is the literal meaning of canon?
  • It means measuring rod or rule.
  • What is the meaning of canon of Scripture?
  • It denotes a list of books that comprise Sacred
    Scripture. 
  • Do the Sacred Scriptures reveal which books
    belong to it?
  • No this was determined by the Magisterium of the
    Church. 
  • What practical problem did the early Church face
    that resulted in the forming of the canon of
    Scripture?
  • The practical problem was to choose which of the
    many writings about Christ in circulation would
    be read during Churchs liturgies.

37
6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture
  • Canon of the Old Testament
  • What is the Septuagint?
  • It is a Greek edition of the Old Testament
    translated by rabbis in Alexandria in the third
    century BC. 
  • Why do modern-day Jews have a different canon
    than the Old Testament in Catholic Bibles?
  • Jewish rabbis met in Jamnia about AD 90 and
    decided to exclude Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach,
    Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and fragments of
    Esther and Daniel because they were not composed
    or preserved in Hebrew.
  • What are the deuterocanonical books?
  • These books appear in the Septuagint but not in
    the modern Jewish canon. Deuterocanonical comes
    from the Greek for second canon.

38
6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture
  • Why did Christians include the deuterocanonical
    books?
  • The Apostles and their successors in the Catholic
    Church held them to be part of Sacred Scripture. 
  • What are some Catholic beliefs and practices
    witnessed in the deuterocanonical books?
  • The Second Book of Maccabees shows the practice
    of praying for the souls of the dead. The Book of
    Tobit includes the existence and action of
    guardian angels.
  • What are the apocrypha?
  • The apocrypha are books of dubious origin that
    have been excluded from the canon of Scripture.
    Extension Many Protestants and Jews refer to the
    deuterocanonical books with this word.

39
6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture
  • Canon of the New Testament
  • When were the New Testament books written?
  • They were written between AD 40 and 100.
  • What were the original languages of the New
    Testament books?
  • St. Matthew likely wrote his version of the
    gospel in Aramaic. The rest were written in Greek
    with some Semitic influences.
  • Why did the Church need to determine the canon of
    the New Testament?
  • Within a few centuries, there were numerous
    accounts of the life of Christ circulating among
    the Christian community. The origin and teachings
    of many were suspect.

40
The End
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