1. Introduction to Ethical Issues in Agriculture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

1. Introduction to Ethical Issues in Agriculture

Description:

... should we do about the holes in the ozone layer (& subsequent global warming) ... 2.Collect all relevant facts. 3.Determine relevant alternative solutions. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:526
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: LarryDS
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 1. Introduction to Ethical Issues in Agriculture


1
1. Introduction to Ethical Issues in
Agriculture the Environment SPRING 2002
  • Larry D. Sanders

Dept. of Ag Economics Oklahoma State
University
2
INTRODUCTION
  • Purpose to become aware of the ethical issues
    in agriculture and the environment
  • Learning Objectives
  • 1. Explain the fundamentals of ethics relation
    to environmental agricultural issues.
  • 2. Review concepts jargon in theory of ethics.
  • References
  • Van DeVeer Pierce Thomas, Matthews van
    Ravenswaay Coufal Spuches
  • The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    (www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/environm.htm)
  • Rolston, H. Environmental Ethics, Temple
    University Press, 1988.
  • Hackett, S., Environmental Natural Resources
    Economics, M. E. Sharpe, 1998.

3
Whether or not we are aware of it or can express
it, ethics seem to matter. . . .
  • That there ought to be some ethic concerning the
    environment can be doubted only by those who
    believe in no ethics at all. For humans are
    evidently helped or hurt by the condition of
    their environment.
  • --Holmes Rolston, 1988

4
Empirical vs. Moral/Ethical Claims Can you see
a difference?
  • Empirical Claims
  • 1. Rape is occurring somewhere now.
  • 2. Child abuse is absent in the Dominican
    Republic.
  • 3. Thousands of people have died in Rwanda.
  • 4. Lying is often motivated by the desire to
    avoid shame.
  • 5. There are now over 6 billion people on planet
    Earth.
  • Moral/Ethical Claims
  • 1. Rape is wrong.
  • 2. Child abuse is contrary to ones duty.
  • 3. We should not let people starve to death.
  • 4. It is sometimes alright to lie.
  • 5. Human life is very valuable.

5
Empirical vs. Moral/Ethical Questions Can you
see a difference?
  • Empirical Questions
  • What are the economics of animal production?
  • How do we measure the severity of ozone depletion
    and its subsequent impacts?
  • What is the earths carrying capacity given some
    economic goals?
  • How do we improve food production/distribution
    and access by low income people?
  • Moral/Ethical Questions
  • How ought we to treat animals?
  • What should we do about the holes in the ozone
    layer ( subsequent global warming)?
  • What should we do to slow population growth?
  • What should we do about world hunger?

6
Ethics vs. Morals
  • Ethics
  • Planned attempt to follow societal norms,
    standards, and expectations
  • Seeks to define what is right what is wrong on
    a universal basis.
  • Morals
  • Reflect the dominant belief of a particular
    culture or institution about what is right or
    wrong.
  • --R. Cahn, 1988 (taken from Coufal Spuches)

7
Ethics vs. Morals
  • ethics the branch of philosophy that
    investigates and creates theories about the
    nature of right and wrong, duty, obligation,
    freedom, virtue, and other issues where sentient
    beings can be harmed or helped. Sometimes
    contrasts with morality. (G. Pence)
  • morality what in fact people believe to be right
    and wrong, or how they in fact act sometimes
    contrasts with ethics (the study of how they
    should act). (G. Pence)

8
Morals vs. Ethics Doing vs. Thinking
  • Morality often refers to actual moral choice and
    conduct (doing) and to those considerations such
    as moral values and commitments which directly
    shape them.
  • Ethics . . . is often used to refer to the
    secondary activity of reflecting on (thinking),
    justifying, and criticizing such conduct
    considerations.

Camenisch, 1986, taken from Coufal Spuches
9
Are there moral imperatives that transcend
cultures institutions to become ethical codes?
  1. You should not kill?
  2. You should not steal?
  3. Incest is wrong?
  4. Life begins at the point of conception?
  5. You should always tell the truth?
  6. Farmers are the best stewards of the land?
  7. Only humans have rights?

10
Ethics act as constraint on social conduct
  • An ethic, ecologically, is a limitation on
    freedom of action in the struggle for existence.
  • An ethic, philosophically, is a differentiation
    of social from anti-social conduct.
  • All ethics so far evolved rest upon a single
    premise that the individual is a member of a
    community of independent parts.
  • The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries
    of the community to include soils, waters,
    plants, and animals, or collectively.
  • A. Leopold, 1948 taken from Coufal Spuches.

11
Ethics Govern
  • Human Conduct
  • Values
  • Activity

12
Ethics Some Fundamentals
  • Ethics--branch of philosophy concerned w/moral
    duty ideal human character
  • Intrinsic rightness (Deontological Ethics)
  • whats desirable (hypothetical imperative)
  • whats necessary (categorical imperative)
  • Rawls Justice (fairness concept)
  • Leopold Deep Ecology
  • Instrumental value (Teleological Ethics)
  • end justifies means if desirable consequences
    result (consequentialism)
  • Natural Law Utilitarianism

13
Ethics Some Fundamentals (cont)
  • Logical fallacy to believe that sciences of what
    is can be applied to what ought
  • Environmental Agricultural Ethics--examines the
    moral basis of environmental responsibility 3
    competing theories
  • 1. Anthropocentrism
  • 2. Species rights
  • 3. Ecocentrism

14
How does ethics work why does ethics matter?
Influences on Decision Making . . .
Culture
Ethics Economics Science Technology
World-view
Individual Experience
Decisions
15
Culture as an influence on decision making . . .

history
religion
family
Culture
Individual Experience
Politics policy
philosophy
education
16
Worldview, filtered through key factors, as an
influence on decision making . . .
facts
attitudes
Ethics (universal moral responsibility) Economic
s (means motives) Science (knowledge) Technology
(means)
beliefs
Worldview
myths
values
goals
17
Decisions--the moral/ethical problem-solving or
decision making process
  • 1. Identify a normative or moral assertion
    (i.e., I believe in the death penalty).
  • 2. Support with reasons (empirical facts, moral
    facts beliefs).
  • 3. Reflect on reasons (evaluate).
  • 4. Weigh reasons using some ethical standard
    (i.e., intrinsic rightness or instrumental
    value).
  • 5. Choose or make decision (act).

18
Decisions--Empirical problem-solving or decision
making process (aka scientific method)
  • 1.State a testable hypothesis or problem.
  • 2.Collect all relevant facts.
  • 3.Determine relevant alternative solutions.
  • 4.Evaluate the likely consequences.
  • 5.Choose or make decision.
  • 6.Assess feedback.

19
The Logical Fallacy of attempting to use the
scientific method to go from is to ought
  • Empirical
  • 1.State a testable hypothesis or problem.
  • 2.Collect all relevant facts.
  • 3.Determine relevant alternative solutions.
  • 4.Evaluate the likely consequences.
  • 5.Choose or make decision.
  • 6.Assess feedback.
  • Moral/Ethical
  • 1.Identify a normative or moral assertion (i.e.,
    I believe in the death penalty).
  • 2.Support with reasons (empirical facts, moral
    facts beliefs).
  • 3.Reflect on reasons (evaluate).
  • 4.Weigh reasons using some ethical standard
    (i.e., intrinsic rightness or instrumental
    value).
  • 5.Choose or make decision (act).

Conclusion the scientific method doesnt work
with the moral/ethical claim/question.
20
What are Agricultural Environmental Ethics?
  • Attempts to describe the way one perceives,
    reflects on, acts on, treats the world
  • The framework of attitudes values
    individuals/societies have regarding agriculture
    the environment
  • A system of moral responsibility between humans
    their agricultural systems environment(s)
  • Values embodied upheld by codes of ethics of
    natural resources professions.
  • Coufal Spuches, as modified by Sanders

21
What are Agricultural Environmental Ethics
(continued)?
  • The extension of general (human) ethics to the
    interactions of people with their agricultural
    system the environment a comprehensive,
    coherent set of principles, duties, obligations,
    and responsibilities guiding human behavior
    toward or to the agricultural system and natural
    environment.
  • Coufal Spuches, as modified by Sanders

22
Ethics For or Of the Environment?
  • A Management (Instrumental) Ethic
  • An ethic for the use of the environment or
    agricultural system leads to duties regarding the
    environment
  • A Loving (Intrinsic) Ethic
  • An ethic of the environment itself leads to
    duties to the environment.
  • Regan 1981, adapted from Coufal Spuches by
    Sanders

23
Code of Ethics Example
  • Ecological Society of America
  • General Canon 1 All members will use their
    knowledge, skills, and training to find ways to
    harmonize societys needs, demands, and actions
    with the maintenance and enhancement of natural
    and managed ecosystems.
  • ESA 1993, from Coufal Spuches

24
Ethics Morality?
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy that is
    concerned with moral duty and ideal human
    character.
  • --Steven C. Hackett, 1998

25
Some agriculturally and environmentally ethical
claims
  • 1. As long as more people are better off,
    development should proceed.
  • 2. Humans should be responsible for the welfare
    of animals.
  • 3. Animals have a right to a quality of life and
    protection.
  • 4. Land owners should be free to do what they
    want on or with the land.
  • 5. The world was made for man and man was made to
    rule conquer earth.

26
Alternative Methods of Economics Relate to
Inclusion or Exclusion of Ethics
  • Positive Economics
  • evaluates what is (the observable)
  • the scientific method
  • objectivity is key
  • Normative Economics
  • determines/suggests what ought to be done
  • based on the norms/standards of society/culture
  • bias is assumed/explained in the process

27
The Key Fundamental Questions of Economics
  • 1. What goods/services are produced?
  • 2. How are goods/services produced?
  • 3. Who gets benefits costs?
  • NOTE Often not discussed are related
    important ethical questions such as
  • --Who decides?
  • --Who/what/how to represent the voices of those
    who dont have a voice?
  • --Whats fair to whom?

28
Sampling of Agricultural/Environmental
Controversial Issues with Ethical Dimensions
  • 1. Animal rights/welfare
  • 2. Intrinsic value of nature
  • 3. Trade issues
  • 4. Bio-engineering
  • 5. Development cultural destruction
  • 6. Population control
  • 7. Endangered species
  • 8. Business practices
  • 9. Biodiversity
  • 10.Property rights

29
Utilitarian Principles Economics
  • Benefit Cost Analysis
  • preferred policy or choice B gt C Net Benefits
    are greatest
  • Pareto Efficiency Criterion
  • policy cant reduce the welfare of others
  • Pareto Superior
  • winners must compensate losers
  • Kaldor-Hicks Criterion
  • winners must have potential to compensate losers

30
Efficiency of Market System
  • Market efficiency
  • Qd Qs
  • MB MC
  • Net Benefits maximized for private market
  • Social Benefits maximized if
  • MBp MBs MCp MCs

31
Market Equilibrium
SMCpMWTSp
Price
P1
DMBpMVpMWTPp
Quantity
Q1
32
Market Failure--Costs
SMCs
SMCp
Price
P2
DMBpMVpMWTPpMBs
P1
Quantity
Q2
Q1
33
Market Failure--Benefits
SMCpMCs
Price
P2
DMBs
P1
DMBp
Quantity
Q1
34
Market Failure
  • Inefficient allocation of resources
  • MBp MCp
  • MBs MCs
  • Sources
  • Imperfect Competition (market power)
  • Imperfect Information
  • Public Goods--property rights not assigned
  • Externalities--costs/benefits that dont accrue
    to economic unit that creates them

35
Market Efficiency Issues
  • Equity
  • Efficiency may not be Equitable
  • Distribution may be a problem
  • Best is determined by Society
About PowerShow.com