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Title: Government, Politics, and Law

Government, Politics, and Law
  • SPC Law
  • By
  • Shane Patrick Collins

  • A. Bering Land Bridge
  • B. Hundreds of independent tribes
  • C. Civilizations Mayans Central, Incas
    South, Aztecs Mexico
  • D. Mount Builders Ohio
  • II. Early Discoverers
  • A. Vikings Leif Ericsson Greenland
    Northern Canada 1000 AD
  • B. Italian Christopher Columbus for
    Spain 1492 - Guanahani
  • b. Black Legend missionaries kill
    Indians disease kind of true
  • VI. Exchange of goods
  • A. Improved diet of Europeans corn, tobacco,
    tomato, avocado balanced
  • B. Cattle, horses, germs to New World

Spanish/Portuguese Exploration
  • A. Reasons for exploring
  • a. Wealthy nations gold based
  • b. Renaissance optimism/humanism
    we can do anything
  • c. Trade routes
  • d. Printing press ideas spread
  • e. Mariners compass exploration

Spanish/Portuguese Exploration
  • B. Spain peace w/ Isabella and Ferdinand
    uniting plus no Moors/Muslims
  • a. Conquistadores Spanish
    gold/glory fighting tradition
  • C. Portugal
  • a. Looking water route to Asia
    brought slavery from Africa
  • D. Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 Pope
    divides New World
  • a. Brazil to Portugal Rest to Spain

Cost A Explorers conquest weapons disease
use rival tribesnalysis
  • A. Ponce de Leon fountain of youth
  • B. Pizarro defeated Incas
  • C. Cortez defeated Aztecs/Montezuma

  • A. Encomienda System Spaniard gets land and
    all inhabitants become laborers
  • B. Missions Junipero Serra San Diego 21
  • a. Spread religion centers of
  • b. Black Legend missionaries kill
    Indians disease kind of true

Exchange of goods
  • A. Improved diet of Europeans corn, tobacco,
    tomato, avocado balanced
  • B. Cattle, horses, germs to New World

  • A. Buccaneers Protestantism and Plunder
    Sir Francis Drake
  • B. Roanoke Island 1585 lost colony
    forgotten during war CROATOAN

  • C. Reasons for Colonization
  • 1. Enclosure small farmers forced out
  • 2. Unemployed farmers
  • 3. Primogeniture oldest son
  • 4. Joint Stock Company investment
  • 5. Peace with Spain
  • 6. Adventure

South Rivers, plantations, seasons suitable
for farming
  • A. Virginia - Jamestown Virginia Company
    Starving Time Pocahontas John Smith
  • a. He who shall not work shall not
    eat John Smith
  • b. wrong type of explorers/colonists
    age, gender, motivation gold
  • c. John Rolfe Tobacco bewitching
  • nals

South Rivers, plantations, seasons suitable
for farming
B. Maryland Catholic haven C. West
Indies Sugar absentee slave owners mostly
male slaves D. Carolinas linked to W.
Indies Charles a. N. Carolina less
aristocratic, independent, some outcasts,
religious E. Georgia buffer zone and
philanthropic experiment new start for criminals
Northern Colonies
  • A. Protestant Reformation Puritanism
    Church of England not reformed/true
  • a. Puritans Separatists Holland
    Mayflower landed N. of Virginia
  • i. Brought strangers useful
  • ii. Mayflower Compact govt by
  • iii. Plymouth Colony not large
    or important economically
  • d. Rhode Island Roger Williams new
    and dangerous opinions
  • i. Believed pay Indians for
    land, separate church/state, outcasts
  • e. Connecticut Thomas Hooker
    womens rights Fundamental Orders
  • f. New Hampshire fishing

Northern Colonies
  • b. Non-Separatists change English religion
    from within interact
  • i. Massachussetts Bay Colony
    City on a Hill 11 ships, 1000
  • ii. Church and state theocracy
  • iii. Protestant work ethic
    follow your calling God likes effort
  • c. Anti-Puritan Anne Hutchinson
    meetings, questioned teaching/banish

Northern Colonies
  • d. Rhode Island Roger Williams new and
    dangerous opinions
  • i. Believed pay Indians for
    land, separate church/state, outcasts
  • e. Connecticut Thomas Hooker womens
    rights Fundamental Orders
  • f. New Hampshire fishing

Middle Colonies
  • A. New York Old Netherlands Dutch
    company aristocratic
  • B. Delaware New Sweden
  • C. Pennysylvania William Penn pacifist,
    bought Indian land

New England Confederation
  • 1643
  • unite for Indians/runaways/internal problems

Farm and Town Life
  • A. Towns in New England united
    geography/fear of Indians force close relations
  • 1. Puritanism makes unity important
  • 2. More than 50 families in town requires
  • 3. Puritans ran churches democratically
    led to democratic government

Farm and Town Life
  • 4. New England way of life climate, bad soil,
    Puritanism made people touch, self-reliant
  • a. Seasons led to diversified
    agriculture and industry to survive
  • b. Dense forests led to shipbuilding
  • c. Not diverse at first immigrants
    not attracted
  • B. Southern settlement random by independent

  • A. Germans left for war, religion, bad
    economy settle in Pennsylvania not
  • B. Scotts-Irish Scottish kicked out of
    Ireland because not Catholic settled in
  • 1. Lawless, individualistic lived in
    Appalachian hills whickey making
  • 2. Not wanted by Germans or New
    Englanders forced to hills
  • C. Other groups embraced French, Dutch,
    Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss
  • D. Largest immigrant group slaves

  • triangle trade in South natural resources to
    England gt weapons/textiles to Africa gtslaves to
    Indies/South gt sugar to America gt England
  • A. Economy Agriculture 1 but, putting out
    system at home manufacturing/lumbering
  • B. South staple crops of indigo, rice,

Great Awakening
  • people swaying from the lord God all powerful
    must return to church
  • A. Started by Jonathan Edwards Sinners in
    the Hands of an Angry God
  • B. Powerful, angry, animated speaking spread
    across colonies United colonies

  • New England colleges for lawyers, priests
    theology and dead languages
  • A. Independent thinking not encouraged
    discipline severe stuck in the classics

  • 1763 - The Proclamation of 1763, signed by
    King George III of England, prohibits any English
    settlement west of the Appalachian mountains and
    requires those already settled in those regions
    to return east in an attempt to ease tensions
    with Native Americans.
  • 1764 - The Sugar Act is passed by the English
    Parliament to offset the war debt brought on by
    the French and Indian War and to help pay for the
    expenses of running the colonies and newly
    acquired territories. This act increases the
    duties on imported sugar and other items such as
    textiles, coffee, wines and indigo (dye). It
    doubles the duties on foreign goods reshipped
    from England to the colonies and also forbids the
    import of foreign rum and French wines.

  • 1764 - The English Parliament passes a measure
    to reorganize the American customs system to
    better enforce British trade laws, which have
    often been ignored in the past. A court is
    established in Halifax, Nova Scotia, that will
    have jurisdiction over all of the American
    colonies in trade matters.
  • 1764 - The Currency Act prohibits the
    colonists from issuing any legal tender paper
    money. This act threatens to destabilize the
    entire colonial economy of both the industrial
    North and agricultural South, thus uniting the
    colonists against it.

  • 1764 - In May, at a town meeting in Boston,
    James Otis raises the issue of taxation without
    representation and urges a united response to the
    recent acts imposed by England. In July, Otis
    publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies
    Asserted and Proved." In August, Boston merchants
    begin a boycott of British luxury goods.
  • 1765 - In March, the Stamp Act is passed
    by the English Parliament imposing the first
    direct tax on the American colonies, to offset
    the high costs of the British military
    organization in America. Thus for the first time
    in the 150 year old history of the British
    colonies in America, the Americans will pay tax
    not to their own local legislatures in America,
    but directly to England.

  • 1765 - Also in March, the Quartering Act
    requires colonists to house British troops and
    supply them with food.
  • 1765 - In May, in Virginia, Patrick Henry
    presents seven Virginia Resolutions to the House
    of Burgesses claiming that only the Virginia
    assembly can legally tax Virginia residents,
    saying, "If this be treason, make the most of
    it." Also in May, the first medical school in
    America is founded, in Philadelphia.

  • 1765 - In July, the Sons of Liberty, an
    underground organization opposed to the Stamp
    Act, is formed in a number of colonial towns. Its
    members use violence and intimidation to
    eventually force all of the British stamp agents
    to resign and also stop many American merchants
    from ordering British trade goods.
  • 1765 - August 26, a mob in Boston attacks
    the home of Thomas Hutchinson, Chief Justice of
    Massachusetts, as Hutchinson and his family
    narrowly escape.

  • 1765 - In October, the Stamp Act Congress
    convenes in New York City, with representatives
    from nine of the colonies. The Congress prepares
    a resolution to be sent to King George III and
    the English Parliament. The petition requests the
    repeal of the Stamp Act and the Acts of 1764. The
    petition asserts that only colonial legislatures
    can tax colonial residents and that taxation
    without representation violates the colonists'
    basic civil rights.
  • 1765 - On November 1, most daily business
    and legal transactions in the colonies cease as
    the Stamp Act goes into effect with nearly all of
    the colonists refusing to use the stamps. In New
    York City, violence breaks out as a mob burns the
    royal governor in effigy, harasses British
    troops, then loots houses.

  • 1765 - In December, British General Thomas
    Gage, commander of all English military forces in
    America, asks the New York assembly to make
    colonists comply with the Quartering Act and
    house and supply his troops. Also in December,
    the American boycott of English imports spreads,
    as over 200 Boston merchants join the movement.
  • 1766 - In January, the New York assembly
    refuses to completely comply with Gen. Gage's
    request to enforce the Quartering Act.

  • 1766 - In March, King George III signs a bill
    repealing the Stamp Act after much debate in the
    English Parliament, which included an appearance
    by Ben Franklin arguing for repeal and warning of
    a possible revolution in the American colonies if
    the Stamp Act was enforced by the British
  • 1766 - On the same day it repealed the
    Stamp Act, the English Parliament passes the
    Declaratory Act stating that the British
    government has total power to legislate any laws
    governing the American colonies in all cases
  • 1766 - In April, news of the repeal of
    the Stamp Act results in celebrations in the
    colonies and a relaxation of the boycott of
    imported English trade goods.

  • 1766 - In August, violence breaks out in New
    York between British soldiers and armed
    colonists, including Sons of Liberty members. The
    violence erupts as a result of the continuing
    refusal of New York colonists to comply with the
    Quartering Act. In December, the New York
    legislature is suspended by the English Crown
    after once again voting to refuse to comply with
    the Act.
  • 1767 - In June, The English Parliament
    passes the Townshend Revenue Acts, imposing a new
    series of taxes on the colonists to offset the
    costs of administering and protecting the
    American colonies. Items taxed include imports
    such as paper, tea, glass, lead and paints. The
    Act also establishes a colonial board of customs
    commissioners in Boston. In October, Bostonians
    decide to reinstate a boycott of English luxury

  • 1768 - In February, Samuel Adams of
    Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing
    taxation without representation and calling for
    the colonists to unite in their actions against
    the British government. The letter is sent to
    assemblies throughout the colonies and also
    instructs them on the methods the Massachusetts
    general court is using to oppose the Townshend
  • 1768 - In April, England's Secretary of
    State for the Colonies, Lord Hillsborough, orders
    colonial governors to stop their own assemblies
    from endorsing Adams' circular letter.
    Hillsborough also orders the governor of
    Massachusetts to dissolve the general court if
    the Massachusetts assembly does not revoke the
    letter. By month's end, the assemblies of New
    Hampshire, Connecticut and New Jersey have
    endorsed the letter.

  • 1768 - In May, a British warship armed with
    50 cannons sails into Boston harbor after a call
    for help from custom commissioners who are
    constantly being harassed by Boston agitators. In
    June, a customs official is locked up in the
    cabin of the Liberty, a sloop owned by John
    Hancock. Imported wine is then unloaded illegally
    into Boston without payment of duties. Following
    this incident, customs officials seize Hancock's
    sloop. After threats of violence from Bostonians,
    the customs officials escape to an island off
    Boston, then request the intervention of British

  • 1768 - In July, the governor of Massachusetts
    dissolves the general court after the legislature
    defies his order to revoke Adams' circular
    letter. In August, in Boston and New York,
    merchants agree to boycott most British goods
    until the Townshend Acts are repealed. In
    September, at a town meeting in Boston, residents
    are urged to arm themselves. Later in September,
    English warships sail into Boston Harbor, then
    two regiments of English infantry land in Boston
    and set up permanent residence to keep order.

  • 1769 - In March, merchants in Philadelphia join
    the boycott of British trade goods. In May, a set
    of resolutions written by George Mason is
    presented by George Washington to the Virginia
    House of Burgesses. The Virginia Resolves oppose
    taxation without representation, the British
    opposition to the circular letters, and British
    plans to possibly send American agitators to
    England for trial. Ten days later, the Royal
    governor of Virginia dissolves the House of
    Burgesses. However, its members meet the next day
    in a Williamsburg tavern and agree to a boycott
    of British trade goods, luxury items and slaves.

  • 1769 - In July, in the territory of California,
    San Diego is founded by Franciscan Friar Juniper
    Serra. In October, the boycott of English goods
    spreads to New Jersey, Rhode Island, and then
    North Carolina.
  • 1770 - The population of the American
    colonies reaches 2,210,000 persons.
  • 1770 - Violence erupts in January between
    members of the Sons of Liberty in New York and 40
    British soldiers over the posting of broadsheets
    by the British. Several men are seriously wounded.

  • March 5, 1770 - The Boston Massacre occurs as a
    mob harasses British soldiers who then fire their
    muskets pointblank into the crowd, killing three
    instantly, mortally wounding two others and
    injuring six. After the incident, the new Royal
    Governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, at
    the insistence of Sam Adams, withdraws British
    troops out of Boston to nearby harbor islands.
    The captain of the British soldiers, Thomas
    Preston, is then arrested along with eight of his
    men and charged with murder.

  • 1770 - In April, the Townshend Acts are
    repealed by the British. All duties on imports
    into the colonies are eliminated except for tea.
    Also, the Quartering Act is not renewed.
  • 1770 - In October, trial begins for the
    British soldiers arrested after the Boston
    Massacre. Colonial lawyers John Adams and Josiah
    Quincy successfully defend Captain Preston and
    six of his men, who are acquitted. Two other
    soldiers are found guilty of manslaughter,
    branded, then released.

  • 1772 - In June, a British customs schooner, the
    Gaspee, runs aground off Rhode Island in
    Narragansett Bay. Colonists from Providence row
    out to the schooner and attack it, set the
    British crew ashore, then burn the ship. In
    September, a 500 pound reward is offered by the
    English Crown for the capture of those colonists,
    who would then be sent to England for trial. The
    announcement that they would be sent to England
    further upsets many American colonists.
  • 1772 - In November, a Boston town meeting
    assembles, called by Sam Adams. During the
    meeting, a 21 member committee of correspondence
    is appointed to communicate with other towns and
    colonies. A few weeks later, the town meeting
    endorses three radical proclamations asserting
    the rights of the colonies to self-rule

  • 1773 - In March, the Virginia House of
    Burgesses appoints an eleven member committee of
    correspondence to communicate with the other
    colonies regarding common complaints against the
    British. Members of that committee include,
    Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and Richard Henry
    Lee. Virginia is followed a few months later by
    New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut and
    South Carolina.

  • 1773 - May 10, the Tea Act takes effect. It
    maintains a threepenny per pound import tax on
    tea arriving in the colonies, which had already
    been in effect for six years. It also gives the
    near bankrupt British East India Company a
    virtual tea monopoly by allowing it to sell
    directly to colonial agents, bypassing any
    middlemen, thus underselling American merchants.
    The East India Company had successfully lobbied
    Parliament for such a measure. In September,
    Parliament authorizes the company to ship half a
    million pounds of tea to a group of chosen tea

  • 1773 - In October, colonists hold a mass meeting
    in Philadelphia in opposition to the tea tax and
    the monopoly of the East India Company. A
    committee then forces British tea agents to
    resign their positions. In November, a town
    meeting is held in Boston endorsing the actions
    taken by Philadelphia colonists. Bostonians then
    try, but fail, to get their British tea agents to
    resign. A few weeks later, three ships bearing
    tea sail into Boston harbor.

  • 1773 - November 29/30, two mass meetings occur
    in Boston over what to do about the tea aboard
    the three ships now docked in Boston harbor.
    Colonists decide to send the tea on the ship,
    Dartmouth, back to England without paying any
    import duties. The Royal Governor of
    Massachusetts, Hutchinson, is opposed to this and
    orders harbor officials not to let the ship sail
    out of the harbor unless the tea taxes have been

  • December 16, 1773 - About 8000 Bostonians gather
    to hear Sam Adams tell them Royal Governor
    Hutchinson has repeated his command not to allow
    the ships out of the harbor until the tea taxes
    are paid. That night, the Boston Tea Party occurs
    as colonial activists disguise themselves as
    Mohawk Indians then board the ships and dump all
    342 containers of tea into the harbor.

  • 1774 - In March, an angry English Parliament
    passes the first of a series of Coercive Acts
    (called Intolerable Acts by Americans) in
    response to the rebellion in Massachusetts. The
    Boston Port Bill effectively shuts down all
    commercial shipping in Boston harbor until
    Massachusetts pays the taxes owed on the tea
    dumped in the harbor and also reimburses the East
    India Company for the loss of the tea.

  • 1774 - May 12, Bostonians at a town meeting
    call for a boycott of British imports in response
    to the Boston Port Bill. May 13, General Thomas
    Gage, commander of all British military forces in
    the colonies, arrives in Boston and replaces
    Hutchinson as Royal governor, putting
    Massachusetts under military rule. He is followed
    by the arrival of four regiments of British
  • 1774 - May 17-23, colonists in
    Providence, New York and Philadelphia begin
    calling for an intercolonial congress to overcome
    the Coercive Acts and discuss a common course of
    action against the British.

  • 1774 - May 20, The English Parliament enacts the
    next series of Coercive Acts, which include the
    Massachusetts Regulating Act and the Government
    Act virtually ending any self-rule by the
    colonists there. Instead, the English Crown and
    the Royal governor assume political power
    formerly exercised by colonists. Also enacted
    the Administration of Justice Act which protects
    royal officials in Massachusetts from being sued
    in colonial courts, and the Quebec Act
    establishing a centralized government in Canada
    controlled by the Crown and English Parliament.
    The Quebec Act greatly upsets American colonists
    by extending the southern boundary of Canada into
    territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut
    and Virginia.

  • 1774 - In June, a new version of the 1765
    Quartering Act is enacted by the English
    Parliament requiring all of the American colonies
    to provide housing for British troops in occupied
    houses and taverns and in unoccupied buildings.
    In September, Massachusetts Governor Gage seizes
    that colony's arsenal of weapons at Charlestown.
  • 1774 - September 5 to October 26, the
    First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia
    with 56 delegates, representing every colony,
    except Georgia. Attendants include Patrick Henry,
    George Washington, Sam Adams and John Hancock.

  • On September 17, the Congress declares its
    opposition to the Coercive Acts, saying they are
    "not to be obeyed," and also promotes the
    formation of local militia units. On October 14,
    a Declaration and Resolves is adopted that
    opposes the Coercive Acts, the Quebec Act, and
    other measure taken by the British that undermine
    self-rule. The rights of the colonists are
    asserted, including the rights to "life, liberty
    and property." On October 20, the Congress adopts
    the Continental Association in which delegates
    agree to a boycott of English imports, effect an
    embargo of exports to Britain, and discontinue
    the slave trade.

  • 1775 - February 1, in Cambridge, Mass., a
    provincial congress is held during which John
    Hancock and Joseph Warren begin defensive
    preparations for a state of war. February 9, the
    English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be
    in a state of rebellion. March 23, in Virginia,
    Patrick Henry delivers a speech against British
    rule, stating, "Give me liberty or give me
    death!" March 30, the New England Restraining Act
    is endorsed by King George III, requiring New
    England colonies to trade exclusively with
    England and also bans fishing in the North
  • 1775 - In April, Massachusetts Governor
    Gage is ordered to enforce the Coercive Acts and
    suppress "open rebellion" among the colonists by
    all necessary force.

State Constitutions
  • a. Kept some of old provincial
  • 1. Colonial self-government for 150
  • 2. their just powers from the consent
    of the governed
  • b. Methods written constitutions
  • 1. written by provincial assemblies
  • 2. Mass. town meetings, state
  • c. Format dec. of independence citizen
    rights executive/legislative
  • 1. weaken powers of governor
  • 2. white males with property eligible
    to vote
  • d. Anti-slavery
  • 1. Dec. of Indep. Mentions slavery
    South forced out
  • 2. Mass. 1783 slave sued all men
    are created equal freed

Continental Congress
  • a. 1777 Articles of Confederation
    ratified in 1781
  • b. Until ratified Continental Congress
  • 1. Lost power as war progressed most
    talented returned to state
  • c. Succeses army, navy, marines,
    appointed George Washington, supplied army
  • d. Failure financing war taxes
    optional, money worthless not worth a

Articles of Confederation - failures
  • Articles of Confederation - failures
  • a. States jealous of others/competitive
    9 of 13 states to pass
  • b. Taxes voluntary
  • c. Fear of strong executive no one to
    enforce laws
  • d. Individual trade agreements w/ foreign
    nations states nobody wants to trade with
    U.S. fearful of stability
  • e. Still left England in possession of

Articles of Confederation successes
  • a. Precedent something to work with
  • b. Northwest Ordinance
  • 1. land-locked states feared other
    states would get too big
  • i. Easily pay war debts too much
  • ii. Maryland refuses leads
  • 2. Virginia finally gives land claims
    to federal govt others follow
  • 3. Land could be sold to make money
    for fed govt
  • 4. Add-A-State Plan Northwest
    Ordinance 1787
  • i. Population legislature
    60,000 men can religious freedom
  • c. Peace treaty with England

Shays Rebellion
  • 1787 debtors cant pay and rebel proved to
    wealthy that something must be done catalyst
    for Constitutional Convention
  • a. Post-war depression made life worse
  • b. Jefferson a little rebellion every
    now and then is a good thing

Constitutional Convention 55 delegates meet in
Philadelphia Washington Presid.
  • A. Virginia Plan large state plan
    representation based on population
  • B. New Jersey Plan small state plan every
    state receives equal rep
  • 1. Great Compromise House Senate
  • 2. Slaves 3/5 of the population for
    House rep counting purposes
  • C. Bill of Rights citizens rights to
    prevent oppressive govt - 1791
  • D. Hesitancy to ratify Anti-Federalists
    believe states should have more power
    Federalists believe strong executive necessary
  • 1. Federalist Papers convince New
    York/Virginia Rhode Island last

Finalizing the Executive
  • A. Judiciary Act 1789 created Supreme
    Court, federal and district courts
  • B. Hamiltons Plan if govt benefits
    wealthy, theyll invest in govt
  • a. Assume all debt of states
    Virginia already paid off debt get D.C.
  • b. Debt good more people owed, more
    have stake in success of govt
  • c. Tariff taxes duties on whiskey
  • d. National Bank Jefferson wanted
    states to control , Hamilton wins
  • i. First National Bank 1791-1811
  • C. Whiskey Rebellion proves executive
    tough sent in thousands to put down
  • D. Alien and Sedition Acts Adams
    oversteps power of president punishes
    Democratic Republicans Alien 5-14 years,
    jail/Sedition jail for libel
  • a. Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions
    states can ignore bad laws sets states/federal
    govt conflict
  • E. Strengthening Supreme Court Marbury
    vs. Madison
  • a. Supreme Court can say laws are
    unconstitutional gives power

Foreign Policy
  • A. Barbary Pirates
  • 1. Been paying bribes to Tripoli, African
    Barbary pirates to not steal stuff
  • 2. sent Navy to Tripoli to fight pirates
    finally got peace treaty America values Navy
  • B. Lousiana Purchase wanted New Orleans,
    got all of Louisiana Territory
  • 1. Napoleon couldnt have American empire
    lost in Haiti Toussant LOuverture
  • 2. Doubled size, 3 cents per acre
  • 3. Created Constitutional Conflict
    loose/strict interpretation
  • a. Says nowhere in Constitution about
    buying land Jefferson hypocrite?
  • 4. Lewis and Clark explore sets off
    wave off Westward movement
  • 5. Increases nationalism pride for U.S.
  • 6. Federal govt power now shifting West
    away from New England/Virg
  • C. Monroe Doctrine follows Washingtons
  • 1. US stay out of Europe, Europe stays
    out of Americas our sphere of influence

Federalists opposed to war
  • A. Take Canada a ton more farmers to
    join Democratic Republicans
  • B. Hurting trade
  • C. Supported Britain
  • D. Later have Hartford Convention and
    threaten to have New England break away
  • a. Signals end of Federalist Party
    bad idea to talk of new country during wartime

  • radical shift to create equality for all white
    men - take power from moneyed elite and ignore
    class -meritocracy
  • A. Political voters, campaigns, election
  • 1. End state property requirements for
  • 2. Electors chosen by people not state
  • 3. Changed elections buttons,
    kissing babies, parades, bbqs, free drinks, smear
    campaign Jackson marriage illegal wife died
    soon after
  • 4. Spoils system give govt jobs to
    people who helped get elected
  • i. Kitchen cabinet old friends
  • 5. Increased power of executive
    ignored Supreme Court, vetoed laws
  • B. Economic changes men should be
    economically independent
  • 1. Southerners want low tariffs and
    more states rights
  • a. Jackson makes high tariffs first
    to increase national economy lowers during
    second term
  • 2. Westerners want cheaper land relief
    from debt collectors and banks
  • a. Veted Second National Bank
    supported pet banks in states
  • 3. Interstate roads good roads
    within states not good

  • for nonwhites a total disaster
  • A. Wealthy planters feared him federal
    government getting too much power
  • 1. Threaten nullification of tariffs
  • B. Whigs named for anti-king movement of
    Revolutionary War King Andrew
  • C. Racial treatment - Western movement
    assumed Hispanics and Native Americans inferior
    races manifest destiny policy pushed
  • 1. Trail of Tears even Europeanized
    Cherokees kicked out
  • D. Allowed slavery to continue white
  • 1. Fought abolitionists allowed gag
    rule on slavery in Congress
  • E. Propagandists supported wealthy but said
    they acted for commoners

Key People
  • Lord Baltimore - 1694
  • He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which
    offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the
    persecuted Roman Catholics.
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Englishman led the army to overthrow King
    Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell
    ruled England in an almost democratic style until
    his death. His uprising drew English attention
    away from Jamestown and the other American

Key People
  • William Pitt
  • British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in
    the London government, and earned himself the
    name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a
    war against Quebec. Pittsburgh was named after
  • Robert de La Salle
  • Responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the
    first European to float down the Mississippi
    river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the
    beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his
    king Louis XIV in 1682.

Key People
  • Abigail Adams
  • The wife of second president John Adams. She
    attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her
    husband who at the time was on the committee for
    designing the Declaration of Independence.
  • James Madison
  • Nicknamed "the Father of the Constitution"
    talented politician sent to the Constitutional
    Convention in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787 his
    notable contributions to the Constitution helped
    to convince the public to ratify it.

  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense?
  • A. blamed George III for the colonies' problems
    and urged Americans to declare their
  • B. was a call for the abolition of slavery.
  • C. insisted that the British allow the colonies
    to elect their own representatives to Parliament.
  • D. criticized the weaknesses of the Articles of
  • E. demanded that a strong executive be included
    in the Constitution.

  • Colonial Committees of Correspondence were
    created to?
  • A. keep colonial intellectuals in contact with
    each other.
  • B. publicize grievances against England.
  • C. improve the writing skills of young gentlemen.
  • D. correspond with English radicals who supported
    the American cause.

  • Treaty of Tordesillas-1494, agreement signed at
    Tordesillas, Spain, by which Spain and Portugal
    divided the non-Christian world into two zones of
  • Bucceneer- Any of the British, French, or Dutch
    sea adventurers who chiefly haunted the Caribbean
    and the Pacific seaboard of South America during
    the latter part of the 17th century, preying on
    Spanish settlements and shipping
  • The Iroquois Confederacy - nearly a military
    power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas,
    and Senecas.IT was founded in the late 1500s.The
    leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha.
  • Fundimental Orders - made a Democratic
    government. It was the first constitution in the
    colonies and was a beginning for the other
    states' charters and constitutions.
  • Covenant - A binding agreement made by the
    Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of
    the government was to enforce God's laws. This
    applied to believers and non-believers.
  • .

  • Intolerable Acts- Series of laws sponsored by
    British Prime Minister Lord North and enacted in
    1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. The
    laws were these
  • Impartial Administration of Justice Act- allowed
    the royal governor of a colony to move trials to
    other colonies or even to England if he feared
    that juries in those colonies wouldn't judge a
    case fairly
  • Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act- made all law
    officers subject to appointment by the royal
    governor and banned all town meetings that didn't
    have approval of the royal governor
  • Boston Port Act- which closed the port of Boston
    until the price of the dumped tea was recovered,
    moved the capital of Massachusetts to Salem, and
    made Marblehead the official port of entry for
    the Massachusetts colony.
  • Quartering Act- which allowed royal troops to
    stay in houses or empty buildings if barracks
    were not available
  • Quebec Act- which granted civil government and
    religious freedom to Catholics living in Quebec.

  • Series of reforms altering federal government
    and bringing vote to people
  • Andrew Jackson and Democratic Party running
  • Contradiction period of slavery and horrible
    treatment of Native Americans Jackson also
    develops monarchical attributes
  • Attractive candidate - Andrew Jackson attractive
    war hero, mans man, self-made wealth,
  • Land Ordinance of 1785 - A red letter law which
    stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was
    to be equally divided into townships and sold for
    federal income promoted education and ended
    confusing legal disagreements over land.
  • Popular Sovereignty - the idea that people
    should have the right to rule themselves. This
    idea had revolutionary consequences in colonial

  • Ap college Board Guidelines. N.p., 20 Aug. 2010.
    Web. 19 Nov. 2010.
  • Faragher, John M., Mari J. Buhle, Daniel Czitrom,
    and Susan H. Armitage. Out of Many. Revised 3rd
    ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 2002.
    1-256. Print.