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Evolution, Biodiversity, and Community Processes

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Title: Evolution, Biodiversity, and Community Processes


1
Evolution, Biodiversity, and Community Processes
  • La Cañada High School
  • Dr. E

2
What types of Life exist on the Earth?
3
Types of Organisms
  • Prokaryotic Kingdom single-celled organisms
    containing no internal structures surrounded by
    membranes (therefore there is no nucleus)
  • Monera bacteria and cyanobacteria

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Endosymbiotic Theory
Chloroplast
Plants and plantlike protists
Aerobic bacteria
Ancient Prokaryotes
Photosynthetic bacteria
Nuclear envelope evolving
Mitochondrion
Primitive Photosynthetic Eukaryote
Animals, fungi, and non-plantlike protists
Ancient Anaerobic Prokaryote
Primitive Aerobic Eukaryote
6
Types of Organisms
  • Eukaryotic Kingdoms all organisms consisting of
    cells which contain membrane-bound nuclei
  • Protista - mostly one-celled organisms have
    characteristics of all three other Eukaryote
    Kingdoms
  • Fungi - organisms which decompose stuff
  • Plantae - organisms which use photosynthesis to
    make their own food
  • Annuals complete life cycle in one season
  • Perennials live for more than one season
  • Animalia - organisms which must get organic
    compounds from food they eat - most are able to
    move
  • Invertebrates no backbone
  • Vertebrates Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds
    and Mammals

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9
Naming Species
10
Naming of Species
  • The system of naming species was first developed
    by Swedish botanist and physician, Carolus
    Linnaeus in the mid- 1700s
  • Taxonomy, which seeks to describe, name and
    classify organisms
  • begins with assigning all species a two-part
    Latin name called a binomial
  • first word of the binomial is the genus name of
    the species,
  • second word is the specific epithet for the
    species. 
  • scientific name for the blue crab  is Callinectes
    sapidus
  • Callinectes, the genus name, is the collective
    term which includes many species of crabs closely
    related to the blue crab
  • sapidus, describes exactly which of the
    Callinectes species is being identified

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13
Definition of Species
  • Morphological Species Concept (MSC)
  • traced back to the philosophies of Plato and
    Aristotle, and which continued to be used until
    the first half of the twentieth century
  • defines species purely by their phenotypic traits
    rather than their genetic complement or potential
    interbreeding
  • number of species classified was large because
    each group of individuals that exhibited a slight
    phenotypic difference were considered a different
    species

http//www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/Falco/13/Species.ht
m
14
Definition of Species
  • Biological Species Concept (BSC)
  • a species is a group of interbreeding
    populations that are genetically isolated from
    other groups by reproductive isolating mechanisms
    such as hybrid sterility or mate acceptability
  • Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC
  • Each population of sexually reproducing organisms
    that possesses at least one diagnostic character
    present in all population members but absent from
    all closest relatives is considered a species
  • each geographically distinct form is classified
    as a species

http//www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/Falco/13/Species.ht
m
15
How did Life Originate?OrChemical Evolution
16
EVOLUTIONisGradual Change
17
Origin of Life
  • 600 BC Anaximander
  • life began in water.
  • early forms were simple.
  • simple forms begat more complex forms over time
  • Aristotle (350 BC)
  • decaying material could be transformed by the
    Spontaneous Action of Nature' into living
    animals
  • ArchBishop Usher (early 1600s) and his scholars
  • provided exact dates for all the various
    occurrences in the new Bible being translated for
    King James
  • proved to the King that the world was created
    on Tuesday, October 8, 4004 BC at 930 in the
    morning

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19
Chemical Evolution
  • Oparin Hypothesis (early 1930s)
  • 1) Formation of the planet with gases in the
    atmosphere that could serve as the raw materials
    for life.
  • most widely accepted astronomical theory for the
    origin of the earth and the rest of the solar
    system is that the solar system formed about 4.7
    billion years ago from a diffuse dust cloud
  • central portion probably condensed to form the
    sun and areas in the outer parts of the cloud
    condensed to form the planets
  • beginning of the universe according to the "Big
    Bang" theory occurred about 15 billion years ago

20
Chemical Evolution
  • Oparin Hypothesis
  • 2) Random synthesis of simple organic molecules
    (such as amino acids that make up proteins) from
    the gases in the surrounding atmosphere.
  • 3) Formation of larger, more complex molecules
    (Macromolecules) from the simple organic
    molecules, e.g., the formation of simple
    proteins.
  • 4) Formation of coacervates - unique droplets
    containing the macromolecules , i.e., a
    coacervates consists of chemicals suspended
    within a liquid surrounded by a membrane, e.g. a
    droplet consisting of chemicals in water
    surrounded by an oil layer membrane.

21
Chemical Evolution
  • Oparin Hypothesis
  • 5) Development of some type of chemical
    organizers that function to give these droplets
    the ability to take in molecules, discharge other
    molecules, and control and maintain a
    characteristic chemical pattern. These chemical
    organizers would probably be similar to nucleic
    acids (that make up chromosomes).
  • 6) Development of controlled reproduction to
    insure that resultant daughter cells have the
    same chemical capabilities. The droplets could
    now be considered to be primitive cells.
  • 7) Beginnings of evolutionary developments so
    that a group of cells could adapt to changes in
    the environment over time.

22
Miller-Urey Experiment
  • conducted in 1953 by Stanley Miller with Harold
    Urey
  • the first experiment to about the evolution of
    prebiotic chemicals and the origin of life on
    Earth
  • mixture of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water
    vapor introduced into a 5-liter flask (simulate
    the Earth's primitive, reducing atmosphere)
  • energized by an electrical discharge apparatus to
    represent ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
  • products were allowed to condense and collect in
    a lower flask which modeled a body of water on
    the Earth's surface

23
Miller-Urey Experiment
  • heat supplied to this flask recycled the water
    vapor just as water evaporates from lakes and
    seas, before moving into the atmosphere and
    condensing again as rain
  • after a day of continuous operation
  • a thin layer of hydrocarbons on the surface of
    the water
  • after about a week of operation
  • a dark brown scum had collected in the lower
    flask and was found to contain several types of
    amino acids, including glycine and alanine,
    together with sugars, tars, and various other
    unidentified organic chemicals

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25
The Just-Right Planet
  • Read Core Case Study on page 82!

26
Evolution of First Life
  • Formation of the earliest precursors of life
  • must have self-organized
  • acquired the capabilities needed to survive and
    reproduce
  • Biomolecules of life became enclosed within a
    lipid membrane
  • forming rudimentary assemblages that resembled
    cells or protocells
  • Essential protocellular functions
  • acquisition of energy from the environment
  • use of energy to synthesize molecules
    metabolism
  • information transfer to succeeding generations
    genetics

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28
Evidence
29
Fossils
  • Oldest fossils are the approximately 3.465
    billion-year-old microfossils from the Apex
    Chert, Australia
  • colonies of cyanobacteria (formerly called
    blue-green algae) which
  • built real reefs

30
Fossils
  • 1600's - Danish scientist Nicholas Steno studied
    the relative positions of sedimentary rocks
  • Layering is the most obvious feature of
    sedimentary rocks
  • formed particle by particle and bed by bed, and
    the layers are piled one on top of the other
  • any sequence of layered rocks, a given bed must
    be older than any bed on top of it
  • Law of Superposition is fundamental to the
    interpretation of Earth history, because at any
    one location it indicates the relative ages of
    rock layers and the fossils in them.

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32
Half-life for a given radioisotope is the time
for half the radioactive nuclei in any sample to
undergo radioactive decay
33
Half-life for a given radioisotope is the time
for half the radioactive nuclei in any sample to
undergo radioactive decay
34
Biological Evolution
35
(ORGANIC) EVOLUTION change in gene frequencies
within populations from generation to generation.
36
(ORGANIC) EVOLUTION ? gene frequencies
over timeno concepts of planning or
progress apply. No goals!
37
Early Evolutionists Anthropocentric view
Scala Natura (ladder of life).
A linear rise from primitive to advanced.
38
Early Evolutionists Anthropocentric view
Scala Natura (ladder of life).
Needless to say, we are the most advanced in
this schemeafter all, its our ladder!!
39
Evolutionary Bush
One life-form splits into two and those branches
split (independently) to make more.
Time ?
?? Phenotypic distance
40
Evolutionary Bush -- thousands of earlier and
later branches.
41
At any given moment (e.g. the present), all we
see is current diversityall extinct forms are
gone (99.9)
Time ?
42
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental origin of all genetic (DNA)
    change.

43
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental origin of all genetic (DNA)
    change.

Point mutation
some at base-pair level
44
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental origin of all genetic (DNA)
    change.

Crossing-over
others at grosser chromosome level
45
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  2. Genetic Drift isolated populations accumulate
    different mutations over time.

In a continuous population, genetic novelty can
spread locally.
46
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  2. Genetic Drift isolated populations accumulate
    different mutations over time.

Local spreading of alleles
47
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  2. Genetic Drift isolated populations accumulate
    different mutations over time.

Local spreading of alleles
48
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  2. Genetic Drift isolated populations accumulate
    different mutations over time.

Spreading process known as gene flow.
49
Four causes of evolutionary change
But in discontinuous populations, gene flow is
blocked.
50
Four causes of evolutionary change
Variations accumulate without inter-demic exchange
51
Four causes of evolutionary change
Of course, this works at many loci simultaneously
52
Four causes of evolutionary change
  • Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  • Genetic Drift isolation ? accumulate mutations
  • Founder Effect sampling bias during
    immigration.
  • When a new population is formed, its genetic
    composition depends largely on the gene
    frequencies within the group of first settlers.

53
Founder Effect.--
Human example your tribe had to live near the
Bering land bridge
54
Founder Effect.--
to invade settle the New World!
55
Galapagos Finches
Audeskirk Audeskirk, 1993
56
Four causes of evolutionary change
  1. Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  2. Genetic Drift isolation ? accumulation of
    mutations
  3. Founder Effect immigrant sampling bias.
  4. Natural Selection differential reproduction of
    individuals in the same population based on
    genetic differences among them.

57
Four causes of evolutionary change
  • Mutation fundamental genetic shifts.
  • Genetic Drift isolation ? accumulation of
    mutations
  • Founder Effect immigrant sampling bias.
  • Natural Selection reproductive race
  • These 4 interact synergistically

58
Evidence of Evolution
59
1. Biogeography
  • Geographical distribution of species

60
2. Fossil Record
  • Fossils and the order in which they appear in
    layers of sedimentary rock (strongest evidence)

61
3. Taxonomy
Classification of life forms.
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63
4. Homologous Structures
Structures that are similar because of common
ancestry (comparative anatomy)
Turtle
Alligator
Bird
Mammals
Typical primitive fish
64
5. Comparative Embryology
  • Study of structures that appear during embryonic
    development

65
6. Molecular Biology
  • DNA and proteins (amino acids)

66
History of Theories of Evolution
67
Old Theories of Evolution
  • Jean Baptiste Lamarck (early 1800s) proposed
  • The inheritance of acquired characteristics
  • He proposed that by using or not using its body
    parts, an individual tends to develop certain
    characteristics, which it passes on to its
    offspring.

68
The Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
  • Example
  • A giraffe acquired its long neck because its
    ancestor stretched higher and higher into the
    trees to reach leaves, and that the animals
    increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its
    offspring.

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70
Charles Darwin
  • Darwin set sail on the H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836)
    to survey the south seas (mainly South America
    and the Galapagos Islands) to collect plants and
    animals.
  • On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin observed species
    that lived no where else in the world.
  • These observations led Darwin to write a book

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72
Giant Tortoises of the Galápagos Islands
Pinta
Tower
Marchena
Pinta IslandIntermediate shell
James
Fernandina
Santa Cruz
Isabela
Santa Fe
Hood Island Saddle-backed shell
Hood
Floreana
Isabela Island Dome-shaped shell
73
http//www.galapagosislands.com
74
Charles Darwin
  • Wrote in 1859
  • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
    Selection
  • Two main conclusions
  • Species were not created in their present form,
    but evolved from ancestral species.
  • Proposed a mechanism for evolution NATURAL
    SELECTION

75
Darwins Observations
  1. Most species produce more offspring than can be
    supported by the environment
  2. Environmental resources are limited
  3. Most populations are stable in size
  4. Individuals vary greatly in their
    characteristics (phenotypes)
  5. Variation is heritable (genotypes)

76
Natural Selection
  • Individuals with favorable traits are more likely
    to leave more offspring better suited for their
    environment
  • Also known as Differential Reproduction
  • Example
  • English peppered
  • moth (Biston betularia)

77
Modes of Action
  • Natural selection has three modes of action
  • 1. Stabilizing selection
  • 2. Directional selection
  • 3. Diversifying selection

78
1. Stabilizing Selection
  • Acts upon extremes and favors the intermediate

79
2. Directional Selection
  • Favors variants of one extreme

80
3. Diversifying Selection
  • Favors variants of opposite extremes

81
Speciation
  • Evolution of new species

82
Reproductive Barriers
  • Any mechanism that impedes two species from
    producing fertile and/or viable hybrid offspring.
  • Two barriers
  • 1. Pre-zygotic barriers
  • 2. Post-zygotic barriers

83
1. Pre-zygotic Barriers
  • a. Temporal isolation
  • Breeding occurs at different times for
    different species
  • b. Habitat isolation
  • Species breed in different habitats
  • c. Behavioral isolation
  • Little or no sexual attraction between species

84
1. Pre-zygotic Barriers
  • d. Mechanical isolation
  • Structural differences prevent gamete exchange
  • e. Gametic isolation
  • Gametes die before uniting with gametes of other
    species, or gametes fail to unite

85
2. Post-zygotic Barriers
  • a. Hybrid inviability
  • Hybrid zygotes fail to develop or fail to reach
    sexual maturity
  • b. Hybrid sterility
  • Hybrid fails to produce functional gametes
  • c. Hybrid breakdown
  • Offspring of hybrids are weak or infertile

86
Evidence for Natural Selection
87
Artificial Selection
  • The selective breeding of domesticated plants and
    animals by man
  • Question Whats the ancestor of the domesticated
    dog?

88
Population Genetics
  • The science of genetic change in population
    Hardy-Weinberg

Population
A localized group of individuals belonging to the
same species
89
Species
  • A group of populations whose individuals have the
    potential to interbreed and produce viable
    offspring

Gene Pool
The total collection of genes in a population at
any one time
90
Bibliography
  1. Miller 11th Edition
  2. http//abandoncorporel.ca/medias/evolution.jpg
  3. http//www.ne.jp/asahi/clinic/yfc/fetus.html
  4. rob.ossifrage.net/images/
  5. http//www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Five_Kingdoms_Thre
    e_Domains.htm
  6. http//www.gpc.peachnet.edu/ccarter/Millerlec5/Mi
    llerlec5.PPT
  7. http//www.dnr.state.md.us/education/horseshoecrab
    /lifecycle.html
  8. http//www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/Falco/13/Species.ht
    m
  9. http//www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/NamSpecies.htm
  10. http//www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/Falco/13/Species.ht
    m
  11. http//www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/cu
    rrent/lectures/complex_life/complex_life.html
  12. http//nsm1.nsm.iup.edu/rwinstea/oparin.shtm
  13. http//www.angelfire.com/on2/daviddarling/MillerUr
    eyexp.htm
  14. http//exobiology.nasa.gov/ssx/biomod/origin_of_li
    fe_slideshow/origin_of_life_slideshow.html
  15. http//www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/classes/Geo104/
    HistoryofEarth.html
  16. http//astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/roadmap/objective
    s/o2_cellular_components.html
  17. http//pubs.usgs.gov/gip/fossils/
  18. http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear
    /halfli.html
  19. http//www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1995/t
    each_rad.html
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