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Evolution and Biodiversity

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Chapter 4 Evolution and Biodiversity – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Evolution and Biodiversity


1
Chapter 4
  • Evolution and Biodiversity

2
Chapter 6 Evolution and Biodiversity
  • What is biodiversity?
  • Biodiversity is the variety of earths species,
    the genes they contain, the ecosystems in which
    they live, and the ecosystem processes such as
    energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all
    life.

3
Components
  • species diversity
  • genetic diversity
  • ecosystem diversity
  • functional diversity

4
Importance of species diversity
  • species richness number of different species
  • species evenness- relative abundance of
  • individuals within each of those species
  • species diversity varies with geographic location
  • species rich ecosystems are productive and
  • sustainable

5
Core Case Study Earth The Just-Right, Adaptable
Planet
  • During the 3.7 billion years since life arose,
    the average surface temperature of the earth has
    remained within the range of 10-20oC.

Figure 4-1
6
Biological Change
  • This has led to the variety of species we find on
    the earth today.
  • If the earth was only 1 day old

Figure 4-2
7
How Do We Know Which Organisms Lived in the Past?
  • Our knowledge about past life comes from fossils,
    chemical analysis, cores drilled out of buried
    ice, and DNA analysis.

Figure 4-4
8
NATURAL SELECTION, AND ADAPTATION
  • Biological change by natural selection involves
    the change in a populations genetic makeup
    through successive generations.
  • genetic variability
  • Mutations random changes in the structure or
    number of DNA molecules in a cell that can be
    inherited by offspring.

9
Natural Selection and Adaptation Leaving More
Offspring With Beneficial Traits
  • Three conditions are necessary for biological
    change
  • Genetic variability, traits must be heritable,
    trait must lead to differential reproduction.
  • An adaptive trait is any heritable trait that
    enables an organism to survive through natural
    selection and reproduce better under prevailing
    environmental conditions.

10
Coevolution A Biological Arms Race
  • Interacting species can engage in a back and
    forth genetic contest in which each gains a
    temporary genetic advantage over the other.
  • This often happens between predators and prey
    species.

11
Hybridization and Gene Swapping other Ways to
Exchange Genes
  • New species can arise through hybridization.
  • Occurs when individuals to two distinct species
    crossbreed to produce an fertile offspring.
    (fairly rare)
  • Some species (mostly microorganisms) can exchange
    genes without sexual reproduction.
  • Horizontal gene transfer

12
Limits on Adaptation through Natural Selection
  • A populations ability to adapt to new
    environmental conditions through natural
    selection is limited by its gene pool and how
    fast it can reproduce.
  • Humans have a relatively slow generation time
    (decades) and output ( of young) versus some
    other species.

13
Common Myths about Natural Selection
  • Evolution through natural selection is about the
    most descendants.
  • Organisms do not develop certain traits because
    they need them. Mutations are random.
  • There is no such thing as genetic perfection. It
    is always possible for a mutation to occur which
    will lead to better natural selection.

14
GEOLOGIC PROCESSES, CLIMATE CHANGE, CATASTROPHES,
AND EVOLUTION
  • The movement of solid (tectonic) plates making up
    the earths surface, volcanic eruptions, and
    earthquakes can wipe out existing species and
    help form new ones.
  • The locations of continents and oceanic basins
    influence climate.
  • The movement of continents have allowed species
    to move.

15
225 million years ago
225 million years ago
135 million years ago
65 million years ago
Present
Fig. 4-5, p. 88
16
Climate Change and Natural Selection
  • Changes in climate throughout the earths history
    have shifted where plants and animals can live.

Figure 4-6
17
Catastrophes and Natural Selection
  • Asteroids and meteorites hitting the earth and
    upheavals of the earth from geologic processes
    have wiped out large numbers of species and
    created evolutionary opportunities by natural
    selection of new species.

18
ECOLOGICAL NICHES AND ADAPTATION
  • Each species in an ecosystem has a specific role
    or way of life.
  • Ecological niche is the sum total of a species
    use of the biotic and abiotic resources in the
    environment.
  • Fundamental niche the full potential range of
    physical, chemical, and biological conditions and
    resources a species could theoretically use.
  • Realized niche to survive and avoid competition,
    a species usually occupies only part of its
    fundamental niche.

19
Generalist and Specialist Species Broad and
Narrow Niches
  • Generalist species tolerate a wide range of
    conditions.
  • Specialist species can only tolerate a narrow
    range of conditions.

Figure 4-7
20
SPOTLIGHT Cockroaches Natures Ultimate Survivors
  • 350 million years old
  • 3,500 different species
  • Ultimate generalist
  • Can eat almost anything.
  • Can live and breed almost anywhere.
  • Can withstand massive radiation.

Figure 4-A
21
Specialized Feeding Niches
  • Resource partitioning reduces competition and
    allows sharing of limited resources.

Figure 4-8
22
Some General Types of Species...
  • Native species species that normally live
    thrive in a particular ecosystem.
  • Nonnative species, Exotic species, Alien species
    other species that migrate into an ecosystem or
    are introduced into an ecosystem by humans.

23
Frogs Galore
  • From ABC News, Environmental Science in the
    Headlines, 2005 DVD.

24
Some general species continued...
  • Indicator species species that serve as early
    warnings that a community or an ecosystem is
    being damaged.

25
Some general species continued...
  • Keystone Species species that play roles
    affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem.
  • Dung beetle
  • Sea otters
  • Gopher tortoises
  • Bats

26
SPECIATION, EXTINCTION, AND BIODIVERSITY
  • Speciation A new species can arise when member
    of a population become isolated for a long period
    of time.
  • Genetic makeup changes, preventing them from
    producing fertile offspring with the original
    population if reunited.

27
Geographic Isolation
  • can lead to reproductive isolation, divergence
    of gene pools and speciation.

Figure 4-10
28
Extinction Lights Out
  • Extinction occurs when the population cannot
    adapt to changing environmental conditions.
  • The golden toad of Costa Ricas Monteverde cloud
    forest has become extinct because of changes in
    climate.

Figure 4-11
29
Species and families experiencing mass
extinction
Bar width represents relative number of living
species
Millions of years ago
Era
Period
Current extinction crisis caused by human
activities. Many species are expected to become
extinct within the next 50100 years.
Extinction
Quaternary
Today
Cenozoic
Tertiary
Extinction
65
Cretaceous up to 80 of ruling reptiles
(dinosaurs) many marine species including
many foraminiferans and mollusks.
Cretaceous
Mesozoic
Jurassic
Triassic 35 of animal families, including many
reptiles and marine mollusks.
Extinction
180
Triassic
Permian 90 of animal families, including over
95 of marine species many trees, amphibians,
most bryozoans and brachiopods, all trilobites.
Extinction
250
Permian
Carboniferous
Extinction
345
Devonian 30 of animal families, including
agnathan and placoderm fishes and many trilobites.
Devonian
Paleozoic
Silurian
Ordovician
Extinction
Ordovician 50 of animal families, including
many trilobites.
500
Cambrian
Fig. 4-12, p. 93
30
Effects of Humans on Biodiversity
  • The scientific consensus is that human activities
    are decreasing the earths biodiversity.

Figure 4-13
31
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION
  • We have used artificial selection to change the
    genetic characteristics of populations with
    similar genes through selective breeding.
  • We have used genetic engineering to transfer
    genes from one species to another.

Figure 4-15
32
Genetic Engineering Genetically Modified
Organisms (GMO)
  • GMOs use recombinant DNA
  • genes or portions of genes from different
    organisms.

Figure 4-14
33
Phase 2 Make Transgenic Cell
A. tumefaciens (agrobacterium)
Foreign DNA
E. Coli
Host DNA
Plant cell
Nucleus
Agrobacterium inserts foreign DNA into plant cell
to yield transgenic cell
Transfer plasmid copies to a carrier agrobacterium
Transfer plasmid to surface of microscopic metal
particle
Use gene gun to inject DNA into plant cell
Fig. 4-14, p. 95
34
Phase 3 Grow Genetically Engineered Plant
Transgenic cell from Phase 2
Cell division of transgenic cells
Culture cells to form plantlets
Transfer to soil
Transgenic plants with new traits
Fig. 4-14, p. 95
35
Phase 3 Grow Genetically Engineered Plant
Stepped Art
Fig. 4-14, p. 95
36
THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION
  • Biologists are learning to rebuild organisms from
    their cell components and to clone organisms.
  • Cloning has lead to high miscarriage rates, rapid
    aging, organ defects.
  • Genetic engineering can help improve human
    condition, but results are not always
    predictable.
  • Do not know where the new gene will be located in
    the DNA molecules structure and how that will
    affect the organism.

37
Cloned Pooch
  • From ABC News, Biology in the Headlines, 2005 DVD.

38
Controversy Over Genetic Engineering
  • There are a number of privacy, ethical, legal and
    environmental issues.
  • Should genetic engineering and development be
    regulated?
  • What are the long-term environmental consequences?

39
Case Study How Did We Become Such a Powerful
Species so Quickly?
  • We lack
  • strength, speed, agility.
  • weapons (claws, fangs), protection (shell).
  • poor hearing and vision.
  • We have thrived as a species because of our
  • opposable thumbs, ability to walk upright,
    complex brains (problem solving).
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