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Introduction to the Judicial Branch

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Introduction to the Judicial Branch SOL CE 10a What do courts do? Interpret the law Apply the law Hear cases involving crime Settle civil suits Key People in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Judicial Branch


1
Introduction to the Judicial Branch
  • SOL CE 10a

2
What do courts do?
  • Interpret the law
  • Apply the law
  • Hear cases involving crime
  • Settle civil suits

3
Key People in the Courts
  • The Judge / Justice
  • There are judges or justices at every level of
    the court system
  • Presides over a court
  • Applies the law to a situation
  • Hears cases and makes a verdict based upon
    evidence he or she hears

4
Key People in the Courts
  • The judge
  • Sets bail (money paid as a promise that a person
    will return for trial) for a person accused or a
    crime or decides to hold them in jail until their
    court date.
  • Gives a verdict (or decision) in a bench trial
  • Determines sentencing after a person has been
    found guilty

5
Key People in the Courts
  • Magistrate
  • Official at the local level
  • Has the power to issue search warrants,
    subpoenas, arrest warrants, and summons as well
    as set bail

6
Key People in the Courts
  • The Accused
  • The Defendant in a criminal case
  • The Defendant in a civil case

7
Key People in the Courts
  • The accuser
  • In a criminal case the prosecution (or the state)
  • In a civil case the plaintiff is the accuser

8
Key Documents in the Court
  • Warrant A document giving the police permission
    to search property or to make an arrest
  • Subpoena A document that requests a witness
    appear in court or for a document to be supplied
    in court
  • Summons A document calling someone to appear in
    court

9
Types of Court Cases
  • Criminal
  • Felony Punishment of more than one year in
    prison
  • Misdemeanor Punishment less than one year in
    prison
  • Civil
  • Involves disputes over property.
  • Usually the accuser is seeking compensation for
    their loss.

10
Types of Cases
  • Criminal
  • Attorneys are either appointed or hired
  • The best attorneys are hired.

11
Jurisdiction
  • Jurisdiction is the authority to hear a case
  • Two types
  • Original
  • Appellate

12
Original Jurisdiction
  • The court that hears the case first
  • Severity of a case will determine which court
    hears it. For example misdemeanors go to general
    district and felonies go to circuit court
  • Example of original jurisdiction as far as
    location John Muhammad and Lee Malvo
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageBeltway_sniper_
    map.gif

13
Original Jurisdiction
State
Federal
  • Federal laws (ex taxes)
  • International trade
  • Bankruptcy
  • Disputes between states
  • Family law issues
  • Landlord tenet
  • State laws
  • State Constitutional issues
  • Crimes punishable by both federal and state
  • Class Action
  • Environmental

14
Appellate Jurisdiction
  • The authority to hear an appeals case
  • The court of the highest appeals at the state
    level is the VA Supreme Court the highest court
    of all appeals is the US Supreme Court
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