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Introduction to Latin America

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Title: Introduction to Latin America


1
Introduction to Latin America
  • Colonial and Modern Era

2
Pre-Colonialism
  • Similar to the Romans and the Greeks prior to
    Christianity.
  • Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Vengeful gods controlled prosperity
  • Human sacrifices
  • Economy
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • Semi-nomadic
  • Sophisticated agricultural developments
  • Society
  • Tribal
  • Male dominated
  • Sophisticated writing systems

3
Conquest Colonialism
  • Aztec and Incan empires quickly defeated by a few
    hundred Spanish
  • Why??
  • Spanish had guns horses
  • Indigenous peoples had no immunity to European
    diseases like smallpox
  • More on this later

In this picture, Cortes is being treated like a
god
4
Triangular Trade
5
Columbian Exchange
6
Latin American Colonies
7
(No Transcript)
8
Mexico A case study of Colonial Latin America
  • Early contact and conquest Fernando Cortes
    cleric sent with Velasquez to explore and
    conquer Cuba in 1511.
  • Cortes conflicted with Cuban commanders and
    decided to break off on a separate expedition to
    the Yucatan. Arrived in Mexico in 1519 and
    established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz (modern
    day Veracruz)
  • Aided by local missionaries and Dona Marina- an
    indigenous maiden who was sold to the Spaniards
    and became Cortes mistress.
  • Facing mutiny, Cortes destroyed his own ships to
    avoid retreat and ruled the men with an iron
    grip.
  • Cortes was determined to die or conquer Mexicala
    and Montezuma to avoid charges of treason by the
    Cuban General.

9
Contact with the Mexicans
  • Conquistadores early successes
  • Montezuma
  • Montezuma believed that the white men were
    deities (gods)
  • The Indians believed the white men and their
    horses were invincible.
  • Cortes used large war dogs (mastiffs and
    greyhounds) as weapons
  • Spaniards had guns and advanced weaponry.
  • Cortes manipulated regional rivalries and warring
    factions to divide the natives.
  • Massacre of Cholula Cortes attacked and
    slaughtered 6000 Cholulan warriors.
  • Demonstrated strength, but established a bloody
    reputation

10
Psychological and Physical warfare
  • Hernan (Fernando) Cortes
  • Superstition, Technology, Tactics
  • Cortes marched on the Tenochtitlan, the capital
    center of Culhua-Mexica and Montezuma peacefully
  • During Noche Triste (Sad Night), a rebellion
    against Cortes, Montezuma was killed under
    suspicious circumstances.
  • Full scale attack against Cortes who is forced to
    retreat from the city.
  • Aztecs replace Montezuma with his nephew
    Cuitlahuac. Aztec fear of the Spaniards broken.
  • Introduction of biological warfare Small pox
  • One of the Spanish soldiers had small pox and it
    infected the Indian population creating a mini
    plague, killing tens of thousands, including the
    new Emperor.
  • After months of fighting, Cortes decided to level
    the city, Cortes cut off supplies and
    Tenochtitlan fell on 8/13/1521.

11
New Spain
  • Establishment of encomiendas lands granted to
    the soldiers as payment the encomendero
    received tribute and free labor from the Indians
    on the land in exchange for protection and care.
    (feudal system)
  • Ineffective because the encomenderos treated the
    Indians as slaves many Indians died of
    mistreatment and disease and often encomiendas
    failed.
  • Political espionage, rivalries, and conflict with
    the Spanish crown
  • Establishment of Spanish Councils to oversee
    Indies affairs corrupt separated from Spanish
    crown
  • Expanding conquests into West Mexico and Latin
    America in search of fabled cities
  • Revolts by Indian populations against Spanish
    domination
  • Establishment of a government in Spain under
    viceroy (vice king)- Don Antonio de Mendoza
    created stability and a checks and balances

12
New Laws of 1542-1543
  • Viceroy Antonio Mendoza
  • Bartolome De Las Casas

Freedom to the natives, established Indian towns
(impoverished) Restrictions to the encomienda
system- Indian rights Conversion of Indians to
Christianity Established a layered form of
government Emergence of the criollos (Mexican
born Spaniard elites)
13
Social Pyramid
14
Life in New Spain for 300 years
  • Economy
  • Society

Religion
  • Racial dominance
  • Spaniards (Peninsulares)
  • Criollos
  • Indians
  • Blacks (imported slaves)
  • Free blacks
  • (manumitted, or
  • purchased)
  • Miscegenation Castas
  • Mestizos (Spanish Indian)
  • Euromestizo-- Criollo
  • Indomestizo-- Mestizo
  • Afromestizo Mulatto or Zambo
  • Women and Family
  • Patriarchal, machismo
  • Women could inherit in the absence of a male heir
  • Pre-arranged marriages
  • Maintenance of family, extended families
  • Education
  • Mercantilism- Export of raw resources to the
    crown
  • Import goods
  • Textiles- cotton cloths
  • Artisians crafts
  • Mining
  • (silver of Zacatecas and Guanajuanto)
  • Self-contained encomiendas
  • Wage labor/debt peonage
  • repartimiento
  • Imported slavery
  • Ranches and cattle
  • Chicken
  • Pigs
  • Sheep
  • Export Farming/share cropping
  • Cochineal (insects on cactus)
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Indigo plants
  • Secular clergy
  • Priests who served under Bishops
  • Regular clergy missionaries
  • Franciscans
  • Dominicans
  • Augustinians
  • Jesuits
  • Missions and monasteries established throughout
    Mexico (California, New Mexico, Arizona)
  • Often advocated for better treatment for the
    Indians
  • Idolatry, Saint Worship, Virgin of Guadalupe
  • Church gained supreme authority over Mexico over
    time.
  • Corruption, political, economic manipulation
  • Inquisition
  • Forced conversion
  • (indians and Jews)
  • Moral inquisitions
  • Censorship
  • Prosecution of witchcraft and magic (voodoo)
  • Checked political dissidence

15
Threat to New Spain
  • French, Dutch, and English explorers were
    expanding into New Spain territory (near modern
    Southern United States) forcing New Spain to
    confront both indigenous revolts and encroachment

16
If there is victory in overcoming the enemy,
there is a greater victory when a man overcomes
himself. Jose De San Martin
  • Enlightenment Philosophy What is it?
  • John Locke
  • Montesquie
  • Rousseau
  • Voltaire
  • Thomas Paine
  • Adam Smith
  • Simon Bolivar
  • Jose De San Martin
  • Miguel Hidalgo

17
Bourbon Reforms and Reactions
  • Controversy over the Spanish throne at the turn
    of the 18th century led to instability in Spain,
    Europe, and the colonies for 50 years.
  • Re-stabilization under Charles III led to
    restructuring of colonial law
  • Sweeping political reforms to rejuvenate the
    economy and protection of the colonial frontiers
    from foreign encroachment.
  • (Britain, France, US, Native populations)
  • Seven Years War
  • Creation of a colonial army
  • Industrialization
  • advanced technology in the silver mines and
    advanced agricultural development
  • Architectural and infrastructure development of
    Churches, schools, government buildings
  • building of city centers with street lighting,
  • Development of railroads, paved roads and public
    transportation in urban centers
  • Neglect of rural areas led to village riots and
    rural conflicts
  • Enlightened reforms
  • crown revenues and taxation increased hardest
    hit to the indigenous who were extorted for more
    money, product to cover tax increases
  • Europeanization of urban centers cosmopolitan
    (Frenchified)
  • Promotion of the arts and enlightened ideals
  • Revolutions raised awareness of social injustices
    and precariousness of the elite
  • Church reform Jesuits vs. the Crown
  • 1767- expulsion of all Jesuits and confiscation
    of all Jesuit property

18
"I swear before you I swear on the God of my
parents I swear on them I swear on my honor and
I swear on my country that I shall not give rest
to my arm nor respite to my soul until I have
broken the chains that oppress us by the will of
the Spanish power.  --Simon Bolivar
Early Independence
  • American French Revolutions inspire colonists
    to revolt against Spain Portugal
  • Haitian Revolution
  • Mexican Revolution of 1810 Rise of the Criollos
  • Gran Colombia
  • Brazil American Royalty

200-1300
1500
1800
Conquest
Independence
19
Independence and New Nations
20
Research!
  • Describe Mexicos War of Independence.
  • Evaluate the success of Mexicos independence
    movement of 1810.
  • To what extent was this movement a revolution?
    Justify your responses and build a
    historiography.

21
Product requirements
  • Group IA presentation
  • Must have a minimum of 5 sources, including the
    two chapters I have given you. Sources must be
    cited and presented during reports.
  • Groups may have no more than four people choose
    your groups wisely
  • Must include visual I dont care what this is,
    but keep this simple and professional
  • All group members must present and demonstrate
    mastery. Grade is dependent on group
    performance. Anyone who fails to present will
    not receive the group grade.
  • Presentations should be approximately 10-15
    minutes in length.
  • Presentations begin _______________
  • Failure to present on time will result in a
    failed grade for the group.
  • (no exceptions so check your stuff prior to the
    presentation)
  • Take notes and prepare for individual paper.
  • Repetition and redundancy of facts is to be
    expected but your group should be able to take a
    stand on issues and defend them.
  • Individual response should be an extended essay
    (not an IA)
  • 750-1000 words in length-
  • formal presentation (cite your sources)
  • Due _____________________.
  • Papers should include information from the group
    IAs

22
Consequences of Independence MovementRise of the
Modern State in Latin America Mexico
  • Geography
  • Nativism and Nationalism
  • Constitutions
  • Civil Wars war heroes and authoritarian regimes
  • Foreign intervention
  • Republic versus Monarchy
  • Federalism versus Centralism

23
Early Mexican RepublicanismConstitution of 1824
  • Centralists
  • Federalists
  • 19 States and 4 territories
  • Separation of powers executive, legislative,
    judicial branches
  • Bicameral legislation
  • Senate 2 senators
  • Chamber of Deputies 1 representative for 80,000
    people
  • President and VP elected by state legislatures
    with 4 year term limit
  • Church remained dominant over spiritual life
    retained power and no religious toleration
  • Presidential powers in times of Emergency (crisis
    to ensue)
  • Protected military and religious fueros (special
    courts (similar to our military tribunal)
  • Resisted tax increases (did not support
    Federalist spending)

Military coups undermined the stability of
Mexicos Republic
24
  • Santa Anna overthrows Bustamante and is elected
    President in 1833.
  • Centralist- Republican supporter fought against
    previous insurrections including Hidalgo,
    Iturbide, Tampico (Spain), and Bustamante
  • Championed as the Hero of Mexico (really just a
    military man who fought where he was told to
    fight).
  • Retired to his estate and left the government in
    the hands of VP Gomez Farias (liberal)
  • Reforms against military and church autonomy
  • Abolished fueros
  • Secularized education
  • Illegalized tithes and
  • Secularized the funds of monastaries and missions
  • Spain attacked and tried to recolonize Mexico by
    invading Tampico.
  • Emergency powers granted to Guerrero. Santa Anna
    sent to stop them. Santa Anna eventually won.
  • Guerrero refused to relinquish his emergency
    powers.
  • VP Bustamante overthrows Guerrero establishes a
    dictatorship.
  • Executed Guerrero as a traitor (4 out of 5
    Independence heroes were now executed) Mexico
    loses confidence in government
  • Santa Anna was becoming a war hero National
    statesman

25
Santa Anna rises again!
  • Constitution of 1836 (Siete Leyes)
  • The 15 articles of the first law
    granted citizenship to those who could read and
    had an annual income of 100 pesos, except
    for domestic workers, who did not have the right
    to vote.
  • The second law allowed the President to
    close Congress and suppress the Mexican Supreme
    Court of Justice of the Nation. Military officers
    were not allowed to assume this office.
  • The 58 articles of the third law established
    a bicameral Congress of Deputies and Senators,
    elected by governmental organs. Deputies had
    four-year terms Senators were elected for six
    years.
  • The 34 articles of the fourth law specified that
    the Supreme Court, the Senate of Mexico, and the
    Meeting of Ministers each nominate three
    candidates, and the lower house of the
    legislature would select from those nine
    candidates the President and Vice-president,
  • The fifth law had an 11-member Supreme Court
    elected in the same manner as the President and
    Vice-President.
  • The 31 articles of the sixth Law replaced the
    federal republic's "states" with centralized
    "departments", fashioned after the French model,
    whose governors and legislators were designated
    by the President.
  • The seventh law prohibited reverting to the
    pre-reform laws for six years
  • In addition to these primary reforms the
    presidency was extended to an 8 year term.
  • In addition to a voting fee, officers of the
    government had a minimum annual salary
    requirement.
  • Republican states were reorganized into military
    territories controlled by political bosses picked
    by the President.
  • Overthrows Gomez Farias and establishes a
    conservative 2nd Presidency.
  • Reverses the Gomez Farias initiatiives.
  • Centralist/Conservative regime
  • Created a new conservative constitution in 1836
    (Siete Leyes)
  • What is the greatest controversy of the new
    Constitution?

26
Foreign affairs and intervention
  • France (Pastry War) 1838
  • Property of foreign nationals submitted claims to
    their own government for compensation from the
    Mexican government
  • France demanded 600,000 in compensation
  • The Mexican government was unstable and could not
    address these complaints
  • France sent a military fleet and established a
    blockade in Veracruz
  • Mexico agreed to pay 600,000- France raised
    total to 800,000 (expenses of the blockade)-
    Mexico refused to pay new amount
  • Santa Anna personally led troops against the
    French in Veracruz
  • Santa Anna injured and leg is amputated
  • Mexican victory but expensive for Mexican society
  • The French were not finished and would return in
    about 30 years.

27
Santa Annas Leg
  • Santa Anna ordered that his amputated leg be
    mummified and transported to Mexico City in a
    Presidential procession.
  • His leg was celebrated by all levels of the
    government and military
  • Leg placed in a special urn and set utop a stone
    pillar where it was left as a shrine to Santa
    Anna.

28
Mexican American War and the loss of Texas
  • Group IA
  • Mexicos justification for the war
  • United States justification for the war
  • Lone Star Republic
  • Santa Anna Mexican hero discuss
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Mexicos reaction to the results of the war
  • United States reaction to the results of the war

29
Product requirements
  • Group IA presentation
  • Must have a minimum of 5 sources, including the
    one chapter I have given you. Sources must be
    cited and presented during reports.
  • Groups may have no more than four people choose
    your groups wisely
  • Must include visual I dont care what this is,
    but keep this simple and professional
  • All group members must present and demonstrate
    mastery. Grade is dependent on group
    performance. Anyone who fails to present will
    not receive the group grade.
  • Presentations should be approximately 15-20
    minutes in length.
  • Presentations begin ______________________
  • Failure to present on time will result in a
    failed grade for the group.
  • (no exceptions so check your stuff prior to the
    presentation)
  • take notes and prepare for individual paper.
  • Repetition and redundancy of facts is to be
    expected but your group should be able to take a
    stand on issues and defend them.
  • No individual paper is required at this time.

30
Revolution of Ayutla and the Mexican Constitution
of 1857
  • Constitution of 1857
  • Religious issue did not establish the Catholic
    Church as the state religion opening the door for
    religious freedoms
  • First genuine bill of inalienable rights in first
    34 Articles
  • Equality before the law
  • Freedom of Speech, petition, assembly, education
  • Abolished slavery
  • Abolished compulsory service
  • Abolished titles of nobility and eradicated any
    form of aristocracy
  • Right to bear arms
  • Established habeas corpus (right to legal
    protection and a trial to determine guilt and
    incarceration).
  • Leys were included in Constitution
  • New revolutionary Mexican leaders including
  • Juan Alvarez, a revolutionary intellectual and
  • Benito Juarez a Zapotec Indian who rose from
    poverty and became a national symbol for the
    native Mexicans
  • Plan de Ayutla liberal reform
  • Ley Juarez broke Church jurisdiction by
    abolishing fueros (military and church courts)
  • Ley Lerdo nationalized land not specifically
    being used for religious or production purposes
  • Ley Iglesias civil registry of births, deaths,
    and marriages

31
The Catholic ChurchObstacle to progress or path
to freedom?
Swear allegiance to the Constitution Swear allegiance to the Catholic Church
Excommunicated Traitors to the nation
Considered heretics Civil servants lost jobs
Soldiers not treated in Catholic hospitals Teachers suspended from universities
Not given their final rites by the Church Not allowed to attend public educational institutions
Priests were suspended from the Order by the Pope
  • Colonial Institution survived Independence
    movements
  • Church took advantage of nationalization
    movements and amassed riches from the Creole and
    Peninsular elite- tribute, estates willed, tithes
  • By the 1800s, Church controlled 50-80 of the
    land in most Latin areas
  • Priests were very prestigious and were able to
    influence the masses in political decisions
    forcing the creole and the peninsulars to support
    the church.
  • The Church also dominated educational
    organizations.
  • The masses had more direct contact with the
    Church than with the government so the Church
    influenced the ideals of the people.
  • Pope encouraged support of European monarchs
    refused to support local government
  • Issued papal decree against Mexican liberal
    government

The War of the Reform Mexican Civil War of
1858-1861 (What is ironic about these dates?)
32
Eventually the Liberals won the Civil WarDid the
reforms work?
  • Domination of Latin American markets by Foreign
    countries
  • Chronic political instability rewarded civil
    positions to untrained
  • Lack of infrastructural development in rural
    areas
  • National treasuries empty
  • Abolition of slavery and Indian tributes leads to
    debt peonage and apprenticeships
  • Domination by local families within governments
    based on land voting requirements
  • Aristo class remained dominant and adopted
    European influences
  • Economic Stagnation
  • Reaction of the masses to Church conflict
  • Foreign trade agreements with the elite, lack of
    investments in corporate development
  • Exploitation of indigenous and mestizo in
    monocrop systems
  • Mining and manufacturing declined
  • Development of large Hacendados
  • Mexico Sanchez Navarro Family
  • Argentina Anchorena Family

33
Rise of Modern States in Latin America
1850-1890
  • Long term effects of Caudillos
  • Modern Map of
  • Latin America
  • Political Stability and cooperation between upper
    classes and church
  • Foreign investments in property, agriculture,
    mining, infrastructure
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Modernization
  • Centralization of governments and society
    including civil marriage, secular education, open
    religion.
  • Economic prosperity for investors and the elites

What types of economic growth occurred and who
benefited from it?
34
Caudillos and Gauchos
  • Caudillo military leaders supported by rural
    elite, the Church, and the army. Militia
    generals.
  • Folk Caudillo rare guardian of traditions
    placed the needs of the masses over the desires
    of the aristo classes.
  • Charismatic generals who could sway the masses
    and assert authority over a region.
  • Gauchos (charro) Cowboys and rural
    landworkers. Ranchers symbolic of national
    pride hardworking man of the land.
  • Development of bandits and stealing from the rich
    to help the poor.

The gaucho became a symbol of national identities
for independent countries that had been
previously missing.
35
What is the Message?
36
Foreign intervention still a problem
  • English, French, and Spanish debts were called in
    and Juarez issued a moratorium (no payment for 2
    years)
  • Joint occupation of the Mexican coasts to seize
    custom house receipts towards debts.
  • France returns under Napoleon III, ignores Spain
    and Britain and occupies Mexico- attacks Mexican
    forces at Puebla
  • General Porfirio Diaz and General Zaragoza
    repelled the French date?
  • Ironically, the French returned and eventually
    conquered Puebla, then Mexico City
  • New monarchy established under Maximilian
  • Offends all levels of Mexican society
  • Conservatives
  • Liberals
  • Church
  • The Masses

37
U.S. Involvement to the French Intervention
  • Juarez and Diaz turned to the United States for
    help against French
  • Lincoln justified help based on the Monroe
    Doctrine of 1823.
  • What was the Monroe Doctrine?
  • U.S. soldiers and arms went to Juaristas
  • Otto van Bismarck threatens French borders forces
    French to withdraw troops abandon Maximilian
  • Pope Pius IX refused to intervene because
    Maximilian had hurt papal relations
  • Maximilian defeated and executed by the Juarista
    regime that was restored to power.

38
Results of the French Intervention Emergence of
a Modern Mexico
  • Mexican nationalism grew
  • International recognition of Mexican sovereignty
    established
  • Republican victory and vindication of the
    Constitution of 1857
  • Weakening of the Church
  • Mexico bankrupt, focused on economic reforms and
    development of infra-structure
  • Displaced citizens required social reforms
    including educational reform and Positivism
  • Porfirio Diaz tried twice to overthrow
    democratically elected governments. Failed
    against Juarez. Succeeded against Lerdo in 1867.
  • Diaz declared himself dictator is this a bad
    thing?

39
Europe out of Latin America? Not
really!Urbanization, Industrialization,
Modernization at all costs
  • European influence sweeps through Latin America
  • Intellectual trends in the Arts focused on Europe
    and ignored Latin American artists/writers
  • Positivism, Progressivism, and neo-enlightenment
  • Urban developments and architecture based on
    European designs
  • Capitalism and development of classes
  • Desire for U.S. and European products
  • Development of cientificos based on European
    education
  • Urban progress and economic reformations despite
    effects on the masses, lead to more popular
    protests, instability, and banditry as a form of
    social protests

40
United States as a major world power and foreign
intervention in Latin America
41
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
  • Reinforced the Monroe Doctrine (stagnant) and
    promised U.S. intervention against any European
    country that pressed claims in the Western
    hemisphere.
  • Response to the Venezuelan crisis of1902 (Drago
    Doctrine, Clevelands response to Congress)

42
Big Stick Diplomacy
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

43
  • Roosevelt essentially turns the Monroe Doctrine
    on its head and says the Europeans should stay
    out, but the United States has the right, under
    the doctrine, to go in in order to exercise
    police power to keep the Europeans out. It's a
    very neat twist on the Monroe Doctrine, and, of
    course, it becomes very, very important because
    over the next 15 to 20 years, the United States
    will move into Latin America about a dozen times
    with military force, to the point where the
    United States Marines become known in the area as
    "State Department troops" because they are always
    moving in to protect State Department interests
    and State Department policy in the Caribbean. So
    what Roosevelt does here, by redefining the
    Monroe Doctrine, turns out to be very historic,
    and it leads the United States into a period of
    confrontation with peoples in the Caribbean and
    Central America, that was a really important part
    of American imperialism.
  • Walter LeFeber, American Historian

44
The Cuban Melodrama A case study U.S.
justification for entering a war
The Spanish-American War 1898
45
Valeriano Weylers Reconcentration Policy
46
Remember the Maine!To Hell with Spain!
47
Cuban Independence?
Senator Orville Platt
Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter
into any agreements with foreign powers that
would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S.
could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the
U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba
must not build up an excessive public debt.
48
What the US Fought For
49
Objective To examine the construction of the
Panama Canal.
50
Panama and the Panama Canal region
  • Introduced as early as 1513 by Balboa

51
Panama Canal
  • France, led by engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps,
    began construction on the canal in 1881.
  • About 287,000,000 had been spent and 20,000 men
    had died before the French withdrew from the
    project in 1889.
  • Malaria, flooding, uncontrolled jungle, yellow
    fever

Ferdinand de Lesseps
52
  • President Theodore Roosevelt stated in a speech
    about the Panama Canal, "No single great material
    work which remains to be undertaken on this
    continent is as of such consequence to the
    American people.
  • Roosevelt was frustrated because war ships were
    stuck in the Pacific (Oregon took 67 days to get
    from San Francisco to Cuba)
  • Proposed the completion of the project.
    Purchased the canal from France for 40 million

53
Colombia, 1822
Colombia refused to grant the U.S. permission to
complete the canal project.
54
  • Therefore, the U.S. encouraged the Panamanian
    people to revolt against Colombia.
  • Colombian soldiers were bribed to lay down arms
    (50US).
  • U.S. warships parked off the coast of Panama to
    show support for the Panamanian Revolution.
  • (early version of gun boat diplomacy that would
    be used later)
  • Before the revolt ended, U.S. had already written
    the Panama Constitution and had created a
    national flag.

55
(No Transcript)
56
  • On November 3, 1903, Panama declared their
    independence from Colombia and allowed the U.S.
    to build the canal.

U.S. paid Panama 10m for rights to continue the
canal.
57
  • Initially, U.S. faced same issues as French crews
    until John Stevens was assigned to oversee the
    Panama project.
  • Changed the design of the canal to a lock system
    to avoid flooding issues.
  • U.S. workers first sprayed tons of insecticide
    across Panama in order to destroy the mosquito
    eggs in an attempt to limit cases of malaria and
    yellow fever.
  • Stevens established basic sanitation expectations
    and helped build local towns.

58
Animation How the Panama Canal Works
Panama Canal Timelapse
59
1905 fumigation car eradicating the mosquitoes
- Panama City
60
The canal was completed in August 15,
1914. Overshadowed by the developments in
WWI. United States controlled the Panama Canal
(international travel in the Western hemisphere)
until turned over to the Panamanians in 1999
The Panama Canal Live Cameras
Theodore Roosevelt at the construction site of
the Panama Canal.
61
Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy
  • Nicaragua threatened to nationalize lands
    controlled by U.S. companies.
  • Threat of European sanctions and blockades
    justified U.S. intervention
  • Supported plan to overthrow President Zeyela that
    eventually led to the establishment of dictator
    Somoza regime.
  • Sent U.S. Marines to Nicaragua to control
    population and train Nicaraguan National Guard
    (Dollar Diplomacy)
  • Dollar diplomacy was also extended to U.S.
    involvement and relationships in China.
  • Despite Somozas obviously corrupt government,
    the U.S. would help him stay in power until he
    was overthrown by revolution in 1961.
  • The United States would remain involved in
    Nicaraguan affairs, claiming protection from
    encroaching communist movements until 1990,
    including supporting drug lord Manuel Noriega.

62
United States under fire
  • Excessive European involvement in Haiti prompted
    the United States to justify occupation of Haiti
    using Dollar Diplomacy and the Roosevelt
    Corollary as justification.
  • United States assumed key roles in Haitian
    government and controlled Haitian economy to
    benefit the United States.
  • United States was criticized for Imperialistic
    actions in Latin America during the Pan American
    Conference.
  • United States agreed to begin withdrawal of
    occupation of Latin American countries.
  • Supported Latin American dictators including Papa
    Doc and Baby Doc of Haiti, Rafael Trujillo of the
    Dominican Republic and other brutal conservative
    dictators who were willing to promote U.S.
    interests and curb communist expansion.
  • Haiti receives economic aid and support from the
    United States now.

63
Good Neighbor Policy
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