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TEACHING GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

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Title: TEACHING GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY


1
TEACHING GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY
  • ???????? ?.?.,
  • ?.?.?., ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????

2
It Takes Two to TangoEnglish Idiom
  • Grammar-Translation
  • The Direct Method
  • Audiolingualism
  • Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

3
PRESENT-PRACTISE CYCLE
  1. LEAD-IN
  2. TEACHER CLARIFICATION
  3. RESTRICTED OUTPUT (oral and written practice)
  4. AUTHENTIC OUTPUT (communicative activities)

4
Basic Principles for Grammar Teaching
  • Efficiency economy ease
  • Appropriacy

5
TWO MAIN APPROACHES
  • A Deductive approach- rule-driven learning
  • An inductive approach- discovery learning

6
SITUATIONAL PRESENTATION
  1. ESTABLISH THE CONTEXT
  2. ESTABLISH THE MEANING OF THE TARGET ITEM
  3. INTRODUCE AND PRCTISE THE TARGET LANGUAGE
  4. GENERATE MORE SENTENCES FROM THE CONTEXT

7
CATEGORIES OF CLARIFICATION
  • TEACHER EXPLANATION(T tells the learner)
  • GUIDED DISCOVERY (T helps the learner to tell
    himself)
  • SELF-DIRECTED DISCOVERY (the learner tells
    himself)

8
GUIDED DISCOVERY. THE TEACHERS ROLE
  1. TO SELECT APPROPRIATE TASKS
  2. TO OFFER GOOD INSTRUCTIONS, QUESTIONS, HELP,
    FEEDBACK
  3. MANAGE AND STRUCTURE THE LESSON SO THAT ALL THE
    LEARNERS ARE INVOLVED AND DRAW THE MOST POSSIBLE
    FROM THE ACTIVITY

9
GUIDED DISCOVERY.TYPICAL QUESTIONS
  • QUESTIONS ABOUT FORM
  • What word goes in this space?
  • How many words are there in the sentence?
  • How do you spell that?
  • Is that a verb?

10
QUESTIONS ABOUT FUNCTION
  • Do they know each other?
  • Is this formal or informal?
  • Where do you think they are speaking?
  • How does he feel?

11
PROBLEMS AND PUZZLES
  • Put these words in the right order.
  • Fill in the spaces.
  • Change this into the past simple tense.
  • Write this sentence again, with exactly the same
    meaning, but only using seven words.

12
REFLECTING ON USE
  • Write down some of the sentences you heard.
  • Why did you use that tense?
  • Which of those two sentences is correct?

13
SENTENCE ANALYSIS
  • Mark all the prepositions.
  • Mark the main stress in the sentence.
  • How many auxiliary verbs are there?
  • Cross out any unnecessary words.

14
CONTEXTS AND SITUATIONS
  • This is Paul. Where does he work? Tell me what he
    does every day.
  • Look at this picture. What is going to happen?
  • If I throw this pen at the picture on the wall,
    what will happen?

15
RESTRICTED OUTPUT
  • Drills.(substitution drills, transformation
    drills, true sentences)
  • Elicited dialogues.

16
GRAMMAR PRACTICE ACTIVITIES AND GAMES.
  • SPLIT SENTENCES,
  • GRAMMAR QUIZ,
  • MEMORY TEST,
  • PICTURE DICTATION,
  • MIMING AN ACTION,
  • GROWING STORIES.

17
HOW TO INTEGRATE GRAMMAR
  • The PPP model
  • PRESENTATION---PRACTICE----PRODUCTION
  • TASK-BASED MODEL
  • TASK---TEACH---TASK

18
ESA
19
  • Indicate steps of teaching grammar.
  • What do you start with?
  • What do you do next?

20
  • COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR.
  • WHAT IS IT?

21
Lexis include
  • SINGLE WORDS,
  • COLLOCATIONS,
  • CHUNKS MULTIWORD ITEMS (SOMEONE YOU CAN TALK TO,
    ON-THE SPOT DECISIONS)

22
STAGES OF LEARNING LEXIS
  • Meeting new lexical items and understanding them
    and their use,
  • Practising using them,
  • Memorising them,
  • Recalling and using them.

23
Memory in Language Acquisition
  • Encoding
  • Storage
  • Retrieval

24
PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR LEXIS
  • Gloves mime putting them on
  • Disgusting mime and make a facial expression
  • Swimming translate it
  • Café draw or show a flashcard or a picture
  • Frightened tell a personal anecdote
  • Window sill point to the object
  • Hope read out a dictionary definition

25
LEXICAL PRACTICE ACTIVITIES
  1. Matching pictures to lexical items,
  2. Matching lexical items to others (collocations,
    synonyms, opposites)
  3. Using prefixes or suffixes to build new lexical
    items from given words,
  4. Classifying items into lists
  5. Filling in crosswords, grids or diagrams,
  6. Filling in gaps in sentences,
  7. Memory games.

26
ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY
  • MEANING INTERPRETATION pictures, gestures,
    context, synonyms, antonyms, descriptions,
    guessing, translation.
  • WORD REINFORCEMENT associations, rating,
    recalling, transformation, combination
  • COMMUNICATIVE USE context, drama, imaging,
    prose(cloze), poetry (cloze), story-telling,
    games.
  • MNEMONIC EXECISES paired associates,rhyme,
    rhythm, location.

27
  • THANKS FOR ATTENTION!
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