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Task-Based Language Teaching ???????


Title: Task-based Language Teaching and Learning Author: Jack Booth Last modified by: LZH Created Date: 3/27/2001 2:54:57 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Task-Based Language Teaching ???????

Task-Based Language Teaching ???????
  • ???????
  • ???

Task-Based Language Teaching ???????
  • 1. Second Language Acquisition and TBLT
  • 2. What is TBLT
  • 3. What Are Tasks?
  • 4. Why do we use TBLT?
  • 5. Task Analysis
  • 6. Planning Classroom Work
  • 7. Principles of task design
  • 8. Performance Assessment TBLT

Second Language Acquisition Research
  • Practice makes perfect does not always apply to
    learning grammar.
  • They( students) often fail to use it correctly
    when expressing themselves freely. This temporary
    mastery seems to happen when they are paying
    conscious attention to form, but not when they
    are trying to communicate and paying attention to

  • Jane Willis

????????? 1. ??????????????????
  • Knowledge of grammatical rules was no guarantee
    of being able to use those rules for
    communication. Learners who were able to identify
    instances of rule violation, and who could even
    state the rule, frequently violated the rules
    when using language for communication.
  • David Nunan

2. ??????????????????????????????????????
  • Grammar opportunities to communicate lead to
    greater improvements in fluency and grammatical
    accuracy than grammar only.
    Montgomery Eisenstein (1985)
  • (1985???????,??????,??????????????????????????????

3. ????????????????????
  • Learner participation in class is related
    significantly to improvements in language
  • Lim

4. ??????????????,????????????,?????????????????
  • Classrooms that were basically communicativefor
    explicit grammatical instruction, were superior
    to both traditional classrooms that focused
    heavily on grammar, and to immersion programs
    that eschewed explicit grammatical instruction.

5. ?????????????????????,?????????????????????????
  • Language is acquired as learners actively engaged
    in attempting to communicate in the target
    language. Acquisition will be maximized when
    learners engage in tasks that push them to the
    limits of their current competence.

Four conditions of language learning
  • Exposure ( rich, comprehensible input, language
    in use)
  • Use ( of the language to do things, exchange
  • Motivation ( to process and use the exposure
    listen read the language speak and write it)
  • Instruction ( chances to focus on form )

What is Task-Based Language Teaching
  • Focuses on the construction, sequencing, and
    evaluation of particular goal-related action
    complexes that learners carry out either by
    themselves (see Prabhus model 1987) or jointly
    (see Kumaravadivelu 1993)
  • (Candlin Murphy 1987 Nunan 1989)

  • The task-based approach aims at proving
    opportunities for the learners to experiment with
    and explore both spoken and written language
    through learning activities which are designed to
    engage learners in the authentic, practical and
    functional use of language for meaningful
    purposes. (?????????)

  • What are tasks?
  • A task is a piece of work undertaken for oneself
    or for others, freely or for some reward.
  • It is meant what people do in everyday life, at
    work, at play, and in between. (Long 198589)
  • ???????????????
  • ???????

What people do in everyday life
painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a
form, buying a pair of shoes, borrowing a
library book taking a driving test making an
airline reservation writing a check finding a
street destination,
  • A task is an activity or action which is carried
    out as the result of processing or understanding
    language ( i.e.as a response).
  • (Richards, Platt and Weber 1986289)
  • ????????????????????????

  • The communicative task is a piece of classroom
    work which involves learners in comprehending,
    manipulating, producing or interacting in the
    target language while their attention is focused
    on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in
    order to convey meaning rather than to manipulate
  • ????????????????,?????????????????????????????????

Listening to a weather forecast and deciding what
to wear Look at a set of pictures and decide
what should be done Responding to a party
invitation Completing a banking application
Describing a photograph of ones family
  • Tasks can have variety of starting point. They
    may draw on learners own input, eg personal
    experience, general/world knowledge, or
    intellectual challenge they may be based on
    written text, recordings of spoken data, or
    visual data they could be activities like games,
    demonstrations or interviews they could be a
    combination of several of these.

  • Tasks do not include activities which involve
    language used for practice or display, such as
    Describe the picture using the words and phrases
    from the list below or Ask your partner if he
    likes the food listed here using the forms Do you
    like? Yes, I do/ No, I dont. where there is no
    outcome or purpose other than practice of
    pre-specified language.

Role-play activities
  • Very often in role-play situations there is no
    actual outcome for students to achieve, other
    than to enact their roles. Students have to think
    of suitable things to say to each other, but they
    are unlikely to be exchanging real meaning.
  • Jane

  • ???????
  • listening to a weather forecast and deciding
    what to wear
  • ?????
  • The learner will listen to a weather forecast and
    identify the predicted maximum temperature for
    the day.
  • ?????
  • The learner will listen to an aural text and
    answer questions afterwards on whether given
    statements are true or false.

The essential difference between task and exercise
  • Task Task has a nonlinguistic outcome
  • Exercise An exercise has a linguistic outcome
  • ??????????????????????????????????????,????????
  • (See example below)

  • Success in the task is evaluated in terms of
    achievement of an outcome, and tasks generally
    bear some resemblance to real-life language use.
  • A task-based approach sees the language process
    as one of learning through doing--- it is
    primarily engaging in meaning that the learners
    system is encouraged to develop.
  • ( Long and
    Crooks 1993)

Why do we use TBLT?
  • The tasks will engage students, challenge them,
    and allow for contingent interaction. According
    to Csikszetmihalyi (1993xiv)
  • They have concrete goals and manageable rules.
  • They make it possible to adjust opportunities for
    action to our capacities.
  • They provide clear information about how well we
    are doing.
  • They screen out distractions and make
    concentration possible

Meaning and form
  • The meaning versus form (or fluency versus
    accuracy) debate is no longer a discriminating
    factor among teaching approaches because meaning
    and form are assumed to be essential for learning
    (e.g., Long, 1991 Long Robinson, 1998).

A successful pedagogical task
  • (a) focuses students attention on the structure
    of the language by demonstrating that language
    form contributes to meaning,
  • (b) motivates learners to heighten the
    complexity of the linguistic means they use to
    accomplish task objectives.

A successful task sequence leads learners to
  • (a) communicate with limited resources,
  • (b) become aware of apparent limitations in their
    knowledge about linguistic structures that are
    necessary to convey the message appropriately and
    accurately, and finally,
  • (c) look for alternatives to overcome such

Four dimensions of teaching and learning tasks
represented by the four eyes
  • involvement
  • inquiry
  • induction
  • incorporation

The components of a task
  • ?? (Goals)
  • ????( Input Data)
  • ? ????( Verbal data)
  • ?a dialogue, reading passage, etc.
  • ? ?????(Non-verbal data )
  • ?picture, etc.
  • ?? (Activities)

Goal Exchanging personal information Input
Questionnaire on sleeping habits Activity 1)
Reading questionnaire 2) Asking
and answering
questions about sleeping
habits Teacher role Monitor and facilitator
to specify what is
regarded as
successful completion of the task Learner role
Conversational partner Setting
Classroom / pair work

  • 1. ???????????
  • An emphasis on learning to communicate through
    interaction in the target language.
  • 2. ???????????????
  • The introduction of authentic texts into the
    learning situation.

3. ???????,???????? Provision of opportunities
for learners to focus, not only on language, but
also on the learning process itself. 4.
???????????????????? An enhancement of the
learners own personal experiences as important
contributing elements to classroom learning.
5. An attempt to link classroom language learning
with language activation outside the
classroom. ???????????????????????
( David Nunan
Task Analysis
  • Determine the objectives Determining the final
    tasks so early in the planning process is the
    crucial and most striking factor of the
    framework. Everything to be done in the unit will
    derive from the final tasks. This way, we can
    really say that it is the tasks to be carried out
    at the end of the unit that generate the language
    to be used (learnt or recycled) and determine the
    procedures to be followed.

Two primary purposes for conducting a task
  • 1) to develop instruction or training to support
    the learning of tasks identified by the task
  • 2) to develop some form of assessment to
    determine if learners have learned the tasks in
    question. In order to develop training and tests
    that are congruent with the objective (i.e.
    require the same level of cognitive, affective,
    or psychomotor performance), the designer needs
    to know what type of task is being learned.
    (Jonassen, 1999. p25)

  • Gagnes Taxonomy. Three types of tasks or
    objectives knowledge, skills, or ability.
  • (A taxonomy is a hierarchical classification
    scheme that organizes objects or phenomena into
    categories. )

Planning the final tasks
  • Final tasks are communication tasks at their
    highest point of communicativeness, at a level
    that is realistic and achievable by the students
    in a given class. They will serve as indicators
    of the development of communicative competence in
    a given class.

Final tasks in which the students in the
classroom interact
  • There is a tangible end product
  • posters, letters to penfriends, pool information
    on everybodys birthdays and produce a poster to
    be kept in the classroom.
  • Make a plan for a school outing and carry out
    plans and go on an outing.
  • Carry out a class survey on who does the
    housework at home?

Enabling tasks
  • They act as support for communication tasks.
    Their purpose is to provide students with the
    necessary linguistic tools to carry out a
    communication task.
  • They can be as meaningful as possible, their main
    focus is on linguistic aspects (grammar,
    vocabulary, pronunciation, functions, discourse)
    rather than on meaning.
  • They are overt language learning experiences,
    whose aim is to enable students to communicate as
    smoothly and effectively as possible.

Some types of classroom work that maybe
classified as enabling task
  • a. Presentation of necessary new language (
    functions, grammar,vocabulary, phonology,
    discourse features checking that the new language
    has been understood
  • b. Controlled pre-communication practice or
    awareness-raising tasks usually focused on

Communication Tasks
  • A communication task is a piece of classroom work
    during which learners attention is principally
    focused on meaning rather than form, that is on
    what is being expressed rather than on the
    linguistic forms used for expressing it.
  • As far as possible, resembles activities which
    our students or other people carry out in
    everyday life. As far as possible, resembles
    activities which our students or other people
    carry out in everyday life.

  • The communicative task should have a sense of
    completeness, being able to stand alone as a
    communicative act in its own right with a
    beginning, a middle and an end. ( Nunan 198910)

Categories of learned capabilities (or
  • Intellectual skills subdivided into
    discriminations, concepts, and rules
  • Problem solving combining rules or concepts to
    creatively solve complex problems
  • Cognitive strategies skills in managing ones
    learning and thinking processes
  • Verbal information memorization of facts and
    bodies of information
  • Motor skills executing sequences of bodily
    performances such as dancing, balancing, or
    handling tools
  • Attitudes an emotional and cognitive propensity
    to choose a certain course of action (e.g.
    choosing to stay late after work.)

  • Task classification is the act of identifying and
    labeling task according to the specific type of
    learning outcome e.g.
  • 1) tasks require memorization
  • 2) tasks require students to apply a rule.

  • Merrills Instructional components. (1983)
  • Tasks included remember, use, and find.
  • Content included facts, concepts, rules, and
    principles.(Facts can only be remembered, but
    concepts, rules, and principles could be used
    (applied) or found)

Planning classroom work
  • Three features for the design of all tasks
    clarity, flexibility, and feedback
  • Three kinds of demands tasks place on learners
    learning, content, and action demands

Task training sequence
  • describe the overall training goals
  • describe the flowchart of the tasks to be learned
  • teach learners to name and identify work objects
    and actions
  • point out important task-relevant cues

  • teach the necessary task-related information
  • teach specific procedures associating stimuli and
  • teach decision-making strategies and problem
  • allow for practice of motor response
  • (Miller, 1962)

Three Pedagogical Goals for Task-based Approaches
  • Accuracy ????
  • Accuracy concerns how well language is produced
    in relation to the target language

  • Complexity ????
  • Complexity concerns the elaboration or ambition
    of the language which is produced. How far do
    learners rely on prefabricated phrases and
    established routines, and how far do they need to
    expand their language resources to meet the
    communicative challenge?

  • Fluency ????
  • Fluency concerns the learners capacity to
    produce language in real time without undue
    pausing or hesitation. It is likely to rely upon
    more lexicalized modes of communication, as the
    pressure of real time speech production are met
    only by avoiding excessive rule-based computation
  • (skehan 1994)

Principles The authenticity principle ??????????
  • The linguistic data that learners work with are
  • The relationship between linguistic form and
    communicative function are clear to the learner.
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????????

The form-function principle ??-?????
  • Teaching language in ways that make form and
    function relationships transparent
  • ?????????????????????????????????,?????????????

The task dependency principle ????????
  • A series of tasks in a lesson or unit of work
    forms a kind of pedagogical ladder, each task
    representing a rung on the ladder, enabling the
    learner to reach higher and higher levels of
    communicative performance.
  • ??????????????,????,????,??????????????????????

Learning by doing ?????
  • Learning by doing motivates students to
    fulfill their potential. Learners master the
    language by using it communicatively in the
    classroom, although they still have to learn
    grammar and memorize vocabulary.
  • ????????????????????????,??????????????????????

Good learning tasks should 1 enable learners to
manipulate and practice specific features of
language 2 allow learners to rehearse, in class,
communicative skills they will need in the real
world 3 activate psychological/psycholinguistic
processes of learning 4 be suitable for mixed
ability groups 5 involve learners in solving a
problem, coming to a conclusion
6 be based on authentic or naturalistic source
material 7 involve learners in sharing
information 8 require the use of more than one
macroskill 9 allow learners to think and talk
about language and learning 10 promote skills in
learning how to learn 11 have clear objectives
stating what learners will be able to do as a
result of taking part in the task 12 utilize the
community as a resource
13 give learners a choice in what way they do
and the order in which they do it. 14 involve
learners in risk-taking 15 require learners to
rehearse, rewrite and polish initial efforts 16
enable learners to share in the planning and
development of the task 17 have built into them a
means of evaluating the success or otherwise of
the task
Task function ?????????? ? to provide a
purpose for a classroom activity
??????????????? ? to make language teaching more
communicative ???????????
Task types ?????
  • Closed task one single correct answer
    or a restricted number of
    correct answers
  • Open task no single correct answer
  • Core task
  • Extended task

Performance Assessment and Task- Based Language
  • A learning-outcomes taxonomy is used to classify
    different types of learned capabilities, each of
    which can be labeled as a learning outcome. The
    distinguishing characteristic of each outcome is
    the type of performance exhibited by someone who
    has developed the skills which enable that
    outcome someone who has acquired a rule can
    apply the rule to solve problems. The external
    performances indicate the internal capability
    acquired by the learner.

Task-Based Assessment
  • Performance assessment is defined as systematic
    attempt to measure a learners ability to use
    previously acquired knowledge in solving problems
    or completing specific tasks. ( Stiggins 1982)
  • It seems that task accomplishment is the ultimate
    focus for evaluating human performance. It
    follows that that L2 performance assessment and
    task-based approaches to language teaching and
    assessment will likely share a greatly deal of
    theoretical and practical common ground. (
    Norris 1998 )

A Five-step Plan for Selecting Assessment Tasks
  • 1 Establish what the teachers specific
    instructional goals are because it is important
    that the chosen assessment task actually
    matches the instructional outcome(s) it is
    designed to measure.
  • 2 Identify the specific, discipline-based
    content are skills that students are expected to
    attain and determine whether the task adequately
    represents or utilizes them.

  • 3 Insure that the task is fair and free of
    bias, allowing student to demonstrate their
    true progress and abilities without being
    disadvantaged by some extraneous element in
    the task, lack of prior knowledge, unequal
    access to resources or materials, and so forth.
  • 4 Decide which of the three possible forms the
    tasks will take ( the choice should depend mainly
    on the type of skills and content that needs to
    be covered

  • a. Authentic, real-world tasks ( which have the
    advantage of generating greater motivation and
    offering greater transferability than
    traditional tasks)
  • b.

Thank you!
??????? ??? ?? Phone64016633 ext
6226 emailgongyf_at_pep.com.cn www.pep.com.cn
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