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Title: Introduction to Export / Import : Assessing export readiness of your firm


1
  • Introduction to Export / Import Assessing
    export readiness of your firm
  • Dr. Vijaya Katti
  • Chairperson (MDPs)
  • Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
  • New Delhi

For Niryat Bandhu Scheme (Session on 17.5.2016)
2
Coverage
  • What is meant by exports?
  • Legal definition
  • Why to export? Who can export?
  • International trade scenario and Indias position
    in global trade
  • Product specific specialties
  • Demand of pattern of specific export market
    specific products
  • Global market and possibilities of exports
  • How to assess your export readiness?

3
What is meant by export? - Legal definition
4
Concept of Export
  • The term export derives from the conceptual
    meaning as to ship the goods and services out of
    the port of a country.
  • The seller of such goods and services is referred
    to as an exporter who is based in the country
    of export whereas the overseas based buyer is
    referred to as an importer.
  • In International Trade, export refers to
    selling goods and services produced in the home
    country to other markets.
  • In very simple terms, export may be defined as
    the selling of goods to a foreign country.
    However, As per Secion2(e) of the India Foreign
    Trade (Development Regulations) Act (1992), the
    term export may be defined as an act of taking
    out of India any goods by land, sea or air and
    with proper transaction of money.

5
Why Export- Reasons for Export
  • There are many good reasons for exporting. Some
    of the motives of export are given below
  • The first and the primary reason for export is to
    earn foreign exchange. The foreign exchange not
    only brings profit for the exporter but also
    improves the economic condition of the country.
  • Secondly, companies that export their goods are
    believed to be more reliable than their
    counterpart domestic companies assuming that
    exporting company has survived the test in
    meeting international standards.
  • Thirdly, free exchange of ideas and cultural
    knowledge opens up immense business and trade
    opportunities for a company.
  • Fourthly, as one starts visiting customers to
    sell ones goods, he has an opportunity to start
    exploring for newer customers, state-of-the-art
    machines and vendors in foreign lands.
  • Fifthly, by exporting goods, an exporter also
    becomes safe from offset lack of demand for
    seasonal products.
  • Lastly, international trade keeps an exporter
    more competitive and less vulnerable to the
    market as the exporter may have a business boom
    in one area while simultaneously witnessing a
    bust in a different area.

6
Who can export?
  • Any one who wants to do something different
  • Anyone who wants to enter in a profit zone
  • Anyone who has assessed his readiness to enter in
    new field try his luck
  • Anyone who is willing to take risk
  • Anyone who is constantly updating himself on
    global business environment

7
Planning for Export
  • The organization should plan well before
    exporting as to what product to be exported,
    where to be exported etc. The organization should
    also evaluate the export potential of a company.
    The main objective of a typical export plan
    should be to identify
  • The objectives of exporting
  • Lists of activities to undertake to achieve those
    objectives
  • Mechanism for review and
  • Activities to help focus on goals

8
Contd..
  • Successful exporters agree that your ability to
    become an accomplished international traders
    depends largely on how you


Make every penny count
Dig out every penny due to you from the system,
by making best use of available opportunities,
policies and schemes
9
Contd..
  • Information on the above subject is spread across
    numerous websites and documents produced by the
    Trade Ministries of various countries (For FTA,
    GSP, Customs duty), DGFT, Customs, RBI, Central
    Excise, Banks, WTO, Other international bodies.
  • You do not need to understand everything
    available, but how do you know what to miss.
    Information Overload makes impossible demand on
    your resources and time.

10
Contd..
  • The course you have enrolled provides straight
    answers to innumerable questions asked by the
    exporters as they launched, developed and grew
    their business. It is a one stop access to
    information scattered across 100s of websites,
    manuals, and schemes and covers basic
    essentials for starting your business endeavor.

11
International Trade Scenario
  • Global growth declined in the first half of 2015,
    reflecting a further slowdown in emerging markets
    and a weaker recovery in advanced economies.
  • It is now projected at 3.1 percent for 2015 as a
    whole, slightly lower than in 2014, and 0.2
    percentage point below the forecasts in the July
    2015 World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update.
  • Prospects across the main countries and regions
    remain uneven. Relative to last year, growth in
    advanced economies is expected to pick up
    slightly, while it is projected to decline in
    emerging market and developingeconomies.
  • With declining commodity prices, depreciating
    emerging market currencies, and increasing
    financial market volatility, downside risks to
    the outlook have risen, particularly for emerging
    market and developing economies.

12
Contd..
  • Global activity is projected to gather some pace
    in 2016. In advanced economies, the modest
    recovery that started in 2014 is projected to
    strengthen further.
  • In emerging market and developing economies, the
    outlook is projected to improve in particular,
    growth in countries in economic distress in 2015
    (including Brazil, Russia, and some countries in
    Latin America and in the Middle East), while
    remaining weak or negative, is projected to be
    higher next year, more than offsetting the
    expected gradual slowdown in China.

13
The World Economy in Recent Months
  • Growth in advanced economies in the first half of
    2015 remained modest.
  • For most emerging market economies, external
    conditions are becoming more difficult.
  • Financial market volatility rose sharply during
    the summer, with declining commodity prices and
    downward pressure on many emerging market
    currencies.
  • Capital inflows have slowed, and the lift off of
    U.S. policy rates from the zero lower bound is
    likely to herald some further tightening of
    external financial conditions.
  • And while the growth slowdown in China is so far
    broadly in line with forecasts, its cross-border
    repercussions appear larger than previously
    envisaged.

14
Global Outlook for 2015-16
  • Global growth is projected to decline from 3.4
    percent in 2014 to 3.1 percent in 2015, before
    picking up to 3.6 percent in 2016.
  • India is projected to remain strong. These
    developments more than offset the projected
    continuation of the slowdown in China.

15
Global Outlook for the Medium Term
  • Global growth is forecast to increase beyond
    2016, entirely reflecting a further pickup in
    growth in emerging market and developing
    economies.
  • This pickup reflects two factors.
  • The first is the assumption of a gradual return
    to trend rates of growth in countries and regions
    under stress or growing well below potential in
    201516 (for example, Brazil and the rest of
    Latin America, Russia, and parts of the Middle
    East).
  • The second factor is the gradual increase in
    theglobal weight of fast-growing countries such
    as Chinaand India, which further increases their
    importance asdrivers of global growth.

16
Contd..
  • Elsewhere in emerging and developing Asia,
    Indias growth is expected to strengthen from 7.3
    percent this year and last year to 7.5 percent
    next year.
  • In India, inflation is expected to decline
    further in 2015, reflecting the fall in global
    oil and agricultural commodity prices.

17
Policies to Foster Growth and Manage
Vulnerabilities in Emerging Market and Developing
Economies
  • In India, near-term growth prospects remain
    favorable, and the decrease in the current
    account deficit has lowered external
    vulnerabilities.
  • The faster-than expected decline in inflation has
    created space for considering modest cuts in the
    nominal policy rate, but the real policy rate
    needs to remain tight for inflation to decline to
    the inflation target in the medium term, given
    upside risks to inflation.
  • Several years of downgraded medium-term growth
    prospects suggest that it is also time for major
    emerging market economies to turn to important
    structural reforms to raise productivity and
    growth in a lasting way. Although the slowing in
    estimated total factor productivity growth in
    major emerging market economies is partly a
    natural implication of recent progress in
    convergence.

18
Condt..
  • The concern is that potential output growth has
    become too dependent on factor accumulation in
    some economies.
  • The structural reform agenda naturally differs
    across countries, but it includes removing
    infrastructure bottlenecks in the power sector
    (India, Indonesia, South Africa) easing limits
    on trade and investment and improving business
    conditions (Brazil, Indonesia, Russia) and
    implementing reforms to education, labor, and
    product markets to raise competitiveness and
    productivity (Brazil, China, India, South Africa)
    and government services delivery (South Africa).

19
Indias Position in Global Trade
20
India's Top 10 Export Destinations
Values in US Million Sorted on year 2014-2015
S.No. Country 2013-2014 Share 2014-2015 Share Growth 2015-2016 (Apr-Sept)
1 U S A 39,142.10 12.4496 42,448.66 13.6782 8.45 20,780.17
2 U ARAB EMTS 30,520.42 9.7073 33,028.08 10.6426 8.22 15,450.35
3 HONG KONG 12,731.74 4.0495 13,599.88 4.3823 6.82 6,289.63
4 CHINA P RP 14,824.36 4.715 11,934.25 3.8456 -19.5 4,534.62
5 SAUDI ARAB 12,218.95 3.8864 11,161.43 3.5965 -8.65 3,461.59
6 SINGAPORE 12,510.54 3.9791 9,809.36 3.1609 -21.59 3,429.78
7 U K 9,779.07 3.1103 9,319.73 3.0031 -4.7 4,566.35
8 GERMANY 7,515.81 2.3905 7,537.34 2.4287 0.29 3,524.50
9 SRI LANKA DSR 4,534.35 1.4422 6,703.72 2.1601 47.84 2,792.41
10 BANGLADESH PR 6,166.93 1.9615 6,451.47 2.0788 4.61 2,809.72
India's Total Export 3,14,405.30 3,10,338.48 -1.29
Source Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of
Commerce Industry, Govt. of India
21
India's Top 10 Import Destinations
Values in US Million Sorted on year 2014-2015
S.No. Country 2013-2014 Share 2014-2015 Share Growth 2015-2016 (Apr-Sept)
1 CHINA P RP 51,034.62 11.336 60,413.17 13.4841 18.38 31,625.41
2 SAUDI ARAB 36,403.65 8.0861 28,107.56 6.2735 -22.79 10,890.55
3 U ARAB EMTS 29,019.82 6.446 26,139.91 5.8344 -9.92 10,578.96
4 SWITZERLAND 19,311.01 4.2894 22,133.16 4.9401 14.61 10,276.01
5 U S A 22,505.08 4.9989 21,814.60 4.869 -3.07 10,446.27
6 INDONESIA 14,748.30 3.2759 15,004.64 3.349 1.74 6,775.40
7 QATAR 15,707.99 3.4891 14,604.71 3.2597 -7.02 4,841.14
8 IRAQ 18,520.86 4.1139 14,247.66 3.18 -23.07 6,192.47
9 NIGERIA 14,097.84 3.1315 13,682.97 3.054 -2.94 5,768.41
10 KOREA RP 12,470.60 2.77 13,529.11 3.0197 8.49 6,651.28
  India's Total Import 4,50,199.79   4,48,033.41   -0.48
Source Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of
Commerce Industry, Govt. of India
22
Top 10 Commodities of India's Exports
Values in US Million Sorted on year 2014-2015
S.No. HSCode Commodity 2013-2014 Share 2014-2015 Share Growth 2015-2016 (Apr-Sept)
1 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES MINERAL WAXES. 64,685.32 20.5739 57,620.04 18.5668 -10.92 16,278.18
2 71 NATURAL OR CULTURED PEARLS,PRECIOUS OR SEMIPRECIOUS STONES,PRE.METALS,CLAD WITH PRE.METAL AND ARTCLS THEREOFIMIT.JEWLRYCOIN. 41,692.25 13.2607 41,549.72 13.3885 -0.34 19,891.43
3 87 VEHICLES OTHER THAN RAILWAY OR TRAMWAY ROLLING STOCK, AND PARTS AND ACCESSORIES THEREOF. 12,933.03 4.1135 14,473.84 4.6639 11.91 7,138.32
4 84 NUCLEAR REACTORS, BOILERS, MACHINERY AND MECHANICAL APPLIANCES PARTS THEREOF. 12,077.17 3.8413 13,802.85 4.4477 14.29 6,568.76
5 29 ORGANIC CHEMICALS 12,017.17 3.8222 11,948.91 3.8503 -0.57 5,849.96
6 30 PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 11,140.50 3.5434 11,584.58 3.7329 3.99 6,488.40
7 10 CEREALS. 10,562.89 3.3596 9,550.98 3.0776 -9.58 3,415.78
8 62 ARTICLES OF APPAREL AND CLOTHING ACCESSORIES, NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED. 8,343.35 2.6537 9,192.14 2.962 10.17 4,718.96
9 85 ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT AND PARTS THEREOF SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS, TELEVISION IMAGE AND SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS,AND PARTS. 10,298.51 3.2756 8,696.79 2.8024 -15.55 3,823.28
10 72 IRON AND STEEL 9,223.38 2.9336 8,684.38 2.7984 -5.84 3,177.14
    India's Total Export 3,14,405.30   3,10,338.48   -1.29
Source Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of
Commerce Industry, Govt. of India
23
Top 10 Commodities of India's Imports
Values in US Million Sorted on year 2014-2015
S.No. HSCode Commodity 2013-2014 Share 2014-2015 Share Growth 2015-2016 (Apr-Sept)
1 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES MINERAL WAXES. 1,81,382.59 40.2894 1,56,400.01 34.9081 -13.77 53,738.67
2 71 NATURAL OR CULTURED PEARLS,PRECIOUS OR SEMIPRECIOUS STONES,PRE.METALS,CLAD WITH PRE.METAL AND ARTCLS THEREOFIMIT.JEWLRYCOIN. 58,464.76 12.9864 62,379.92 13.9231 6.7 30,199.73
3 85 ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT AND PARTS THEREOF SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS, TELEVISION IMAGE AND SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS,AND PARTS. 29,152.75 6.4755 33,149.35 7.3989 13.79 17,877.52
4 84 NUCLEAR REACTORS, BOILERS, MACHINERY AND MECHANICAL APPLIANCES PARTS THEREOF. 30,669.15 6.8123 31,730.65 7.0822 3.46 16,266.85
5 29 ORGANIC CHEMICALS 17,044.16 3.7859 17,746.39 3.961 4.15 8,615.26
6 72 IRON AND STEEL 9,109.58 2.0235 12,342.01 2.7547 35.48 5,906.07
7 39 PLASTIC AND ARTICLES THEREOF. 10,104.19 2.2444 11,690.78 2.6094 15.7 6,008.09
8 15 ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS AND THEIR CLEAVAGE PRODUCTS PRE. EDIBLE FATS ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE WAXEX. 9,441.75 2.0972 10,670.01 2.3815 13.01 5,253.93
9 99 MISCELLANEOUS GOODS. 8,070.51 1.7927 7,471.64 1.6677 -7.42 4,133.68
10 26 ORES, SLAG AND ASH. 6,560.20 1.4572 7,361.19 1.643 12.21 3,217.53
    India's Total Import 4,50,199.79   4,48,033.41   -0.48
Source Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of
Commerce Industry, Govt. of India
24
Direction Of Indias Foreign Trade
  • The group of countries to which India Exports are
    -
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation
    Development (OECD) comprising of USA, Canada,
    European Union (EU), Australia and Japan.
  • Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC) which includes Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Saudi
    Arabia and others.
  • Eastern Europe which includes Romania, Russia and
    others.
  • Developing Nations which includes China, Hong
    Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia.

25
INDIAS FOREIGN TRADE (MERCHANDISE) November,
2015
  • EXPORTS IMPORTS (US Million) (PROVISIONAL)

Source Ministry of Commerce Industry, Govt.
of India
26
Sectoral dominance of SSIs in Indian Exports
  • The share of SSI Sector in Indian Exports is an
    impressive 40. India has Revealed Comparative
    Advantage in most of the products exported by SSI
    sector.
  • Following table indicates that SSI contribute to
    more than 70 of Indian exports in leather,
    Readymade Garments, Wool products, and Sports
    goods.

27
S.No Sector Share of SSI in relevant Sectoral exports
1. Synthetic Rayon Textile 19
2. Engineering Goods 33
3. Chemical Allied products 33
4. Plastic products 42
5. Basic Chemicals Pharmaceuticals 45
6. Marine Products 47
7. Leather Leather products 70
8. Processed Food 70
9. Readymade Garments 90
10. Wool Woolen products 95
11. Sports Goods 100
28
Informal exporting-Export through an elaborate
system of sub-contracting
  • A large category of Indian Exporters acts as a
    small link in exporting chain, which works on an
    elaborate system of subcontracting.
  • In most cases such firms have no idea of ultimate
    buyers (of their products) or their preferences
    as they generally sell to a middlemen at
    throwaway prices.
  • Such trends are confirmed by the large enrolment
    of merchant exporters in most export promotion
    councils.

29
  • Most of the Indian garments/Leather/Handicraft/Low
    Technology Engineering items are produced in
    Small and Informal Sector. Over half the Gems
    and Jewellery industry in India is concentrated
    in the Unorganised Sector and follows a
    subcontracting model known as Job Lot Method.

30
The emerging Indian Export structure new
players in the game
  • A number of factors contribute to the growing
    competitiveness of many Indian export sectors.
  • These include Rise of Indian Mini MNCs, Global
    exposure to a large number of Indian Companies
    through Export Operations, Easy access to Global
    Capital and Conducive regulatory environment.
  • Indian Mini MNCs and International MNCs play the
    role of Anchor companies helping the entire
    sector into raising productivity and
    competitiveness.

31
Rich heritage of various states Natural
endowment Product Specific specialties
32
Export Potential of Select StatesGujarat
  • One of India's most industrialized states,
    Gujarat maintains a variety of industries, the
    principal ones being general and electrical
    engineering and the manufacture of textiles,
    vegetable oils, chemicals, soda ash, and cement.
    New industries include the production of
    fertilizers and petrochemicals.
  • Major resources produced by the state include
    cotton, peanuts, dates, sugarcane, and petrol.
    The state is rich in calcite, gypsum, manganese,
    lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar and
    quartz sand and successful mining of these
    minerals is done in their specified areas.
  • Gujarat produces about 91 of Indias required
    amount of6289 soda ash and gives the country
    about 66 of its national requirement of salt.
    Chemical Industries in Gujarat count for more
    than 35 of Indian Chemicals production.

33
Maharashtra
  • Maharashtra has had a long History in textiles
    and Mumbai was the original home of India's
    textile mills.
  • Sugar industry has made considerable progress
    specially in the co-operative sector. Maharashtra
    is well known for the development of co-operative
    sugar industry whereby the farmers acquire a
    share in the sugar mills.
  • Pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, heavy chemicals,
    electronics, automobiles, engineering, food
    processing, and plastics are some of the major
    industries in the state. Maharashtra is renowned
    for the production of three-wheelers, jeeps,
    commercial vehicles and cars, synthetic fibers,
    cold rolled products and industrial alcohol.
  • Industrial development in the state is largely
    concentrated in the, Pune Metropolitan Area ,
    Nashik, Aurangabad and Nagpur. The six important
    industries in the state are cotton textiles,
    chemicals, machinery, electricals, transport and
    metallurgy. Pune is emerging as one of the
    largest automobile hubs in the country.

34
Karnataka
  • Karnataka evolved as the manufacturing hub for
    some of the largest public sector industries of
    India after independence. Hindustan Aeronautics
    Limited which is dedicated to research and
    development activities for indigenous fighter
    aircraft for the Indian Air Force employs over
    9,500 employees making it one of the largest
    public sector employers in Karnataka.
  • Other heavy industries such as National Aerospace
    Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited,
    Indian Telephone Industries, Bharat Earth Movers
    Limited (BEML), Bharat Electronics Limited.
  • The Karnataka state has many sugar factories in
    northern region and also edible oil processing
    units. There are many pharmaceutical factories
    and textile processing units in state of
    Karnataka. The steel producing units of
    Kirloskar,Jindal, Kalyani groups are located in
    the state.
  • There is petroleum refinery, Mangalore Refinery
    and Petrochemicals Limited ( MRPL ) at Katipalla
    in Dakshina Kannada district.There is also
    fertiliser factory MCF near New Mangalore
    port.There are many roof tile and Beedi
    manufacturing firms in coastal districts of the
    state.

35
Contd..
  • Karnataka's net state domestic product is of 47
    billion.
  • Between 19922002, Karnataka attracted the fourth
    highest total Foreign Direct Investment approvals
    in India, to the tune of Rs.21,566 million.
  • Karnataka accounts for one third of India's
    Information technology exports.
  • Agriculture in Karnataka, like most of India,
    employs 80 of the population. Agriculture and
    its allied activities account for 49 of the
    state's income.
  • Uttara Kanara and Dakshina Kanara are cultivated
    with rice and sugarcane.
  • Coffee and Tea are also grown on the slopes of
    the Western Ghats in the district of Kodagu,
    Chikmagalur and Hassan.
  • Karnataka produces 70 of India's coffee, of
    which about 50 is exported.
  • The black soil in the northwest of the state, is
    hospitable for the growth of cotton, onion,
    course cereal, sunflower and peanuts.

36
Contd..
  • The forests of the Malnad region produce timber,
    bamboo and sandalwood.
  • Karnataka is the only exporter of sandalwood in
    the country.
  • Most of the world's sandalwood oil is produced in
    Karnataka.
  • All of India's gold comes from the Kolar district
    of Karnataka.
  • Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, is home to
    several public sector undertaking aircraft
    companies, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
    (HAL), HMT Hindustan Machine Tools, Bharat Heavy
    Electronics Limited (BHEL), National Aeronautics
    Limited and also Indian Space Research
    Organization (ISRO).

37
Contd..
  • A number of "IT Parks" have been set up by the
    Karnataka State Electronics Development
    Corporation Limited including Bangalore's
    "Electronics City" and IT parks in Mangalore,
    Mysore and Hubli.
  • Bangalore is also home to prestigious higher
    institutes of learning such as the Indian
    Institute of Science (IISc) and the Indian
    Institute of Management (IIM Bangalore).
  • Hubli-Dharwad is the second largest city in
    Karnataka and is one of the 49 Metropolitan
    clusters selected by McKinsey Company as growth
    hotspots in India.
  • The University of Agricultural Sciences and the
    Karnataka Universities are internationally
    acclaimed Universities for the quality of
    research and teaching.
  • Mysore is the third largest and a very important
    city in Karnataka.
  • Being tagged as 'the Heritage City', tourism is a
    major economic driver and while it is among the
    top tourist attractions in India, it is said to
    rank next only to Madame Tussauds in London in
    the list of most-visited tourist attractions
    receiving more than 3 million tourists per year.

38
Contd..
  • Mangalore is one of the biggest business centre
    in Karnataka.
  • It is the best city to do business, after the
    capital Bangalore.
  • It is the 13th best business destination in
    India.
  • One of the largest SEZ's in India, the ONGC MSEZ
    is in Mangalore, which is currently the fastest
    growing non-metro in the south.
  • Mangalore is one among the only 5 cities in the
    country to have both a Major Port and an
    International Airport.
  • Mangalore is one of the top 10 emerging cities of
    India for outsourcing.
  • Udupi the temple city is contributing towards the
    higher education with large number of
    professional colleges in Manipal.
  • It is also the home of the famous software
    company Robosoft Technologies.

39
Andhra Pradesh
  • As of June 2013, the state had 39 operational
    special economic zones (SEZs). There are 272
    Industrial estates and industrial development
    areas in the State, covering an area of 14700
    hectares. The State Government is in the process
    of developing Industrial Parks at different
    places, for specific groups of industries like
    Visakhaatnam Export Processing Zone.
  • Food parks, one each in the 2 regions of Coastal
    Andhra (value added rice products, dairy,
    horticultural, marine etc.) and in Rayalseema
    region (processing of vegetables, edible oils and
    export oriented industry). Agri Export Zones for
    the following produce are proposed at the places
    mentioned against them
  • Red Chilli Guntur district,
  • Mangoes Krishna district,
  • Mango pulp and fresh vegetables Chittoor

40
Tamil Nadu
  • One of the global electrical equipment public
    sector company BHEL has manufacturing plants at
    Tiruchirappalli and Ranipet. The Tamil Nadu state
    government owns the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and
    Papers (TNPL), the world's biggest bagasse-based
    paper mills in Karur as well as the world's sixth
    largest manufacturer of watches together with
    TATA, under the brand name of "Titan". 40 percent
    of all wind-generated electricity in India is
    created by windmills in Tamil Nadu. Danish wind
    power company NEG Micon has established its
    manufacturing unit in Chennai. Tamil Nadu is a
    leading producer of cement in India and with
    manufacturing units located at Karur,
    Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore and Ariyalur.
    High-density PolyEthylene (HDPE) mono filament
    yarn and associated products are manufactured in
    Karur.
  • Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City"
    as it supplies two thirds of India's requirements
    of motors and pumps. The city is one of the
    largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders,
    poultry and auto components and the term
    "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a
    Geographical indication.

41
West Bengal
  • Economy of West Bengal, a state in eastern India,
    is primarily dependent on agriculture and
    medium-sized industry, although services and
    heavy industries play an increasingly significant
    role in the economy of the state.
  • State industries are mostly localised in the
    Kolkata region, the mineral-rich western
    highlands, and Haldia port region. There are up
    to 10,000 registered factories in the state and
    the West Bengal state government has opened
    Shilpa bandhu, a single window agency in order to
    provide investors with all kinds of assistance in
    establishing and running industrial units.
  • Calcutta is noted as one of the major centre for
    industries including the jute industry. There are
    numerous steel plants in the state apart from the
    alloy steel plant at Durgapur. The centre has
    established a number of industries in the areas
    of tea, sugar, chemicals and fertilisers.
  • Natural resources like tea and jute in and nearby
    parts has made West Bengal a major centre for the
    jute and tea industries. The state's share of
    total industrial output in India was 9.8 in
    198081, declining to 5 by 199798. However, the
    service sector has grown at a rate higher than
    the national rate.

42
Madhya Pradesh
  • The Matang truck was completely developed and
    manufactured by Vehicle Factory Jabalpur.
  • Madhya Pradesh has 6 Ordnance Factories, 4 of
    which are located at Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory,
    Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance
    Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and
    Itarsi. The factories are run by the Ordnance
    Factories Board, and manufacture a variety of
    products for the Indian Armed Forces.

43
Haryana
  • There are numerous manufacturing companies in the
    region. These include Hindustan National Glass,
    Maruti Udyog Limited, Escorts Group, Hero,
    Alcatel, Sony, Whirlpool India, Bharti Telecom,
    Liberty Shoes and HMT. In addition there are more
    than 80,000 small-scale industrial units in the
    state which cumulatively bring in a substantial
    income for the state and its people. Yamunanagar
    district has a paper mill BILT, Haryana has a
    large production of cars, motorcycles, tractors,
    sanitary ware, glass container industry, gas
    stoves and scientific instruments.
  • Faridabad is another big industrial part of
    Haryana. It is home to hundreds of large scale
    companies like Orient fans (C.K.Birla Group), JCB
    India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group
    (Escorts Group), Yamaha Motor India Pvt. Ltd.,
    Whirlpool, ABB, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,
    Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands
    of medium and small scale units as well, like
    Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries.
  • Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is
    the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets
    in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The
    pickle "Pachranga International" is also well
    known.
  • Rohtak is fast emerging as an industrial town
    with industries such as Asian Paints, Maruti
    Udyog, Suzuki Motors decided to make Industrial
    Model Town, Rohtak their new home.

44
Uttar Pradesh
  • UP has also witnessed rapid industrialization in
    the recent past, particularly after the launch of
    policies of economic liberalization in the
    country.
  • There are numerous types of minerals and many
    industries have come up based upon these
    minerals.
  • There are a number of cement plants in Mirzapur
    in the Vindhya region, a bauxite-based aluminium
    plant in the Banda region and Sonbhadra region.
  • In the hilly regions of the state many
    non-metallic minerals are found which are used as
    industrial raw materials. Coal deposits are found
    in the Singrauli region.

45
Punjab
  • The state has essentially an agrarian economy
    with a lower industrial output as compared to
    other states of India.
  • A prominent feature of the industrial scenario of
    the Punjab is its small sized industrial units.
  • There are nearly 194,000 small scale industrial
    units in the state in addition to 586 large and
    medium units. Ludhiana is an important centre for
    industry.
  • In the 1980s there was a chance of a Hero Honda
    and Maruti Suzuki plant to be set up in Ludhiana
    but due to some circumstances of terrorism it was
    cancelled.

46
Contd..
  • Important industries
  • The industrial units in the state are broadly
    divided into three-
  • Agro-based industrial units
  • Machinery units
  • Chemical units
  • In addition there are units in
  • Textile industry
  • Sugar industry
  • Dairy industry

47
Himachal Pradesh
  • Ecology has been given importance in the state
    during the last few years. Industries becoming
    the cause of water or air pollution are not
    encouraged. Every industrial project has to be
    passed by the clearance of the Environment
    Protection Organization before its establishment.
  • Himachal is facing a number of difficulties in
    the advancement of industries. Lack of means of
    dependable transport and poor accessibility was
    one of the major drawbacks.
  • Other problems faced by the state were the poor
    mineral resources, non-availability of
    infrastructure and communication facilities,
    shortage of capital and lack of modern skills.
  • The only plus point of the state was the ample
    availability of electricity.

48
Rajasthan
  • Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining
    in India. The state is the second largest source
    of cement. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar,
    copper mines at Khetri and zinc mines at Dariba
    and Zawar. This is a chart of output of major
    minerals of Rajasthan.

49
Contd..
  • As an area-wise largest state in India, Rajasthan
    is surrounded by Punjab on the north and
    north-east, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on ease and
    Gujarat on the south-west. This Indian state is a
    leading producer of gold, silver, sandstone,
    limestone, marble, rock phosphate, copper and
    lignite. Offering several opportunities in
    organic and contract farming, Rajasthan is also
    the second largest producer of cement in India.
  • It is interesting to know that the world's
    largest centre for gemstone cutting and polishing
    is situated in Jaipur.

50
Contd..
  • Having recorded a tourist count of up to 34.59
    million, Rajasthan offers numerous opportunities
    to expand the luxury tourist segment of the
    country as a whole.
  • With a 12.83 percent hike in the gross state
    domestic product (GSDP) of Rajasthan from 2004-05
    to 2014-15, Rajasthan has 2.5 percent of its
    economy contributed by the small industries and
    the overall industrial sector.
  • Metals such as copper, zinc, mica, gypsum and
    lignite are found in abundance in Rajasthan.
  • Witnessing an extensive production of cotton, the
    state's textile industry is also growing at a
    rapid pace.
  • Other private industries set on the path of
    success in Rajasthan include caustic soda, sugar,
    ball bearings, vegetable oil, woollen goods, rugs
    and cement. The state contributes one tenth of
    the salt produced in India.
  • Rajasthan accounts for India's ninety percent
    mineral reserves.

51
Contd..
  • Out of the twenty million hectares of land that
    is being cultivated, only a marginal twenty
    percent land is being irrigated.
  • As per the Resurgent Rajasthan Partnerships
    Summit 2015 held in Jaipur on November 19th and
    20th, agreements worth Rs 1.5 lakh crore have
    been signed with firms dealing in sectors
    including textiles, solar, petroleum and mining.
  • Aiming to become a prime investment destination
    in India, Rajasthan is seeking plenty of
    investments owning to the inherent climatic
    advantages.
  • Having received investment proposals worth Rs
    5000 crore in the textile sector, Rajasthan will
    have more and more textile units getting
    operational which would further generate
    employment opportunities for over 25,000 people
    in 2016 and 2017.

52
Contd..
  • There is an exhaustive network of roads in the
    state covering a length of 140,000 km.
  • The Rajasthan State Industrial and Investment
    Corporation(RIICO)- a State Government agency has
    already developed 322 industrial areas within the
    state.
  • Moreover, all these industrial area are fed with
    power, shops, water, telecommunication facilities
    and roads.
  • With RIICO having allotted 1167 acre land to 23
    different Japanese companies in Neemrana, a total
    investment of INR 23.2 billion is expected out of
    the allotted land.
  • Plus, it is forecasted that over 4,900 people
    will get employment out of this industrial estate
    in Neemrana.

53
Contd..
  • Tourists greatly add to a state's economy.
  • On November 4, 2015 that Rajasthan signed the 76
    memoranda of understanding (MOUs) worth Rs 319
    crore in its tourism sector with different
    private entities.
  • These MOUs are specially focused on setting up
    hotels, resorts and motels with the aim to
    provide direct employment to over 2800 people.
  • Some of the well-identified areas that can be
    consumed for developing eco-tourism projects
    include Jaisamand Lake, Talab-e-Shahi of Dholpur
    and the Sambhar Wetlands of Jaipur.

54
Telangana
  • The Hyderabad Information Technology and
    Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) City is a major
    IT hub of Telangana.
  • Several major manufacturing and services
    industries are in operation mainly around
    Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components
    industry, spices, mines and minerals, textiles
    and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture,
    poultry farming are the main industries in
    Telangana.
  • In terms of services, Hyderabad is usually
    nicknamed as Cyberabad due to its information
    technology foray and location of major software
    industries in the city. Prior to secession, it
    contributed 15 to India's and 98 to Andhra
    Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors last
    2013.
  • With Hyderabad as in the front line of
    Telangana's aims to promote information
    technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC
    City as its premier hub.

55
Kerala
  • Service industry dominates the Kerala economy.
  • Kerala leads many other Indian states and
    territories in terms of per capita GDP (Rs.
    74,620) and economic productivity, and Kerala's
    Human Development Index is the best in India.

56
Jammu and Kashmir
  • Jammu and Kashmir's economy is predominantly
    dependent on agriculture and allied activities.
    The Kashmir valley is known for its sericulture
    and cold-water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir is
    used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly
    known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is very
    famous and brings the state a handsome amount of
    foreign exchange. Agricultural exports from Jammu
    and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries,
    corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears,
    saffron, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, while
    manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs,
    and shawls.

57
Contd..
  • Horticulture plays a vital role in the economic
    development of the state. With an annual turnover
    of over Rs.3 billion (US45 million), apart from
    foreign exchange of over Rs.800 million
    (US12 million), this sector is the next biggest
    source of income in the state's economy. The
    region of Kashmir is known for its horticulture
    industry and is the wealthiest region in the
    state. Horticultural produce from the state
    includes apples, apricots, cherries, pears,
    plums, almonds and walnuts.

58
Contd..
  • The Doda district has deposits of high-grade
    sapphire. Though small, the manufacturing and
    services sector is growing rapidly, especially in
    the Jammu division. In recent years, several
    consumer goods companies have opened
    manufacturing units in the region. The Associated
    Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India
    (ASSOCHAM) has identified several industrial
    sectors which can attract investment in the
    state, and accordingly, it is working with the
    union and the state government to set up
    industrial parks and special economic zones. In
    the fiscal year 200506, exports from the state
    amounted to Rs.11.5 billion (US170 million).
    However, industrial development in the state
    faces several major constraints including extreme
    mountainous landscape and power shortage. The
    Jammu Kashmir Bank, which is listed as a SP
    CNX 500 conglomerate, is based in the state. It
    reported a net profit of Rs. 598 million
    (US8.9 million) in 2008.

59
Contd..
  • The Government of India has been keen to
    economically integrate Jammu and Kashmir with the
    rest of India. The state is one of the largest
    recipients of grants from New Delhi, totalling
    US812 million per year. It has a mere 4
    incidence of poverty, one of the lowest in the
    country.

60
Contd..
  • In an attempt to improve the infrastructure in
    the state, Indian Railways is constructing the
    ambitious Kashmir Railway project at a cost of
    more than US2.5 billion. Trains run on the
    130 km Baramula-Banihal section. The 17.5 km
    Qazigund-Banihal section through the 11 km long
    Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel was commissioned.
    Udhampur-Katra section of the track was
    commissioned early in July 2014. The
    Katra-Banihal section is under construction. The
    route crosses major earthquake zones, and is
    subjected to extreme temperatures of cold and
    heat, as well as inhospitable terrain, making it
    an extremely challenging engineering project. It
    is expected to increase tourism and travel to
    Kashmir. Three other railway lines, the
    BilaspurMandiLeh railway, Srinagar-Kargil-Leh
    railway and the Jammu-Poonch railway have been
    proposed.

61
Chhattisgarh
  • Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for
    2010 is estimated at INR 60,079 crore in current
    prices. The economy of Chhattisgarh has grown
    rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of
    11.49 per cent in GDP for 20092010.
    Chhattisgarhs success factors in achieving high
    growth rate are growth in agriculture and
    industrial production.
  • Tea production
  • Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th largest
    tea production state in India. The districts of
    Jashpur and Surguja are favorable tea production
    areas. In Jashpur district, the first tea
    plantation, Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was
    established under the direction of Pujya Pad
    Gurupad. Tea production started after two years
    at the Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was
    established in Sogara Ashram and the unit name
    set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The
    forestry department has also started a tea
    plantation motivated by the Sogara Ashram. In
    Surguja district, a tea nursery is being
    developed by the Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture
    College in Ambikapur, Surguja.

62
Contd..
  • Agriculture
  • Agriculture is counted as the chief economic
    occupation of the state. According to a
    government estimate, net sown area of the state
    is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area
    is 5.788 million hectares. Horticulture and
    animal husbandry also engage a major share of the
    total population of the state. About 80 of the
    population of the state is rural and the main
    livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and
    agriculture-based small industry.

63
Contd..
  • Agricultural products
  • The main crops are rice, maize, kodo-kutki and
    other small millets and pulses (tuar and kulthi)
    oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans
    and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s,
    most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt.
    Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was
    double-cropped. When a very substantial portion
    of the population is dependent on agriculture, a
    situation where nearly 80 of a state's area is
    covered only by one crop, immediate attention to
    turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also,
    very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so
    there is a need to diversify the agriculture
    produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops.
    Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of
    central India".

64
Contd..
  • Irrigation
  • In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on
    about 77 of the net sown area. Only about 20 of
    the area is under irrigation the rest depends on
    rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73
    of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97 of the Bastar
    plateau and 95 of the northern hills are
    rainfed. The irrigated area available for double
    cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh plains
    and 2300 ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills.
    Due to this, the productivity of rice and other
    crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to
    obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it
    has remained as subsistence agriculture till now,
    though agriculture is the main occupation of more
    than 80 of the population.

65
Contd..
  • Industrial sector
  • Power sector
  • Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of India
    where the power sector is effectively developed.
    Based on the current production of surplus
    electric power, the position of the State is
    comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh
    State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong
    position to meet the electricity requirement of
    the new state and is in good financial health.
    Chhattisgarh provides electricity to several
    other states because of surplus production.
  • As per a study made by the Power Finance
    Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, the state has
    potential of 61000 MW of additional thermal power
    in terms of availability of coal for more than
    100 years and more than 2500 MW hydel capacity.
    To use this vast potential, substantial additions
    to the existing generation capacity are already
    under way.

66
Contd..
  • Steel sector
  • The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy
    industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel Plant,
    Bhilai operated by SAIL, with a capacity of 5.4
    million tonnes per year, is regarded as a
    significant growth indicator of the state. More
    than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron
    plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh.
    Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba
    and Raigarh have become the steel hub of
    Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur has become the center
    of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel
    in India.

67
Contd..
  • Aluminium sector
  • The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh was
    established by Bharat Aluminum Company Limited,
    which has a capacity of around one million tonnes
    each year.
  • Natural resources
  • Forest
  • Forests occupy 41.33 of the total area (as per
    the latest report by the Indian Forest Service)
    and the rich forest resources include wood, tendu
    leaves, honey and lac.
  • Mineral deposits
  • Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20
    of the country's total cement produce. It ranks
    first in the nation for coal production and
    second in reserves, third in iron ore production
    and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite
    and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin-ore
    producing state in the country. Other minerals
    include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble,
    alexandrite and diamonds.

68
Contd..
  • Information and technologies
  • In recent years, Chhattisgarh is also getting
    exposure in information technology (IT) projects
    and consultancy. Its government is also promoting
    IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT
    solutions. The body, known as CHIPS, is providing
    large IT projects such as Choice, Swan, etc.

69
Contd..
  • Major companies
  • Major companies with a presence in the state
    include
  • Metal Bhilai Steel Plant, Jindal Steel and
    Power, Bharat Aluminium Company, Baldev Alloys
    Pvt Ltd
  • Oil Indian Oil Corporation
  • Engineering Simplex Casting Ltd,
  • Real estate CHPL-Dream-Homes (Chouhan Housing
    Pvt Ltd.)
  • Mining NMDC, South Eastern Coalfields
  • Power  NTPC, Lanco Infratech, KSK Energy
    Ventures, Vandana Vidyut, Chhattisgarh State
    Power Generation Company, Jindal Power Limited.

70
Contd..
  • Exports
  • Chhattisgarhs total exports were US353.3
    million in 2009-10. Nearly 75 per cent of exports
    comes from Bhilai and the remaining from Urla,
    Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products
    include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended
    yarn, food and agri-products, iron, aluminium,
    cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC
    (Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development
    Corporation Limited) is the nodal agency of the
    Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion
    in the state.

71
Demand pattern of specific export market specific
products
72
Selection of products for export by Indian firms
  • Items with increasing demand in global markets
    need to be identified.
  • Competitor countries from where these items are
    entering in these markets need to be examined.
  • Indias strengths in these products need to be
    analysed and focused strategy for export needs to
    be undertaken.

73
Contd..
  • Ministry of Commerce had undertaken study of New
    Export Basket with Focus and Value Added
    Products.
  • It was enriched that newer commodities need to be
    promoted, value added products need to be
    identified and strategy for the newly identified
    commodities needs to be formulated.

74
Top 20 Biggest Sectors of 2012 in WLD to WLD
Imports Indias Share
  • The total global imports in the World for all 99
    Chapters (at digit HS code) and approximately
    5010 commodities (at 6 digit HS code) is to the
    tune of USD 11595.470 Bn. in 2012.
  • The top 20 sectors of World to world imports
    constitute 80 i.e. USD 9303.846 Bn. of the total
    global imports, whereas in Indias case, these 20
    sectors constitute 70 of the entire Indias
    exports basket of 2012 in terms of value.

75
Share of India in World Imports
Sl.No. HS Code Product Name Share IndiagtWorld Imports Share IndiagtWorld Imports Share IndiagtWorld Imports
Sl.No. HS Code Product Name 2012 2011 2010
1 27 Mineral Fuels, Mineral Oils and Products of their Distillation Bituminous Substances Mineral Waxes 2.45 1.85 1.68
2 85 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliance parts thereof 0.72 0.53 0.43
3 84 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers and parts and accessories of such articles 0.78 0.54 0.46
4 87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 1.42 0.86 0.9
5 71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones, precious metals, metals clad with precious metal, and articles thereof imitation jewellery coin 10.53 10.58 8.59
6 39 Plastics and articles thereof 1.41 1 0.76
7 30 Pharmaceutical Products 2.75 1.79 1.43
8 90 Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus parts and accessories thereof 0.61 0.36 0.32
9 29 Organic Chemicals 4.19 2.44 2.26
10 72 Iron and Steel 2.88 1.76 1.88
11 73 Articles of Iron or Steel 3.88 2.36 2.65
12 40 Rubber and Articles thereof 1.89 1.17 1
13 94 Furniture Bedding, Mattresses, Mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings Lamps and Lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included illuminated signs, illuminate name-plates and the like Prefabricated Building 0.71 0.5 0.43
14 61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 3.93 3.17 2.81
15 62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories not knitted or crocheted 5.34 4.19 3.66
16 48 Paper and paperboard articles of Paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 0.75 0.5 0.47
17 38 Miscellaneous Chemical Products 2.41 1.42 1.41
18 88 Aircraft, Spacecraft and parts thereof 1.65 1.42 0.99
19 76 Aluminium and Articles thereof 1.55 0.87 0.97
20 26 Ores, Slag and Ash 3.46 1.67 3.11
76
13 out of 89 commodities have RCA positive in
2012 and share of India to world to world
imports increasing over the years (strong items)
Sl. No. HS Code Product Name
1 230400 OIL-CAKE AND OTHR SOLID RESIDUE W/N GRND/IN PLLTS FORM OBTND FRM SOYA-BEAN OIL EXTRCTN
2 300490 OTHER MEDCNE PUT UP FOR RETAIL SALE
3 401120 NEW PNMTC TYRES USED ON BUSES/LORRIES
4 610910  T-SHIRTS ETC OF COTTON
5 620342 TROUSERS BIB AND BRACE OVERALLS BREECHES AND SHORTS OF COTTON FOR MEN'S AND BOYS'
6 620462 TROUSERS,BIB AND BRACE OVERALLS, BREECHES AND SHORTS OF COTTON
7 711319 ARTCLS OF OTHR PRCS MTL W/N PLTD OR CLAD
8 760110 ALUMINIUM-NOT ALLOYED
9 852390 OTHER PREPARED UNRECORDED MEDIA
10 870323 VEHICLES WITH SPARK-IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING ENGINE OF A CYLINDER CAPACITYgt1500 CC BTlt3000
11 870899 OTR PRTSANDACCSSRS OF VHCLS OF HDG 8701-8705
12 880330 OTHER PARTS OF AEROPLANES OR HELICOPTERS
13 940360 OTHER WOODEN FURNITURE
77
72 Commodities with share increasing but less
than 2 (Bright Prospects)
Sl.No. HS Code (2 Digit Level) Commodities In Numbers
(A) major commodities at 2 Digit level are (A) major commodities at 2 Digit level are (A) major commodities at 2 Digit level are (A) major commodities at 2 Digit level are
1. 85 ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT AND PARTS THEREOF SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS, TELEVISION IMAGE AND SOUND RECORDERS AND REPRODUCERS,AND PARTS. 19
2. 84 NUCLEAR REACTORS, BOILERS, MACHINERY AND MECHANICAL APPLIANCES PARTS THEREOF. 15
3. 87 VEHICLES OTHER THAN RAILWAY OR TRAMWAY ROLLING STOCK, AND PARTS AND ACCESSORIES THEREOF. 11
(B) OTHERS (B) OTHERS (B) OTHERS (B) OTHERS
4. 29 ORGANIC CHEMICALS 3
5. 39 PLASTIC AND ARTICLES THEREOF. 3
6. 90 OPTICAL, PHOTOGRAPHIC CINEMATOGRAPHIC MEASURING, CHECKING PRECISION, MEDICAL OR SURGICAL INST. AND APPARATUS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES THEREOF 3
7. 30 PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 2
8. 61 ARTICLES OF APPAREL AND CLOTHING ACCESSORIES, KNITTED OR CORCHETED. 2
78
Contd.
Sl.No. HS Code (2 Digit Level) Commodities In Numbers
9. 21 MISCELLANEOUS EDIBLE PREPARATIONS. 1
10. 22 BEVERAGES, SPIRITS AND VINEGAR. 1
11. 26 ORES, SLAG AND ASH. 1
12. 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES MINERAL WAXES. 1
13. 33 ESSENTIAL OILS AND RESINOIDS PERFUMERY, COSMETIC OR TOILET PREPARATIONS. 1
14. 40 RUBBER AND ARTICLES THEREOF. 1
15. 62 ARTICLES OF APPAREL AND CLOTHING ACCESSORIES, NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED. 1
16. 64 FOOTWEAR, GAITERS AND THE LIKE PARTS OF SUCH ARTICLES. 1
17. 73 ARTICLES OF IRON OR STEEL 1
18. 88 AIRCRAFT, SPACECRAFT, AND PARTS THEREOF. 1
19. 94 FURNITURE BEDDING, MATTRESSES, MATTRESS SUPPORTS, CUSHIONS AND SIMILAR STUFFED FURNISHING LAMPS AND LIGHTING FITTINGS NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED OR INC 1
20. 95 TOYS, GAMES AND SPORTS REQUISITES PARTS AND ACCESSORIES THEREOF. 1
79
Exporters Questionnaire
80
For a proper export planning following questions
need to answered
  • Which products are selected for export
    development?
  • What modifications, if any, must be made to adapt
    them for overseas markets?
  • Which countries are targeted sales development?
  • In each country, what is the basic customer
    profile ?
  • What marketing and distribution channels should
    be used to reach customers?
  • What special challenges pertain to each market
    (competition, cultural differences, import
    controls, etc.), and what strategy will be used
    to address them?
  • How will the products export sale price be
    determined?
  • What specific operational steps must be taken and
    when?
  • What will be the time frame for implementing each
    element of the plan?
  • What personnel and company resources will be
    dedicated to exporting?
  • What will be the cost in time and money for each
    element?
  • How will results be evaluated and used to modify
    the plan?

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Export Readiness Assessment (ERA) Questionnaire
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