The Treatment of Complex Literatures within the structure of a PhD. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 78
About This Presentation
Title:

The Treatment of Complex Literatures within the structure of a PhD.

Description:

... literature I will use a thesis A internal conceptual model of the ... A framework model if available ... Theoretical Model Development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:179
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 79
Provided by: gpd6
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Treatment of Complex Literatures within the structure of a PhD.


1
The Treatment of Complex Literatures within the
structure of a PhD.
  • Professor Gus Geursen

School of Marketing University of South Australia
2
Literature on thesis writing related to marketing
  • Chad Parry (1998),
  • A structured approach to presenting a thesis. AMJ
    6(1) 63-85 and Commentary by Uncles (1998)
  • Adams and White (1994)
  • Dissertation Research in Public Administration
    an Assessment of Methods and Quality PAR 54(6)
    6565-576
  • Clark (1965)
  • Writing up the Doctorial Thesis GMR 25-31

3
  • Cooper (1989)
  • Integrated Research a guide for Literature
    Reviews. Sage
  • Krathwohl (1977)
  • How to prepare a research proposal University of
    Syracuse
  • Phillips and Pugh (1994)
  • How to Get a PhD Open University Press

4
Sources of material for this seminar
  • In order to demonstrate my discussion of
    literature I will use a thesis
  • A internal conceptual model of the small firm
  • Other thesis referred to are by Dr Phil Hellier,
    Dr Liz Hempill and my other past and present
    students.

5
The Structure of the thesis as an argument
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
    thesis
  • Chapter 2 Issues in defining
  • Chapter 3 Literature review
  • Chapter 4 Research method
  • Chapter 5 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 6 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 7 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
    identification of further research.
    Fitting it back into the literature

6
Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
dissertation
  • Introduces the thesis.
  • Provides a general context from a discipline
    perspective and a general perspective.
  • Why is it important to study this area.
  • What is being explored.
  • What are the fundamental question/s explored in
    the thesis.
  • What is the scope of the thesis.

7
Chapter 2 Issues in defining..
  • This is your opportunity to define your terms and
    to justify your definitions.
  • This chapter can also be used to establish any
    unusual words/language in the thesis.
  • If well written the chapter will act as a
    reference for the reader to progress from.

8
Chapter 3 Literature review
  • The heart of the thesis and subject of this
    seminar

9
Chapter 4 Research method
  • Will flow out of literature chapter but also have
    its own literature
  • Composition
  • The research questions
  • Issues in the research approach
  • The research philosophy of this dissertation
  • Implications of the research philosophy
  • Stages in research for this dissertation
  • Stage 3 Case studies
  • Stage 4 Empirical substantiation

10
Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
identification of further research
  • Introduction
  • Contribution of the conceptual model to business
    literature
  • Contribution of the model components to business
    literature
  • Further research
  • Conclusion

11
Structure of the thesis
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
    dissertation
  • Chapter 2 Issues in defining small business
  • Chapter 3 Literature review
  • Chapter 4 Research method
  • Chapter 5 The firm as a generative and an
    extractive phenomenon
  • Chapter 6 The cashflow component model
  • Chapter 7 The generative component of the firm
  • Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
    identification of further research

12
What you need to comment on
  • What has been said.
  • Overall
  • Specifically
  • Q. What and how is it related to my problem
  • What has been concluded
  • Specifically
  • Generally
  • What is its substance
  • Q. What and how is it related to my problem

13
Engaging a literature regardless whether it is
complex or simple
  • What needs to be covered.
  • Range of aspects
  • Range of literatures
  • What and how is it related to my problem

14
Problems
  • What should be in ?
  • What should be out?
  • How do you produce a transparent argument

15
Steps in managing a complex literature
  • Step 1 Scoping the literature
  • Step 2 Grasping the Literature Analytically
  • Step 3 bring the story together

16
Step 1 Scoping the literature
  • Survey the general area and do it carefully as
    misses will come back and bite you
  • Search carefully and extensively. If you find a
    paper that arrears relevant look at its
    references and pick up the authors who are
    frequently quoted.
  • Search widely and preferably cross discipline.
  • Search chronologically.

17
(No Transcript)
18
(No Transcript)
19
(No Transcript)
20
eg Liz HemphillAn examination of agent-principal
relationship establishment The case of Real
Estate

Specific parameters and definitions of the agency
relationship remedies for







-
Principals decision to
Gap filled by this thesis

commit (Bagozzi 2000 Bagozzi Dholakia 1999)


(Singh 200
0 Sitkin


Boundaries, drivers

Roth 1993)




-
Agency relationship
agency relationship





Jensen 1994b Jensen

-
Agent behaviour

-
Drivers of agent behaviour







21
Eg Sarans thesis
Resource-Based Theory
Relationship between firm resources and
performance (Barney 2001 Collis 1991)
i.e. export barrier internal to the
firms and export performance (e.g.
Bauerschmidt et al. 1985 Da Silva and Da
Rocha 2001 Katsikeas et al.1996)
22
Trade Theory and Development Economics Role of
skill-intensity, macro-level environmental
factors and organizational factors (Czinkota et
al. 1998 Deardorf 1984) i.e. absolute advantage
(Smith 1776), comparative advantage (Ricardo
1819), factor proportion (Leontief 1950 Ohlin
1967), demand similarity (Linder 1961),
technology gap (Posner 1961), skill gap (Hirsch
1967), product cycle (Vernon 1966), market
imperfect (Krugman 1990), competitive advantage
of nations (Porter 1990), modified factor
proportion (Wood 1994), resource-advantage (Hunt
and Morgan 1995) development economics (Hymer
1972 Schumpeter 1952 Stiglitz 1996 2002
UNCTAD 2002)
23
Invaluable discoveries
  • Look for scope though
  • Themes.
  • Patterns
  • Areas covered and missed.
  • Especially look for the invaluable contributions
    such as citation analysis, broad studies which
    provide overviews of an area. If you cannot find
    these you will have to develop them yourself so
    look very carefully.

24
Some useful hints
  • Look for any summary analysis, literature reviews
    such as a citation analysis or extensive lit
    review paper
  • Academy of Management Review.
  • Journal of Accounting Literature.
  • Journal of Economic Literature
  • Look for mega analysis.
  • Read the lit review sections of the good papers
    and see if anyone has taken a holistic view.

25
An example of a literature scope Taken from A
conceptual model of the small firm
26
An existing paperAn Empirical analysis of small
business literature
27
Figure 3.2 Subjects in journal/academic articles
exerting the greatest impact on contemporary
small enterprise research
28
Make comments of what you observe provided they
are justified for example
  • After figure 3.1 classification
  • On the basis of these comments it is not
    surprising that the literature appears fragmented
    and non-cohesive.
  • After figure 3.1 classification citation analysis
  • Clearly, the research to this point had not
    generated material that helped to provide an
    integrated understanding of small businesses as a
    whole.

29
Engage the literature further and comment on
what has been found.
  • for example there were two holistic studies
    Williams (1989) and Storey, Keasey, Watson and
    Pooran (1990)

30
The Williams (1989) study
  •  The characteristics Williams chose to collect
    data on were in four groups
  • Enterprise characteristics,
  • Owner/manager characteristics,
  • Management practices and business dynamics, and
  • Owner/manager reaction and development.

31
What Williams did
  • Studied approx 4000 continuing businesses for 15
    years and approx 4000 failed businesses
  • Collected detailed data on all the
    characteristics identified every 6 months
  • Did extensive survey work with each failed
    business

32
The contribution of the Williams study
  • Observation 1
  • It is critical to determine and understand what
    controls are used in a small firm and how these
    are used.
  • Observation 2
  • It is important to understand how these controls
    actually function as components of the management
    process of small business.
  • Observation 3
  • A framework model if available would provide a
    most useful reference point for the study of
    small business.

33
An opportunity for you to comment use it to make
a visible contribution
  • For example
  • The design elements encapsulated in each
    observation are missing from Williams study and
    may well be the reason for his work not achieving
    its model building objective. A framework model
    of small business, if it could be assembled,
    might eventually provide a means to usefully
    re-explore Williams data.

34
Storey, Keasey, Watson and Pooran 1990
  • What Story et al Did
  • Obtained financial data (annual reports) of a
    sample a selection of small manufacturing
    businesses
  • - Compared the financial performance of small
    manufacturing firms with the creation of
    employment in those enterprises as a - measure
    of success.
  •  The objective of Storey et al. was to model the
    small firm through prediction of failure, an
    objective not achieved by the study.

35
The Storey et al. study contribution
  • Observation 4
  • Profitability, and thus viability, is
    persistently present in a continuing small
    business and not just in periods centred around
    growth stages. Furthermore, it cannot be assumed
    that profitability directly relates to growth.
  •  Observation 5
  • Cashflow or liquidity should be an aspect of
    small business to examine and have an important
    role in small business management.
  •  Observation 6
  • A single summary source such as annual accounts
    or statistical models is not a sufficient
    database for model development. A range of
    sources must be explored if the drivers and
    relationships necessary for small business to
    function are to be understood.

36
Compare the studies
  • E.g Williams and Storey et al. observations
  • Observation 7
  • Research based on a comparison of survivor and
    non-survivor firms has not produced information
    from which a small business model can be
    developed.
  •  

37
Figure 3.3 Research model used
38
A key problem in literature driven research
studiesis the absence of connective links.
39
In complex literatures you need to stay
unattached until the relationships fall out
  • Let the literature talk to you
  • Dont get committed to a particular view. Stay
    loose.
  • Let the relationship and method requirements
    fall out.
  • Use Observations until you are ready to commit.

40
Step 2 Grasping the Literature Analytically
  • After you have scoped the literature identify the
    areas you want to look at more closely.
  • It is here that you should draw together the
    relevant literatures you wish to explore in
    detail.

41
Example of headings chosen
  • Constraints in small business
  • Workload in small business.
  • Small business growth
  • Small business and its business environment
  • Research into the links between small business
    components
  • Business orientations and their influence
  • Common elements between orientations
  • Some general observations about orientation
    literature
  • Opportunity recognition

42
Treatment of each headinge.g.Constraints in
small business
  • Material
  • Discussion of workload and need to focus
    (Williams 1989 Beddall 1990)
  • Support in literature
  • Cohn and Limberg (1972), Rohrer, Hibler and
    Replogle (1969). Classical organisational
    literature and research (for example the
    discussion of Fayol, Gulick, Urwick, Mooney and
    Taylor in Dalton Lawrence and Lorch 1970 or see
    Odiorne 1987).

43
Observations
  • Observation 8
  • Small business is constrained by the limitations
    of its resource base.
  • Observation 9
  • The limited resource base of small firms will
    cause managers to select a very limited and
    simple set of tools, with which to perform only
    the most necessary management information tasks.
  • Observation 10
  • The complexity of small business also has an
    effect on the selection of management tools.
  • Observation 11
  • Tools need to be multifunctional and capable of
    embracing a number of small business management
    needs if they are to be of value.

44
e.g. 2 Workload in small business
  • Material
  • Beddall (1991) Williams (1989) (Stubbart 1989,
    p. 326). (Johston-Laird 1988, 1983 Hogarth
    1980 Kahneman, Slovic and Tversky 1982 Simon
    1956, 1955 Smircich and Stubbart 1985 Thurow
    1983). Simon (1979, 1978) (Bedeian
    1984).Lindblom (1979, 1959) (Stein 1981, p. 922
    (Quinn 1992, 1981, 1978) stress.

45
Observations
  • Observation 12
  • In an environment where time is at a premium and
    in a pressured environment constant priority
    choices are unavoidable.
  • Some more discussion..
  • see Kellogg 1995 Cottingham 1986 Bougin, Weick
    and Binkhorst 1977 Higgins and Barth 1975
    Stubbart and Ramaprasad 1988 Boden 1988
    Pylyshyn 1986 and Johnson-Laird 1988, 1983). In
    fact, the apparent conflict in Williams

46
  • Observation 13
  • By virtue of the limitation of their resource
    base and past experience, small business managers
    require an extreme ability to set attention
    priorities.
  • Discussion
  • Observation 14
  • Focal points are needed in small business to set
    the priorities for allocation of time by the
    owner/manager and thus avoid work overload.
    These still need to be identified.
  • Discussion
  • Observation 15
  • An evoked set of data exists, that is a set of
    identifiable pieces of information forming a
    basis from which small businesses makes its
    decisions.

47
Research into the links between components
  • Observations
  • Observation 18
  • The locus of control and management in small
    business is directly vested in the owner/manager.
    This person is central to all the decision
    paths.
  • Observation 19
  • In small business all decision paths pass
    directly through the owner/manager, and this
    person directly determines the organisational
    response.

48
The problem is to stay unattached until the
relationships fall out
  • Let the literature talk to you
  • Dont get committed to a particular view. Stay
    loose.
  • Let the relationship and method requirements
    fall out.
  • The use of observations let you do this in a
    complex literature and they also draw attention
    to what you think! In the thesis used as an
    example there were 56 observations.

49
Step 3 bring the story together
  • Develop Propositions by Bringing the Observations
    together into groups that support your model
    arguments

50
The propositions
  • From a conceptual modelling perspective a key
    observation is that orientations can be divided
    into two groups, those concerned with the
    generative and those concerned with the
    extractive contributions to the firm (observation
    54). This observation is fundamental to the
    conceptual modelling process because it suggests
  • Proposition 1
  • The firm can be conceptualised as consisting of
    two components the generative and the
    extractive.

51
  • The function of the generative component of the
    firm is to supply it with a cashflow from
    operations, this is central to its medium and
    long term survival (observations 5, 24, 25, 26,
    27, 28). The function of the extractive
    component on the other hand, is to service the
    internal and societal claims made on the firm.
    From a conceptual modelling perspective this
    recognises that small firms operate in dynamic
    contextual environments. The appropriate model
    approach is therefore one which is dynamic but
    has a central focus on cashflow and what this
    allows the entity to do (observation 29). A
    second proposition is thus

52
  • Proposition 2.
  • The dynamics of cashflow provide a central core
    around which both the generative and extractive
    domains exist. It is central to the study and
    development of a conceptual model of the small
    firm.
  •  .
  • Whilst understanding the generative component
    raises a number of issues which need to be
    clarified, the aspects of the firm which are
    directly generative can be identified. Central
    to the generative group is marketing with its
    fundamental function to supply cashflow from
    operations to the firm (observation 30) and its
    role as a unifier of the generative components
    (observation 31).

53
  • Marketing further provides a wide body of
    information on the exterior drivers of the
    cashflow from operations (observations 32, 34,
    35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45) and the internal
    interfaces required in the management
    resource-scarce small firm (observations 8, 12,
    16). The management function is centralised and
    simple (observations 13, 14, 17) and achieves
    effectiveness across the firm through its central
    pivotal position (observations 19, 20, 21, 22,
    23) The generative component contributes to the
    firm through attainment of customer relevance
    (observation 33), and it is likely to exhibit
    proactive behaviour (observations 41, 42, 43, 44,
    46, 47, 48). It is also very likely to possess a
    strong generative learning and unlearning ability
    to maintain cashflow from operations generating
    achievement (observations 49, 50, 52, 53).

54
  • This further suggests that
  • Proposition 3
  • An important component of the model should be the
    ability to generate and maintain customer
    relevance so as to unite the generative
    components of the firm into a productive whole.

55
  • The observation that management functions through
    orientations provides a perspective on how the
    firm functions, and thus how the research for
    this dissertation might be conducted.
    Observation 55 indicates the closeness and
    directness of links between orientation action
    and management, and also indicates that not all
    identified components of an orientation need to
    exist for that orientation to be present and
    operative. It is clear that knowledge about the
    internal functions of the small firm is complex
    and not well understood (observations 1, 2, 4, 6)
    and that there is little consensus on how this
    phenomenon might be studied (observation 7).

56
  • What is evident is that there is a management
    process by which a limited group of tools is
    selected to perform the information tasks of
    small firm owners and managers (observations 9,
    10, 11). The generative and functional processes
    can thus be explored by studying the firms
    information system, its use and path in the
    dynamics of the firm (observation 50). Assuming
    the critical elements identified in this chapter
    can be found, exploration can be expected to
    result in a conceptual model of the internal
    functions of the small firm. Observation 3 can
    thus be transformed into the final proposition

57
  • Proposition 4
  • A conceptual model of the internal functions of
    the small firm provides a most useful reference
    point for the understanding of and the future
    study of the small firm.
  •  

58
Concluding remark
  • While it is anticipated the research for this
    dissertation will provide insights and material
    beyond these propositions, these cannot be
    predicted. As a consequence of this research,
    issues beyond these propositions should emerge in
    the final chapter of this dissertation with
    further research opportunities.

59
Chapter 4 Research method should come out of the
literature for example
  • If we return to the beginning of the literature
    chapter you will remember Williams and Story et
    al. and their model of the research process.
    This becomes the basis for the research model of
    the thesis.
  • Research method appropriate to the study is
    usually evident from a close reading of the
    literature.

60
Figure 3.3 Research model used
61
(No Transcript)
62
A Structural Equation or Choice Model Thesis
63
Structure of the thesis
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
    thesis
  • Chapter 2 Issues in defining the area of study
  • Chapter 3 Literature review
  • Chapter 4 Method
  • (Chapter 5 Qualitative Research).
  • Chapter 6 Hypothesis, Research Instrument and
  • Theoretical Model
    Development
  • Chapter 7 Findings
  • Chapter 8 Discussion of Findings
  • Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
    identification
  • of further research.

64
Literature treatment in structural equation or
discrete choice modeling
  • In these thesis you are set up a model so the
    reader needs to be very clear of its basis.
  • Identify the issues very carefully.
  • Analyze each issue and its parameters.
  • Let a hypothesis emerge.
  • Every aspect needs to have very careful
    specifications emanating from the literature or
    from qualitative data you have collected and is
    sufficiently robust to use.

65
EG Hellier work Questions were
  • What is the impact of customer satisfaction and
    brand preference upon repurchase intention?
  • What is the effect of customer loyalty and
    switching costs upon brand preference?
  • How important is the contribution of perceived
    value to customer satisfaction and brand
    preference?
  • What is the impact of perceived equity upon
    customer perceived value and satisfaction?
  • How does perceived quality contribute to customer
    satisfaction?

66
The issues
  • Perceived quality
  • Perceived value
  • Perceived equity
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Customer Loyalty
  • Expected switching costs
  • Brand preference
  • Repurchase intention

67
E.G. Brand preference upon repurchase intention
  • The effect of brand preference on willingness to
    buy have rarely been examined (Dodds et al.,
    1991). Encouraging approaches to the more precise
    specification of customer choice behaviour are
    provided by developments in consideration set
    theory by Roberts and Lattin (1991, 1997),
    Shocker et al. (1991) and Kardes et al. (1993).
    Constructive advances also appear in the
    structural models of customer preference and
    repurchase by Roest and Pieters (1997),
    Andreassen and Lindestad (1998), Erdem and Swait
    (1998) and Pritchard et al. (1999). It is argued
    that there is a causal link between the
    disposition of the customer to favour the service
    of a specific supplier (brand preference) and the
    customers willingness to buy that service again
    from the same supplier.
  • H1 The strength of brand preference has a
    positive direct effect on repurchase intention.

68
eg Liz HemphillAn examination of agent-principal
relationship establishment The case of Real
Estate
69
  • Chapter 1
  • Introduction to this dissertation
  • Specific issues of this research
  • Real estate as an example of agent-principal
    agreements
  • The agent's interest in relationship
    establishment
  • Scope of this research
  • Contributions this dissertation makes to theory
  • Contributions this dissertation makes to
    practitioners
  • The general research question of this dissertation

70
  • Chapter 2
  • Definitions of terms used in this dissertation
  • Agency relationship
  • Agent-principal agreement
  • Agent-principal relationship establishment
  • Citation conventions used in this thesis
  • Glossary

71
  • Chapter 3 Literature Review
  • The roots of agency agreements
  • Agency theory
  • The legal perspective
  • The marketing perspective
  • A summary of the two perspectives
  • Specifying the agency relationship
  • The structure of agent-principal relationship
  • The Buyer Perspective
  • The Seller Perspective
  • The Agent Perspective
  • Determinants of agent-principal relationship
    establishment
  • Agent-principal relationship establishment
  • Designing the agent-principal relationship
    submission
  • Sales presentation
  • Conclusion

72
  • Chapter 4Method
  • General research issues
  • Qualitative research issues
  • Quantitative research issues
  • Testing the conceptual model
  • Limitations
  • Chapter 5
  • Qualitative Research
  • Research method
  • Research findings

73
  • Chapter 6 Hypotheses, research instrument and
    theoretical model development
  • Method for developing hypotheses
  • Hypotheses Development
  • Research Instrument Development
  • The Research Instrument Development cycle
  • Measures from the literature
  • Self-developed measures
  • Pre-testing the instrument
  • Scale purification
  • Collecting the Data
  • Models
  • Development of a measurement model
  • Establishing legitimacy of the measures
  • Model specification
  • Item specification
  • Model comparison

74
  • Chapter 7 Findings
  • Method of testing links
  • Results of testing links
  • Chapter 8
  • Discussion of findings
  • Information appropriation
  • Agency control
  • Agent values
  • Agent sales presentation
  • Agent representation
  • Proposed advertisements media selection
  • Negotiation
  • Summary of confirmed links

75
  • Chapter 9 Conclusion, implications and
    identification of further research
  • Implications for theory
  • Real estate research
  • Agency theory
  • Personal sales literature
  • Marketing literature
  • Contributions to real estate research
  • Contributions to agency theory
  • Contributions to personal sales literature
  • Contributions to general marketing literature
  • Implications for practitioners
  • Implications for agency owners
  • Implications for agents
  • Implication for future research
  • Conclusion

76
Structure of the thesis
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
    thesis
  • Chapter 2 Issues in defining the area of study
  • Chapter 3 Literature review
  • Chapter 4 Method
  • (Chapter 5 Qualitative Research).
  • Chapter 6 Hypothesis, Research Instrument and
  • Theoretical Model
    Development
  • Chapter 7 Findings
  • Chapter 8 Discussion of Findings
  • Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
    identification
  • of further research.

77
Structure of the thesis
  • Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this
    thesis
  • Chapter 2 Issues in defining
  • Chapter 3 Literature review
  • Chapter 4 Research method
  • Chapter 5 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 6 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 7 Active research Your Work
  • Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and
    identification of further research. Fitting
    it
  • back into the literature

78
Modified model
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com