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South Africa

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South Africa The Land South ... South Africa s islands: Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros, Mauritius ... Culture Hundreds of ethnic groups Many languages. Most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: South Africa


1
South Africa
2
The Land
  • South Africas mainland Botswana, Lesotho,
    Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia,
    Angola, Malawi.
  • South Africas islands Madagascar, Seychelles,
    Comoros, Mauritius
  • Varied terrain. Forests, Kalahari and Namib
    deserts, grasslands on large plateau
  • Platinum, uranium, gold, iron, diamonds
  • The Kimberley Diamond Mine

3
The Land 2
  • Zambezi (Victoria Falls) main river
  • Prevailing winds blow off shore. Keep Namibia
    coast dry.
  • Moist air from Indian Ocean blows west. Gives
    eastern South Africa humid subtropical climate
  • Drakensburg Mts. create rain shadow for Kalahari

4
Cultures
  • Long history of migration creates diversity
  • 75 of South Africans are black
  • Whites are Dutch (Afrikaners), German, British,
    French
  • Blacks are Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Temba,
    Pondo
  • Mostly Christians. Some Islam, Hindu, animism
  • Most widely spoken language of whites is
    Afrikaans.

5
Economy
  • Most are subsistence farmers
  • Raise sorghum, cassava, corn
  • Manufacturing 2nd largest employer
  • South Africa richest country, most industrial
  • Produce cars, buses for Africa
  • Ecotourism creates jobs

Cassava
Sorghum
6
Early History
  • Khoisan first inhabitants, then Bantu farmers
    from West Africa 2,000 years ago with iron tools
  • Shona built Great Zimbabwe, stone-walled capital,
    in late 1,000s. Traded gold.
  • 1400s Europeans looked for route to Asia
  • Portuguese found Cape of Good Hope
  • 1652 Dutch built Cape Town, started slavery.
  • British, French, German also settled. Descendants
    known as Boers
  • Afrikaans language combined European, Khoisan,
    Bantu tongues

7
Later History
  • 1800s Great Britain took over. Forced Boers
    inland
  • Zulu dominated inland but British won battle
  • British empire outlawed slavery so traded ivory
    tusks, gold, diamonds

8
Apartheid
  • Early 1900s South Africa government made
    apartheid the law. (Next image click video)
  • Blacks, Coloreds, Asians lived in poor homelands,
    travel restricted.
  • Those working in city formed township slums
  • Opposed by African National Congress 1912
  • Apartheid outlawed 1992. Nelson Mandela
    president. (Next image click video)

9
Culture
  • Hundreds of ethnic groups
  • Many languages. Most related to Khoisan (clicking
    sounds) or Bantu
  • English official language in Namibia, Zimbabwe.
    Portuguese in Mozambique
  • Religion is Christian, traditional beliefs

Tswana of Botswana
10
Todays Issues
  • Many infected with HIV/AIDS. 1 million Zambians.
    Life expectancy is 40 (Next image click video)
  • Poverty, unemployment due to droughts
  • South Africas 3,000 GDP highest in region, but
    still black-white gap
  • Zimbabwe in economic collapse. Dictator Robert
    Mugabe took land from whites
  • Wildlife tourism growing

11
Madagascar Physical Geography
  • 4th largest island in the world
  • Separated from mainland Africa millions of years
    ago
  • 12,000 plant species. 80 percent of wildlife
    native only to Madagascar, such as the lemur.
    (Click next image video)
  • Coastal plain rises to interior mountains
  • Only 5 percent of land is farmed sugar cane,
    vanilla, cassava, beans, bananas, cloves, coffee
  • Logging is deforesting the country

12
Madagascar Political Geography
  • Indonesians came on outriggers around 700 A.D.
    and mixed with Bantus from East Africa.
  • French controlled it 1890-1960. Now have republic
    with power-sharing government
  • Once called Malagasy Republic
  • Malagasy Mythology and Christianity main
    religions
  • Not wealthy country. Coffee exports and tourism
    have dropped.

13
South Africa Physical Geography
  • 3 times the size of Texas
  • Vast plateau in center. Drakensburg Mountains
    east, Kalahari north, Namib to west, Great
    Escarpment (cliffs) south.
  • Highveld (coarse grassland) occupies most of
    plateau. Mining, wheat, corn
  • Top gold and diamond exporter in world. Has 80
    worlds platinum.

14
South Africa Political Geography
  • Iron-working tribes from Central Africa moved
    here in 1500s. (Khoi, San)
  • 1652 Dutch established trading post at Cape of
    Good Hope.
  • British invaded 1815 and drove Dutch inland where
    they fought with British and native Zulus. Black
    South Africans lost all land and independence by
    late 1800s.
  • 1910 Union of South African states and apartheid
    became law
  • 1991 end of apartheid. 1994 Nelson Mandela first
    black president.

15
Zimbabwe Physical Geography
  • Lies on high plateau, tropical with mild climate
  • Landlocked
  • Slightly larger than Japan or Montana
  • Victoria Falls straddles the border with Zambia.
    Borders South Africa.

16
Zimbabwe Political Geography
  • Walled city of Great Zimbabwe settled around 1000
    A.D.
  • 1888 natives gave mining rights to English
  • English crushed Shona and Ndebele and became
    British colony of South Rhodesia in 1923
  • Independence as Rhodesia 1965 but world
    sanctioned because blacks had no power
  • Free elections 1979 brought president (dictator)
    Robert Mugabe to power. Land redistribution to
    blacks ruined the economy. Now one of poorest
    nations on earth with lowest life expectancy
  • (Picture with chickens to follow will
    automatically begin a video)
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