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South Africa: A Country


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Title: South Africa: A Country

South Africa A Countrys History
Native Cultures of South Africa
  • Zulu Tribe - The Zulu are the largest ethnic
    group in South Africa. They are well known for
    their beautiful brightly colored beads and
    baskets as well as other small carvings. They are
    also the most feared group because of their long
    history of deadly and fearsome warfare. (SPARTA,
  • San - The 'Bushmen' are the oldest inhabitants of
    southern Africa, where they have lived for at
    least 20,000 years. Their home is in the vast
    expanse of the Kalahari desert.

April 27, 1994
  • South Africans of all races will go to the polls
    in the first FREE and DEMOCRATIC elections in the
    nations history!

On April 27,1994, Nelson Mandela became South
Africas FIRST black president!
  • Until this day, three out of four
  • black South Africans had never
  • been allowed to vote.
  • WHY?

  • A governmental policy of racial segregation.
  • Apartheid Separateness
  • How did it all begin?

Early Inhabitants of South Africa
  • The Khoikhoi speaking people lived in the
    southern coastal region of South Africa, the San,
    or bushmen, in the desert region, and Bantu
    speaker (farmers, hunters, and herdsmen) in the
    east .

And Then
  • In 1488, the Portuguese were the first
  • Europeans to round the Cape of Good Hope,
  • sailing for India.
  • However, the first
  • European settlement
  • was not established
  • until . . .

. . . April 6, 1652
  • After the British decided against establishing a
    colony at the Cape of Good Hope, the Dutch,
    commissioned by the Dutch-East India Company,
    established Cape Town under the lead of Jan van

  • Accompanied by 82 men and 8 women,
  • Riebeeck was instructed to establish a
  • strong base to provide the Companys ships
  • with fresh food, water, and other provisions on
  • the long journey from Europe to Asia.
  • Riebeeck built the
  • Fort de Goede Hoop
  • and set up trade with the
  • native Khoikhoi people
  • and drove many from their
  • homelands.

  • 1700s
  • Slaves outnumbered the colonys whites and
    intermarriage was common.
  • The children of such marriages become known as
    Coloureds being neither white or black.
  • Many Dutch settlers decided to Trek out on their

  • 1652 Cape Town established. Slaves from other
    parts of Africa and East Indies were brought in
    to clear farmland.
  • 1659 Khoikhoi uprising failed. Natives
    retreated North.
  • 1662 250 Europeans, mostly Dutch
  • and Germans settle in Cape
  • Town. Become known as Boers,
  • later Afrikaans.
  • 1685 Interracial marriages between
  • whites and local black slaves
  • were banned.
  • 1688 French Huguenots fleeing
  • political persecution settle in
  • Cape Town.

Cape Town in modern times
1720-1770Trek Boers expanded north and east
looking for land for farming and grazing of
cattle. They preferred free, unrestricted life
to town law. They paid for their choice of
lifestyle with constant conflict with the native
black tribe population.
Afrikaners (Boers) Africas white tribe
  • Dutch Trekkers developed their own culture and
    beliefs, including a strict form of Protestantism
    that portrayed them as a chosen people in a
    hostile word.
  • Protestantism (branch of Catholic church)
  • The language they developed is a mixture of Dutch
    and African languages called Afrikaans.

A Change in Politics
  • Due to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic
    wars (1779-1806), the British gained control of
    the Dutch colony in Cape Town in 1795.
  • By 1833, England had abolished the slave trade
    and the Emancipation Act demanded that white
    slave owners free their slaves promising a small
    compensation from the state for their loss.

1835 The Great Trek
  • Feeling the British policy destroyed their
  • political and social order, based
  • on racial separation and that
  • white dominance was
  • Gods own will,10,000
  • Boers, or Voortrekkers,
  • left Cape Town to escape
  • British rule on a 1,000 mile
  • migration inland, known
  • as the
  • Great Trek.

A Series of Boer Struggles
  • 1838 Boers defeat the Zulu nation in the
    Battle of Blood River in their fight to obtain
    land the Zulu tribe was occupying.
  • British take over Natal.
  • 1852-1854 Boers travel further north and
    establish the Orange Free State and Transvaal
    as independent republics.
  • 1870-1886 Diamonds deposits are discovered in
    Kimberley and gold deposits are discovered in
    Transvaal causing an influx of British
    immigrants and black Africans searching for work
    and fortune.
  • 1880-1881 Anglo-Boer Wars

More struggles
  • 1899 Boer War erupted as a result of
    Afrikaaners upset over Continual British
    migration inland to the mining regions.
  • 1899-1902 British established Afrikaner
    civilian camps where epidemics broke out and
    killed 26,000 prisoners.
  • 1902 Boers surrendered to British rule
  • 1910 British award independence to South
    Africa. They believed only white to be
    capable of self-government. Blacks were barred
    from voting and Afrikaans was made the
    official language.

A Country Divided
  • White South Africans made up only 21.5 of the
    total population and of these, an
    English-speaking minority dominated government
    and business in the cities.
  • Most whites were Afrikaans-speaking Boers, mostly
    farmers and still bitter about the war
  • The majority black population, 67, included many
    different groups of people including Zulu and
    Xhosa of the Transkei region. Other groups were
    much smaller.

  • By 1910, black Africans owned less than 10 of a
    country their ancestors completely controlled.
  • 1913, the South African Parliament passed a
    Native Land Act that limited the blacks
    ownership of land even more.
  • Apartheid placed restrictions on how people could
    live. For example, black South Africans were made
    to live in tiny clusters of homes called

Other Ethnic Groups
  • Coloureds 9 of the population.
  • Indian immigrants 2.5 of the population.
  • Both groups had varying rights in the Cape, but
    were not treated as equals by most whites

  • The Native Homeland Act
  • separated different African
  • tribes into segregated
  • areas. This act set aside
  • 7.3 of the countrys land
  • Aside as reservations and
  • banded black Africans
  • from buying land outside
  • these areas.

Road to Apartheid
  • In 1912, the South African Native National
  • Congress (later known as the ANC 1923)
  • was founded to unite black Africans and
  • defend their interests.
  • In 1913, the Afrikaaner Nationalist Party was
  • established.

Peaceful Protest
  • 1912, a young Indian Lawyer living in Cape Town
    named Mohandas K. Gandhi became outraged after
    being thrown off the train for sitting in a
    whites only seat.
  • He organized a peaceful protest march, inspiring
    some black South Africans to form a civil rights

  • African National Congress (ANC) was created to
    aide in the civil rights movement.

  • In 1924, the Labour Party defeats the South
  • African Party. Led by James Hertzog, South
  • Africa became more independent of British
  • control and favored the interests of whites,
  • especially Afrikaners. Afrikaans is
  • confirmed as an official language along with
  • English.

1948 Apartheid becomes Law
  • During the 1948 elections, the National
  • Party introduced apartheid as part of their
  • campaign. With the partys victory, led by
  • D.F. Malan, apartheid became the
  • governing political policy until
  • the early 1990s.
  • Many National Party members aligned with the Nazi
    party racist movement that had divided humanity
    into master race to dominate and an inferior
    race to be enslaved.

Laws of Apartheid
  • Apartheid is the rigid racial division between
  • the governing white minority population and
  • the non-white majority population. It is
    Afrikaan for apartness
  • People were divided into three social groups
  • White
  • Black African or Bantu
  • Coloured or people of mixed descent.

  • Separate residential areas were established, with
    whites getting the best land. Blacks were put
    into areas called homelands.
  • Black Africans were reduced to menial jobs
    (housekeeping, gardener, ect.)
  • Pass Law required all ethnic groups, excluding
    whites, to carry passes to allow them to have
    Jobs and travel out of their Homelands.
  • Racial segregation in all public institutions,
    transportation, and toilets.
  • Bantu Education Act (1953) limited the quality of
    education young black Africans could receive.

  • Covered 13 of South Africas land area for 75
    of its population.
  • Economic development was outlawed.
  • The only work was in the white areas
  • Blacks were forced to live apart from their
    families to work in the white areas where they
    had to carry Passes at all times.

Pass Checks
  • Checks were performed at random of any/all black
  • Those without Pass were arrested and fined. If
    they couldnt pay the fine, they were sent to
    work camps.

Courtesy of
During the 1950s
  • The ANC declared that
  • South Africa belongs to all who live in it,
  • black and white,
  • and worked to abolish apartheid.

A Suppression of Communism Act gave the
government the power to imprison anyone accused
of trying to make changes through disturbance or
  • Nelson Mandela was elected national president of
  • Youth League. He planned a Defiance Campaign
  • marches and meetings for April 6, 1952 just as
  • celebrated the 300th anniversary of Dutch
  • The Nationalist government cracked down with
    arrests and
  • made apartheid laws harsher, but the campaign
  • awareness abroad and the system was condemned by
  • United Nations.
  • Mandela was arrested under the Communism Act.

March 6,1960 Sharpeville Massacre
  • A large crowd of Black South Africans assembled
    in front of the
  • Sharpeville police station to protest the pass
    laws imposed by
  • apartheid.
  • The Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), led by Robert
    Sobukwe, together
  • with Nelson Mandela's African National Congress
    (ANC), organized
  • the protest for the nation's blacks to join
    together to demonstrate
  • peacefully against apartheid.
  • Rarely in South Africa before 1960 had so many
    black people
  • demonstrated their defiance of the laws in any
    way. The police were
  • highly apprehensive, not knowing what to expect.
    Suddenly, tensions
  • were released the crowd pelted the policemen
    with stones, and the
  • edgy policemen retaliated with gunfire.
  • In the end, sixty-nine protesters were killed and
    one hundred and eighty
  • were wounded (some shot while trying to flee)

After the Sharpeville Massacre, the government
banned (exile) all black African political
organization, including the ANC and the PAC.
Spear of the Nation
  • ANC created an armed resistance movement. Its
    leader was Nelson Mandela.
  • 1964, Mandela and the rest of the ANC leaders
    were arrested and convicted of sabotage and
    treason and sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • During his 26 year imprisonment, his is work was
    carried on by his wife, Winnie, who herself spied
    on, kidnapped, and repeatedly was forced to move
    by police.

  • Mandela went on the run after the ANC was banned.
    He was arrested in 1962, after secretly
    returning to South Africa, and was imprisoned for
    five years for organizing strikes.
  • In 1963, Mandela was linked to a sabotage
    campaign in Rivonia near Johannesburg. He was
    sentenced for life.
  • 1973, Mandela was offered a shorter sentence if
    he would support the bantustan program he
  • In 1974, South Africa was banned from the United
    Nations General Assembly.

1976 Soweto
  • When high-school students in Soweto
  • started protesting for better education
  • on June 16, 1976,police responded
  • with teargas and live bullets. In the
  • aftermath, the plan for schooling in
  • Afrikaans was dropped and the UN
  • banned sales of weapons to south
  • Africa in 1977.

The government implemented a series of reforms
that allowed black labor unions to organize and
permitted some political activity by the
opposition.The 1984 constitution opened
parliament membership to Asians and Coloureds,
but it continued to exclude black Africans, who
made up 75 of the population. Many countries,
including the United States, imposed economic
sanctions of South Africa. More urban revolts
erupted and, as outside pressure on south Africa
intensified, the governments apartheid policies
began to unravel.
Mid 1970s Mid 1980s
Momentous Meetings
  • In May 1988, the United Nations called for
  • release without conditions.
  • In July 1989, President Botha met with Mandela.
    Both men
  • pledged a support for peaceful developments.
  • Both resigned due to health reasons and was
  • as president by F.W. de Klerk.
  • Determined to break the cycle of violence, de
  • Ordered the release of eight political prisoners.

  • De Klerk and Mandela met in December. Mandela
    declared de Klerk to be the most honest and
    serious white leader he had ever met.
  • On February 2, 1990, de Klerk announced the end
    of the bans on the ANC, the PAC, and over 30
    other anti-apartheid organizations

Free At Last!
  • On February 11, 1990, after 27 years in
  • prison, Nelson Mandela was released.
  • Today the majority of South Africans, black
  • and white, recognize that apartheid has no
  • future. Nelson Mandela

Nobel Peace Prize
  • Mandela and De Klerk both won the Nobel Peace
    Prize in 1993 for their efforts to end Apartheid.
  • Accepting the award on December 10, 1993, Mandela
  • We live in the hope that as she battles to
    remake herself, South Africa will be like a
    microcosm of the new world that is striving to be

  • On April 27, 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected
  • the first black president if the first free
  • We are moving from an era of resistance,
  • oppression, turmoil, and conflict and starting a
  • New era of hope, reconciliation, and
    nation-building. I
  • sincerely hope that the mere casting of a vote .
    . . will give
  • hope to all South Africans.- Nelson Mandela