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The European Perspective on Power Generation and Carbon Capture and Storage

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Title: The European Perspective on Power Generation and Carbon Capture and Storage


1
The European Perspective on Power Generation and
Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Derek M. Taylor, Energy Adviser, European
    Commission1

1. The views expressed here are those of the
author and may not necessarily reflect those of
the European Commission

2
Outline
  • The three challenges for an energy policy
  • Security of supply
  • Competitiveness
  • Sustainability
  • The role of coal and other fossil fuels
  • Shares in energy consumption
  • Prices of fossil fuels
  • Environmental impacts of fuels
  • Key issues that must be urgently addressed
  • Reduction of carbon emissions
  • Demonstration of Carbon capture and storage
    (CCS)
  • Deployment of CCS technologies in EU and
    globally
  • International Research Co-operation

3
  • The three challenges
  • Security of Supply
  • Competitiveness
  • Sustainability

4
Security of Supply Import dependence
5
Security of Supply - Sources of imports of fossil
fuels
  • Main suppliers of oil
  • Russia (31)
  • Norway (20)
  • Saudi Arabia (13)
  • Libya (10)
  • Iran ( 7)
  • ( Total Middle East 22)
  • Main suppliers of gas
  • Russia (33)
  • Norway (29)
  • Algeria (21)
  • Mainly LNG (12)
  • Main suppliers of coal
  • South Africa (26)
  • Russia (16)
  • Australia (15)
  • Colombia (12)

6
Competitiveness - Border prices for oil and
gas X (today!)
7
Sustainability carbon dioxide emissions
  • CO2 from energy production and use makes up 80
    of EU Greenhouse gas emissions

8
Sustainability quantities of carbon dioxide
from energy
9
  • The role of coal and other fossil fuels
  • Shares in energy consumption
  • Prices of fossil fuels
  • Environmental impacts of fuels

10
Gross inland consumption 2004 (Mtoe)
11
Role of different fuels in electricity production
(BAU)
12
Reserves of coal - global
  • Coal is an abundant energy resource
  • Global reserves 900 billion tonnes
  • Annual production 4.5 billion tonnes
  • Lifeline 200 years
  • Coal is a reliable energy source
  • Fairly even reserve distribution, on almost all
    continents
  • Accessible at reasonable costs
  • Low risks in transport, handling storage

13
Indigenous resources of solid fuels in the EU
  • The total solid fuel resources in the EU amount
    to around 438 billion tonnes
  • Of which 309 Bt are hard coal
  • The total solid fuel reserves in the EU amount to
    close to 88 billion tonnes
  • Of which 36 Bt are hard coal
  • Production in 2004 was 187 Mt of hard coal and
    392 Mt of lignite (total 579 Mt)

  • Source Euracoal

14
Solid fuel benefits for security of supply for
EU
  • So indigenous reserves of hard coal are
    equivalent to close to 200 years of production at
    its present level.
  • Reserves of lignite are equivalent to around 130
    years of production at its present level.
  • Resources of both are significantly greater
    especially those for hard coal

15
Oil price - /bbl Spot Brent Crude Source BP
16
Gas price - /billion BTU cif Europe Source
BP
17
Coal price /t - coal marker price (NW Europe)
Source BP
18
Fossil fuel price evolution 1988 present -
Summary
  • Oil and gas prices have quadrupled in the last 20
    years
  • Coal prices have (only) doubled

19
  • Key issues that must be urgently addressed
  • Reduction of carbon emissions
  • Demonstration of Carbon capture and storage
    (CCS)
  • Deployment of CCS technologies in EU and globally

20
An Energy Policy for Europe
  • Adopted by the European Commission in January
    2007
  • Endorsed by the European Council in March 2007
  • One strategic objective
  • Reduction in CO2 emissions by 20 or even 30 -
    by 2020

21
CO2 emissions from energy in EU-25 million
tonnes
22
Sustainability future emission trend .. (BAU)
23
Carbon dioxide emissions during electricity
generation
24
The key issue for coal view of the European
Commission
  • Coal is a key contributor to the EU's security
    of energy supply and will remain so.
  • However, coal can continue to make its valuable
    contribution to the security of energy supply and
    the economy of both the EU and the world as a
    whole only with technologies allowing for drastic
    reduction of the carbon footprint of its
    combustion.

25
The need for carbon capture and storage (CCS)
  • Future coal (fossil fuel) generation to be low
    carbon
  • The Commission would like to see all new fossil
    fuel generating plant built after 2020 to include
    CCS
  • The need for commercial scale demonstration of
    CCS
  • In order to demonstrate the variety of different
    option for CCS up to 12 large-scale demonstration
    plant need to be constructed - by 2015
  • If demonstration is delayed then deployment will
    be delayed
  • The need for public funds to support such
    demonstrations
  • There will need to be very significant industry
    and public funding if the necessary demonstration
    plants are to be built
  • ..and very strong political support over a
    period of time
  • The European Commission is expected to adopt a
    Communication on support for CCS tomorrow

26
The cost of CCS a critical issue
  • Mobilizing decisive industry commitment will be
    crucial
  • Without such funding complementary public funding
    may not be triggered
  • The dedication of substantial resources by
    companies is a precondition for the stimulation
    of the technologies
  • Paving the way for strong Member States
    involvement
  • Some MS have identified possible approaches
  • Feed-in tariffs, up front investment grants,
    guaranteed CO2 prices
  • Use of revenues from ETS auctions might be
    appropriate
  • Structural funds in new MS (EU-12)
  • Revision of State Aid guidelines for
    environmental protection
  • Identifying sources of financing at EU level
  • Financing low-carbon technologies to be addressed
  • European financial institutions could be
    instrumental
  • Continuing support under the EUs Research
    Programme

27
Creating the right conditions for CCS
  • The need for clear regulation for CCS both in
    EU and globally
  • The European Commission is expected to propose
    framework legislation for CCS tomorrow (23
    January)
  • Recognition of CCS in the EU Emission Trading
    Schemes
  • The issue of CCS will be addressed in the new
    Directive on the ETS expected to be adopted by
    the European Commission tomorrow
  • Greater international co-operation on CCS
  • The European Commission is developing bilateral
    activities with India, China and South Africa
  • The EU and many of its Member States are active
    in the CSLF

28
International Research Co-operation FP7 Energy
ThemeConcrete opportunities in New Calls
29
Specific International Cooperation Actions (SICA)
  • Topics for Collaborative Projects especially
    designed and devoted to the international
    cooperation with targeted ICPC including India
  • Address problems, on the basis of mutual benefit,
    of shared interest and importance e.g. the
    environment consequences of energy policies,
    energy supply inter-dependency, technology
    transfer and capacity building

30
  • SICA Topic 5.2.1 CCS capacity building with the
    large
  • emerging economies (EE)
  • Content and scope research aimed at first global
    estimate of the CO2 storage capacity in large EE,
    matching sources and sinks and identification of
    a few potential storage sites for large emission
    point sources. Capacity building in CCS inc.
    development of transport infrastructure
  • Funding scheme Collaborative Project (2 X MS 2
    X ICPC)
  • Expected impact allow deployment of zero
    emission fossil fuel based power plants in large
    EE with sufficient pre-requisite knowledge (CO2
    storage potential) and technical know-how
  • Other information SICA balanced partnership
    between EU and Large EE members of the CSLF
    institutions from developed countries also
    members of CSLF welcomed)
  • International Co-operation Partnership Country

31
Two stage Evaluation Procedure
  • OUTLINE PROPOSAL
  • Submission deadline 26 February 2008, 170000
  • Evaluation March-April 2008
  • FULL PROPOSAL
  • Submission deadline will be specified in
    invitation letter (indicative 29 May 2008)
  • Evaluation June 2008
  • Full proposal should be complete and precise,
    but as concise as possible

32
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33
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34
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35
  • Some basic conclusion

36
Coal secure and competitive, but
  • The European Union is increasingly dependent on
    imports to meet its energy needs
  • Coal is a more secure source than other fossil
    fuels because of world and European
    reserves/resources
  • Coal has economic benefits over other fossil
    fuels including the price is generally less
    volatile and is increasing at a slower rate
  • However coal is a major source of carbon dioxide
    emissions
  • It is the main source of carbon emission in power
    production

37
What we MUST do .
  • The world needs to reduce its carbon dioxide
    emissions to slow down climate change
  • Removal of carbon dioxide from the waste stream
    from coal-powered electricity production is a
    vital part of this reduction
  • Commercial scale carbon capture and storage
    needs to be demonstrated urgently
  • Demonstration of CCS will require changes to
    legislation and strong public and political
    support
  • Full deployment of CCS will require very
    significant funding by industry and also
    significant public funding and other forms of
    support
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