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Mobile ad hoc networking with a view of 4G wireless: Imperatives and challenges

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Title: Mobile ad hoc networking with a view of 4G wireless: Imperatives and challenges


1
Mobile ad hoc networking with a view of 4G
wireless Imperatives and challenges
  • Myungchul Kim
  • mckim_at_icu.ac.kr
  • Tel 042-866-6127

2
  • by J. Liu and Imrich Chlamtac, Ch 1 of Mobile Ad
    Hoc Networking, Wiley-Interscience, 2004.
  • Introduction
  • Mobile devices
  • The worldwide number of cellular users has been
    doubling every 11/2 years.
  • The number of mobile connections and the number
    of shipments of mobile and Internet terminals
    will grow by another 20-50. -gt the total number
    of mobile Internet users soon to exceed that of
    fixed-line Internet users.
  • Situations in which user-required infrastructure
    is not available, cannot be installed, or cannot
    be installed in time in a given geographic area.
    -gt mobile ad hoc network.
  • Ad hoc networking the 4G network architecture.

3
  • Review of wireless network evolution
  • Wireless communication characteristics

4
  • Review of wireless network evolution
  • Wireless communication characteristics

5
  • Types of wireless networks
  • By network formation and architecture
    infrastructure-based network, Infrastructureless
    (ad hoc) network.
  • By communication coverage area
  • wireless wide area networks (Wireless WANs) e.g.,
    cellular networks
  • wireless metropolitan area networks (Wireless
    MANs) e.g., local multipoint distribution
    services (LMDS), multichannel multipoint
    distribution services (MMDS) and IEEE 802.16
  • wireless LANs e.g., 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and Hiperlan2
  • wireless personal area networks (Wireless PANs)
    10 meter range, e.g., Bluetooth and infrared
    light.
  • By access technology
  • GSM, TDMA, CDMA, Sattellite, Wi-Fi, Hiperlan2,
    Bluetooth, Infrared.
  • By network applications
  • Enterprise, Home, Tactical, Sensor, Pervasive,
    Wearable Computing, Automated Vehicle Networks.

6
  • Table 1.1

7
  • Table 1.1 cont

8
  • Forces driving wireless technology evolution
  • The need to integrate various types of wirless
    networks
  • The need to integrate wireless platforms with
    fixed network backbone infrastructure
  • The need to support high-speed multimedia
    services
  • The need for convergence in network
    infrastructure
  • The need to support high mobility and device
    portability
  • The need to support noninfrastructure-based
    networks
  • The need to add location intelligence
  • The need to lower the cost of wireless services
  • The need for greater standard interoperability.

9
  • 4G wireless architecture and capabilities
  • integrating different types of wireless networks
    with wireline backbone networks seamlessly and
    the convergence of voice, multimedia, and data
    traffic over a single IP-based core network.
  • Network integration
  • All-IP networks, e.g., VoIP
  • Lower cost and higher efficiency
  • Ultrahigh speed and multimedia applications
  • Ubiquitous computing
  • Support of Ad Hoc networking (MANET)
  • Location intelligence

10
  • Fig 1.1

11
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
  • Characteristics and advantages

12
  • Table 1.2

13
  • Table 1.2 cont

14
  • Design issues and constraints
  • They are infrastructureless brings added
    difficulty in fault detection and management.
  • Dynamically changing network topologies
  • Physical layer limitation hidden terminal
    problem, collisions, packet loss
  • Limited link bandwidth and quality
  • Variation in link and node capabilities
  • Energy constrained operation
  • Network robustness and reliability
  • Network security
  • Network scalability
  • Quality of Service

15
  • Technical challenges and research overview
  • Fig 1.3

16
  • Technical challenges and research overview
  • Media access control and optimization
  • Fig 1.4 and Fig 1.5

17
  • Media access control and optimization
  • RTS and CTS before the data transmission has
    actually taken place.-gt virtual carrier sensing
  • loss/collision of RTS and CTS -gt wait for a
    random backoff duration
  • Multicasting and broadcasting
  • Avoid the significant delays in route recovery
    caused by link failures

18
  • Ad hoc routing
  • Frequent changes and unpredicability in network
    topologies
  • Proactive routing protocols and reactive
    on-demand routing protocols
  • Fig 6.1

19
  • Fig 6.2 and Fig 6.3

20
  • TCP issues
  • Packet losses lt- congestion (wired), wireless
    medium, frequent disconnection from mobility, .
  • Measurements using 2Mbps 802.11 MAC have shown
    that TCP throughput decreases by 50 when the
    traffic moves from the one-hop to the two-hop
    path.
  • Energy conservation
  • The wireless interface consumes nearly the same
    amount of energy in the receive, transmit, and
    idle states, whereas in the sleep state, an
    interface cannot transmit or receive, and its
    power consumption is highly reduced.
  • Network security

21
  • Simulation and performance evaluation
  • OPNET, NS-2, Glomosim -gt different results
  • QoS and Optimization
  • May be impossible if the nodes are highly mobile
  • Future research directions
  • Routing protocol optimization GPS, multicasting
  • QoS support
  • Simulation do not exceed networks of hundred
    nodes in size
  • Security
  • Standardization and interoperability
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