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Future Wireless Standards and the Emergence of WiMAX

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Title: Future Wireless Standards and the Emergence of WiMAX


1
Future Wireless Standards and the Emergence of
WiMAX
October 3-4, 2007
  • Jeff Reed
  • reedjh_at_vt.edu
  • reedjh_at_crtwireless.com
  • (540) 231-2972
  • James Neel
  • james.neel_at_crtwireless.com
  • (540) 230-6012www.crtwireless.com

2
Jeffrey H. Reed
  • Director, Wireless _at_ Virginia Tech
  • Willis G. Worcester Professor, Deputy Director,
    Mobile and Portable Radio Research Group (MPRG)
  • Authored book, Software Radio A Modern Approach
    to Radio Engineering
  • IEEE Fellow for Software Radio, Communications
    Signal Processing and Education
  • Industry Achievement Award from the SDR Forum
  • Highly published. Co-authored 2 books, edited
    7 books.
  • Previous and Ongoing CR projects from
  • ETRI, ONR, ARO, Tektronix
  • Email reedjh_at_vt.edu

3
James Neel
  • President, Cognitive Radio Technologies, LLC
  • PhD, Virginia Tech 2006
  • Textbook chapters on
  • Cognitive Network Analysis in
  • Data Converters in Software Radio A Modern
    Approach to Radio Engineering
  • SDR Case Studies in Software Radio A Modern
    Approach to Radio Engineering
  • UWB Simulation Methodologies in An Introduction
    to Ultra Wideband Communication Systems
  • SDR Forum Paper Awards for 2002, 2004 papers on
    analyzing/designing cognitive radio networks
  • Email james.neel_at_crtwireless.com

4
About Virginia Tech
  • Virginia Tech has approximately 26,000 students
  • The College of Engineering grants the 7th largest
    number BS degrees in the US, and is ranked 14th
    by US News and others
  • The Bradley Department of Electrical Computer
    Engineering is one of the nations largest ECE
    departments, with broad resources
  • 72 tenure-track faculty and 12 research faculty
    members
  • 1,100 undergraduate and 570 graduate students
  • Wireless Telecommunications is a principal focus
    area
  • 25 ECE faculty are involved in various aspects of
    wireless communications research and teaching.
  • Large number of the ECE graduate students are
    majoring in wireless telecommunications field.

5
Wireless _at_ Virginia Tech
  • New Wireless Umbrella Group
  • MPRG, CWT, VTVT, WML, Antenna Group, Time Domain
    Lab, DSPRL
  • Officially rolled-out June 2006
  • Currently 32 tenure-track faculty and more than
    111 students
  • Backlog in research growing
  • University providing initial financial support
  • Cognitive Networks targeted as strategic
    technical growth effort

6
What is Wireless _at_ Virginia Tech?
  • A comprehensive organization focused on wireless
    research to support our educational mission.

7
Research Areas
  • Game Theory Analysis
  • Hybrid wireless/fiber optic/powerline systems
  • Land Mobile Radio
  • MIMO
  • Interference Cancellation
  • Channel Measurements
  • Channel Modeling
  • Simulation Tools
  • VLSI Implementation
  • Reconfigurable Computing
  • RF material-characterization
  • Security
  • Networking
  • Sensor networking
  • Satellite Systems
  • Wearable computing and communications
  • Algorithm Development
  • Antennas
  • RF Circuit Design
  • MEMS
  • UWB
  • Position Location
  • RF Systems
  • Cognitive Radio/Networks
  • Collaborative Radio
  • Software Radio
  • Smart Antennas and Diversity Schemes
  • Radio Resource Management
  • Network protocol design
  • Cross layer optimization

8
Current and Recent Research Sponsors
  • Nanosonics
  • National Institute of Justice
  • National Polar-Orbiting Earth Sensing Satellite
    Program
  • National Science Foundation
  • RFMD
  • M/A-COM
  • Office of Naval Research
  • Rosettex Technology Ventures Group
  • SAIC
  • SPAWAR Systems Center
  • Tektronix
  • Texas Instruments
  • U.S. Army
  • U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
  • Applied EM
  • Army Research Office
  • AeroAstro
  • Astron Wireless Technologies
  • Ausgar Technologies, Inc
  • Bradley Fellowship Program
  • Catalyst Communications Technologies
  • Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • Comteh
  • DRS Technologies
  • ETRI
  • L-3
  • Laboratory for Telecommunication Science
  • Luna
  • Motorola

9
20062007 Classes from Our Wireless Summer School
  • Software Design for SDR
  • Cognitive Radio
  • Turbo and LDPC Codes
  • Embedded Systems and SDR
  • High Frequency RFID
  • UWB-based Positioning
  • Issues and Applications of UWB
  • Networking Technologies for SDR
  • Issues and Applications of Wearable Computing
  • Game Theory for Wireless
  • Antennas for Wireless Comms
  • RF MEMS for Wireless
  • An Overview of 802.15.4a
  • Interference Rejection/Mitigation Techniques
  • Software Radio Specification
  • Resource Management in Ad Hoc Networks
  • Satellite Communications
  • Active Antennas
  • Hands-on Intro to SCA-Based SDR
  • Oscillator Design and Noise Performance
  • Simulation of Communication Systems
  • Public Safety Comm Systems Requirements and
    Designs
  • Networking Cognitive Radios
  • Coupled, Co-evolving Social and Telecommunication
    Networks
  • FPGA-Based Signal Processing

10
Cognitive Radio Technologies
  • Small business incorporated in Feb 2007 to
    commercialize VT cognitive radio research
  • Provide traditional wireless engineering services
    and develop critical cognitive radio technologies
  • Email james.neel_at_crtwireless.com
  • reedjh_at_crtwireless.com
  • bin.le_at_crtwireless.com
  • Website crtwireless.com
  • Tel 540-230-6012
  • Mailing Address
  • Cognitive Radio Technologies
  • 147 Mill Ridge Rd, Suite 119
  • Lynchburg, VA 24502

11
CRT Engineering
  • General Engineering Services
  • Analysis
  • Systems Analysis
  • MAC/Network behavior
  • SDR (SCA, STRS)
  • Algorithm development
  • Traditional waveform processing
  • Location services
  • Signal classification/detection
  • Cognitive networking
  • Coexistence techniques
  • Prototype designs from architecture to
    implementation
  • USRP/GNU, DSP, FPGA
  • GNU Radio and USRP related design and service
  • Training and Tutorials
  • Cognitive Radio
  • Technologies, Implementations, Genetic
    Algorithms, case-based reasoning, regulatory
    issues, implementation, networking, signal
    detection/classification, applications
  • Game Theory and Cognitive Radio Networks
  • cooperative and non-cooperative games, equilibria
    concepts, convergence and stability of
    self-interested behavior, techniques to evaluate
    and improve performance
  • Software Radio
  • RF design and selection, data conversion
    principles, baseband processing techniques,
    software architectures, multi-rate techniques,
    signal generation and pre-distortion.
  • Emerging Commercial Wireless Standards
  • OFDM/MIMO, WiMAX/WiBro, 802.22, 802.11a/b/g/h/n,
    TD-SCDMA, WCDMA, Zigbee, WiMedia, Satellite, UMB,
    P25, TIA series, ATSC

12
CRT Technologies
  • Low complexity, zero-overhead algorithms for
    distributed radio resource management
  • Ad-hoc, mesh star topologies
  • PHY, MAC, NET control
  • Processor Cycle Estimation Tool
  • Rapid estimation of cycles, energy, and memory
    required to implement waveforms across variety of
    DSP platforms

13
Tutorial Objectives
  • Understand state of the wireless world
  • Understand how some key standards work and the
    tradeoffs available to implementations of those
    standards
  • Understand the basic principles and deployment
    options of WiMAX

14
Day 1 Schedule
  • 800-1000 Overview of the Wireless Market
  • 1000-1015 Break
  • 1015-1115 TD-SCDMA
  • 1115-1200 Principles of OFDM MIMO Part I
  • 1200-100 Lunch
  • 100-230 Principles of OFDM MIMO Part II
  • 230-245 Break
  • 245-350 WLAN Part 1 (Overview, 802.11n)
  • 350-400 Break
  • 400-500 Classified Discussions with Jeff Reed

15
Day 2 Schedule
  • 800-815 Review of Key Material in Day 1
  • 815-930 WLAN Part 2 (802.11p,r,s,y)
  • 930-945 Break
  • 945-1200 WiMAX Part 1 (Overview, Mobile WiMAX)
  • 1200-100 Lunch
  • 100-230 WiMAX Part 2 (MMR (802.16j), 802.16h)
  • 230-245 Break
  • 245-330 Interoperability Standards (GAN,
    802.21, 802.11u, industry standards)
  • 330-350 Review
  • 350-400 Break
  • 400-500 Classified Discussions with Jeff Reed

16
Wireless
Minutes
Shamelessly modified from cover art to Michael
Todds soundtrack to Around the World in 80
Days, see http//www.phys.uu.nl/gdevries/objects
/80days_todd.html for original context
17
Comparisons
  • This might be controversial Depends on
    extensions of these standards.

18
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
19
Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)
  • 802.15 Standards
  • 802.15.1 April 2002 Bluetooth
  • 802.15.2 Oct 2003 Coexistence
  • 802.15.3 Jun 2003 High data rate
  • 802.15.3a UWB (high rate)
  • 802.15.3b Doc Maintenance
  • 802.15.3c May 2008 mm-wave PHY
  • 802.15.4 May 2003 zigbee
  • 802.15.4a 2007 (ballot) UWB (low rate)
  • 802.15.4b Sep 2006 Updates 802.15.4 document
  • 802.15.4c No PAR (SG) Chinese WPAN
  • 802.15.4d PAR (SG) 950 MHz in Japan
  • 802.15.5 2008? WPAN Mesh
  • Frequency Allocations
  • 802.15.1,3,4
  • 2.4-2.4835 World
  • 2.4465-2.4835 France
  • 802.15.4
  • 868/915 MHz
  • 862-868 Europe
  • 802.15.3a
  • 3.1-10.6 GHz

802.15.3a disbanded Jan 2006 MBOA technologies
became WiMedia High speed DS-UWB basically dead
after Freescale pulled out
20
WiMedia
  • Industry alliance from MBOA 802.15.3a
  • Standardized for US in Dec 2005 in ECMA-368 and
    369
  • http//www.ecma-international.org/publications/sta
    ndards/Ecma-368.htm
  • ECMA used specifically to avoid 802
    standardization problems
  • PHY
  • Multiband OFDM QPSK
  • 53.3, 80, 106.7, 160, 200, 320, 400, 480 Mbps
    nominal data rates
  • Range of 10 m indoor
  • Data can be interleaved across 3 bands, 7 defined
    patterns (channels)
  • Mandatory support for band group 1
  • MAC
  • Peer to Peer, Ad-hoc
  • AES 128
  • Support for Dynamic Channel Selection
  • Ranging via propagation delay measurements
  • Bluetooth-like information discovery

From Fig 28
21
WiMedia Implementations
From http//www.wimedia.org/en/events/documents/0
2WiMedia_Overview_CES2006.ppt
  • Primarily marketed as cable replacement
  • Wireless USB out in Dec 2006
  • Hub-spoke model
  • Mandatory support for band group 1
  • Mandatory rates of 53.3, 106.7, 200 Mbps
  • Initial Belkin device didnt live up to the hype
  • Data rate of 6.35 Mbits/s
  • Reportedly not to WiMedia spec
  • http//www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jht
    ml?articleID196602148
  • Bluetooth 3.0 devices in 2008
  • http//gizmodo.com/gadgets/wireless/nextgen-blueto
    oth-30-on-the-way-179684.php
  • Wireless Firewire and IP also supported over
    WiMedia standard

22
  • Status
  • Nokia sponsored initiative announced Oct 2006
  • Specification work is currently being evaluated,
    targeted for availability second quarter 2007
  • Trial chips probably available late 2007
  • Public data (from wibree.com and
    http//www.theregister.co.uk/2006/10/06/wibree_ana
    lysis/)
  • 2.4 GHz ISM band
  • Range 10 meters
  • 1 Mbps data rate
  • Likely to be integrated into Bluetooth products
  • Targets low power/low cost market
  • Many reports mentioned WiBree as a competitor to
    Bluetooth
  • Being brought into Bluetooth fold
  • http//www.internetnews.com/dev-news/article.php/3
    682961
  • More likely a competitor to Zigbee and Z-wave

23
zigbee
Application
Customer
  • the software
  • Network, Security Application layers
  • Brand management
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • the hardware
  • Physical Media Access Control layers
  • PHY
  • 868MHz/915MHz, 2.4 GHz
  • Band specific modulations
  • 20-250 kbps
  • MAC
  • CSMA-CA channel access
  • Support for ad-hoc networks

API
Security 32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption
ZigBee Alliance
Network Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree
MAC
IEEE 802.15.4
PHY 868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz
Silicon
Stack
App
Source http//www.zigbee.org/en/resources/
24
Applications
25
802.15.4a,b
  • 802.15.4a
  • Approved March 2007
  • Adds Impulse UWB and chirp modes to zigbee
    (802.15.4) for signaling and ranging
  • Impulse UWB operates in UWB bands
  • Chirp (range only) operates in 2.4 GHz band
  • 802.15.4b
  • Published September 2006 as IEEE 802.15.4-2006
  • http//standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.
    15.4-2006.pdf
  • Beacon to reduce CSMA collisions
  • Improved security (likely leverage 802.11i)
  • Support for new frequency allocations

26
802.15.5 PicoNet Mesh Networks
  • Routing approaches
  • MPNC can act as a topology server
  • Location routing (using UWB ranging)
  • Centralized routing
  • Distributed routing (route discovery frame
    broadcasts)
  • Attempts to treat network as set of connected
    trees
  • Draft still being edited
  • Defines Mesh mode (MAC) for 802.15
  • Mesh messages
  • Route outside PicoNet via MPNC (Mesh Capable
    PicoNet Coordinator)
  • Beaconing used to distribute information and
    synchronize

IEEE P802.15.5/D0.01, July 2006
27
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
28
802.11 Alphabet Soup
Jun 1997 802.11 2 Mbps ISM Sep 1999 802.11a 54
Mbps UNII Sep 1999 802.11b 11 Mbps ISM Oct
2001 802.11d global roaming Jun 2003 802.11f int
eroperability Jun 2003 802.11g 54 Mbps ISM Oct
2003 802.11h spectrum management Jun
2004 802.11i security Oct 2004 802.11j
Japanese spectrum Sep 2005 802.11e real time
QoS Dec 2007 802.11k RRM measurements Mar
2008 802.11r fast roaming Mar 2008
802.11y US 3.65 GHz Sep 2008 802.11n
100 Mbps Jan 2009 802.11u external
networks Feb 2009 802.11w packet security Mar
2009 802.11p vehicular (5.9) Aug
2009 802.11s mesh networks Aug 2009
802.11.2 test recommendations Sep 2009
802.11v network management
  • Past dates are standards approval dates.
  • Future dates from 802.11 working group timelines
  • Letters are working group (WG) designations.
  • Letters assigned alphabetically as groups
    created.
  • No WG/ WG document
  • 802.11c MAC Bridging
  • work incorporated into 802.1d
  • 802.11l typologically unsound
  • 802.11m doc maintenance
  • 802.11o typologically unsound
  • 802.11q too close to 802.1q
  • 802.11x generic 802.11 standard
  • 802.11t (test) will produce 802.11.2

http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Reports/802.
11_Timelines.htm
29
802.11n (more later)
  • MIMO evolution of 802.11 OFDM PHY
  • Fully interoperable with legacy 802.11a/b/g
  • Up to 4 antennas per device
  • Data Rates
  • 20 and 40MHz channels
  • 288 Mbps in 20MHz and 600 Mbps in 40MHz (64 QAM,
    4 spatial streams, 1/2 guard interval)
  • Claim of 100 Mbps in real throughput
  • Optional enhancements
  • Transmit beamforming with negligible overhead at
    the client
  • Advanced channel coding techniques (RS)
  • Space Time Block Coding (Alamouti and others)
  • 1/2 guard interval (i.e., 400ns instead of 800
    ns)
  • 7/8 rate coding
  • Applications focused on streaming data
  • HDTV, DVD
  • interactive gaming,
  • enterprise
  • Status
  • Nov 06 group approved draft 1.06, still 350
    comments to resolve.
  • In Draft 2.0
  • Lots of pre-n devices floating around
  • IP issues
  • Expect ratified standard in Spring 2008
  • Wi-Fi Alliance
  • Certify to Draft 2.0 started this spring
  • Certify to Ratified Standard when done.

Image from http//www.tgnsync.org/products
30
802.11y (more later)
  • Ports 802.11a to 3.65 GHz 3.7 GHz (US Only)
  • FCC opened up band in July 2005
  • Ready 2008
  • Intended to provide rural broadband access
  • Incumbents
  • Band previously reserved for fixed satellite
    service (FSS) and radar installations including
    offshore
  • Must protect 3650 MHz (radar)
  • Not permitted within 80km of inband government
    radar
  • Specialized requirements near Mexico/Canada and
    other incumbent users
  • Leverages other amendments
  • Adds 5,10 MHz channelization (802.11j)
  • DFS for signaling for radar avoidance (802.11h)
  • Working to improve channel announcement signaling
  • Database of existing devices
  • Access nodes register at http//wireless.fcc.gov/u
    ls
  • Must check for existing devices at same site
  • Higher power could extend range to 5km

Source IEEE 802.11-06/0YYYr0
31
802.11p (more later)
  • Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)
  • Started in IEEE 1609, spun into 802.11p
  • AKA (WAVE) Wireless Access for Vehicular
    Environment
  • Ready by 2009
  • 5.850 to 5.925GHz band
  • Goal
  • Telematics (collision avoidance)
  • Roadside-to-vehicle
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle environments
  • 54 Mbps, lt50 ms latency
  • Possible competitor to cellular
  • Range up to 1 km
  • Atheros released an early chipset for DSRC
    (version I, current work is on version II)

Collision Avoidance Scenario
From IEEE 802.11- 04/ 0121r0 Available
http//www.npstc.org/meetings/Cash20WAVE20Inform
ation20for205.920GHz20061404.pdf
32
802.11r (more later)
  • Modify MAC and security protocols to support
    faster handoffs
  • Important as voice over WiFi becomes more popular
  • Status
  • Standard out in 2008
  • Will be certified by WiFi Alliance
  • Features
  • QoS reservation
  • Encryption key distribution
  • 5 step handoff process to 3 steps

http//www.networkcomputing.com/gallery/2007/0416/
0416ttb.jhtmljsessionid0CK4ZKR20HC5QQSNDLPCKHSCJ
UNN2JVN
33
802.11s (more later)
  • Modify 802.11 MAC to create dynamic
    self-configuring network of access points (AP)
    called and Extended Service Set (ESS) Mesh
  • Status
  • Standard out in 2009
  • Numerous mesh products available now
  • Involvement from Mitre, NRL
  • Features
  • Automatic topology learning, dynamic path
    selection
  • Single administrator for 802.11i (authentication)
  • Support higher layer connections
  • Allow alternate path selection metrics
  • Extend network merely by introducing access point
    and configuring SSID

IP or Ethernet
34
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
35
802.16 Family (WiMAX)
  • 802.16 Apr 2002 LOS 10-66 GHz
  • 802.16a Apr 2003 2-11 GHz
  • 802.16c Jan 2003 2-11 GHz
  • 802.16d Oct 2004 Combined 802.16,a,c
  • 802.16e Dec 2005 Mobile WiMAX
  • 802.16f Dec 2005 Net Management Database
    (MIB)
  • 802.16g Spring 2007 Network management plane
  • 802.16h Fall 2007 License-exempt Coexistence
  • 802.16i 2008? Mobile Management Information
    Base 802.16j 2008 Mobile Multihop Relay CFP
    Dec 2006
  • 802.16k Fall 2007 Network Management (to WG
    ballot)
  • 802.16m 2009-10 4G

Commercialization Roadmap
WiMAX Forum (2006) Mobile WiMAX Part I A
Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation.
Available at www.wimaxforum.org
Projections based on data at http//grouper.ieee.o
rg/groups/802/16/milestones/dev/milestones_dev.htm
l
36
802.16e (Mobile WiMAX, 802.16-2005)
PHY Spec Overview
  • Ideally, 802.16 mobility
  • Really intended for nomadic or low mobility
  • Not backwards compatible with 802.16-2004
  • http//www.unstrung.com/document.asp?doc_id76862
  • Direct competitor to 3G, 4G, 802.20 though WiMAX
    Forum once said otherwise
  • Advance equipment and planned deployments,
    particularly for WiBro
  • PHY
  • Scalable OFDM Optional MIMO
  • Convolutional turbo codes
  • Optional block turbo codes, LDPC

WiMAX Forum (2006) Mobile WiMAX Part I A
Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation.
Available at www.wimaxforum.org
37
Other Mobile WiMAX Features
  • Security
  • AES for traffic and control data
  • EAP
  • Privacy and Key Management Protocol Version 2
    (PKMv2)
  • 3-way handshake on handoffs
  • IP Core Network (supports Voice Over IP)
  • Multicast Broadcast Services
  • Like cellular multicast services
  • WiBRO
  • Defines a set of options for Mobile WiMAX for
    Korean deployment
  • Frame-by-frame resource allocation
  • Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
  • UL and DL Scheduling
  • Variable QoS
  • Three handoff methods
  • A traditional Hard Handoff (HHO)
  • Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS)
  • A list of reachable base stations is maintained
    by mobile and base stations, but base stations
    discard packets if not the active BS
  • Macro Diversity (MDHO)
  • Same list is maintained, but all base stations in
    the list can participate in the reception and
    transmission of packets.

38
802.16h
  • Draft to ballot Oct 06, 67 approve, resolving
    comments)
  • Improved Coexistence Mechanisms for
    License-Exempt Operation
  • Explicitly, a cognitive radio standard
  • Incorporates many of the hot topics in cognitive
    radio
  • Token based negotiation
  • Interference avoidance
  • Network collaboration
  • RRM databases
  • Coexistence with non 802.16h systems
  • Regular quiet times for other systems to transmit

From M. Goldhamer, Main concepts of IEEE
P802.16h / D1, Document Number IEEE
C802.16h-06/121r1, November 13-16, 2006.
39
802.16j Mobile Multi-hop Relay
  • Expand coverage, capacity by adding relay
    stations
  • Intended for licensed operation
  • Not intended as a mesh network
  • Actually a tree
  • Support mobile units
  • Relays controlled from base stations
  • Fixed Relay
  • Permanent installation
  • Useful for coverage holes
  • Nomadic Relay
  • Temporary fixed installation
  • Extra capacity for special events (military SDR
    conferences)
  • Mobile Relay
  • Placed on mobile platform to support users on the
    platform
  • Useful for public transport (buses, trains)

Modified from Fig 1 in IEEE 802.16mmr-05/032
40
802.16m
  • Intended to be 4G (satisfy requirements of
    IMT-Advanced)
  • http//www.ieee802.org/16/tgm/
  • Requirements still being defined
  • http//www.ieee802.org/16/tgm/docs/80216m-07_002r1
    .pdf

Projected Improvements over 802.16e
41
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
42
Cellular Technologies
43
Cellular Overview
  • Two primary competing approaches to 3G
  • 3GPP Family
  • GSM, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA (WCDMA-TDD),
    HSCSD, HSPDA, LTE
  • Promotional www.gsmworld.com
  • Standards www.3gpp.org
  • 3GPP2 Family
  • CDMAOne (IS-95a,b), 1xRTT, 1xEVDO, 1xEVDV, UMB
  • Promotional http//www.cdg.org
  • Standards www.3gpp2.org
  • One vision
  • Voice high speed data mobility
  • One dominant IP holder (Qualcomm)

44
GSM Coverage
http//www.coveragemaps.com/gsmposter_world.htm
WCDMA Coverage areas Europe, Japan, Philippines,
Taiwan, Israel, South Africa, Bahrain, US
(Spotty)
45
CDMA Subscriber Stats (June 07)
Better upgrade path, Lots of cannibalization of
IS-95
All CDMA
Just cdma2000
Stats as of June 2007
http//www.cdg.org/worldwide/report/072Q_cdma_subs
criber_report.pdf
46
Global Cellular Market Data
  • Currently over 2.3 billion cellular subscribers
    worldwide (INSTAT)
  • By 2010 projected to be over 3.6 billion (over
    half the world - INSTAT)
  • 3GPP (GSM/WCDMA) has most of the market (77 in
    2005, 83 in 2006)
  • Most of that lead is in GSM
  • 3GPP2 (cdma2000) got a massive jump on 3GPP
  • However, WiMAX may soon outpace

http//www.gsacom.com/news/statistics.php4
As of July 07 http//www.3gtoday.com/wps/portal/su
bscribers/
47
North American Cellular Market
  • 3G almost exclusively 3GPP2
  • Significant number of legacy deployments

http//www.cellular-news.com/story/26145.php
48
Cellular Evolution Paths
  • General trend to higher data rates via transition
    to OFDM, MIMO, wider bandwidths, VoIP, and
    greater flexibility

UMB
49
GPRS
  • General Packet Radio Service
  • Packet-based protocol layered over GSM or IS-136
    networks
  • Transfer rates up to 171.2 kbps
  • Supports X.25 and IP (Internet Protocol)
  • Packet-switched link
  • Makes possible data transfer without circuit
    connection
  • Uses up to 8 channels simultaneously
  • Widespread deployment

50
EDGE
  • Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
  • Data rate expected up to 384 kbps
  • Higher-order modulation over GSM provides
    enhanced data rates
  • Typically ? 100 kbps
  • Technology compatible with both GSM and IS-136
    standards

http//www.gsacom.com/news/statistics.php4
51
3G Standards
  • cdma2000 1.25MHz bandwidth
  • 1x - Voice and basic data service (up to
    307.2Kbps)
  • 1xEV-DO enhanced data service only (up to
    2.5Mbps)
  • 1xEV-DV voice and enhanced data service (up to
    5Mbps)
  • CDMA450
  • 3GSM (WCDMA) 3.84MHz bandwidth
  • WCDMA (UMTS) Voice and basic data (up to 384
    Kbps)
  • HSDPA Voice and enhanced data service (up to
    10Mbps)
  • TD-SCDMA Chinese variant on WCDMA

52
General 3GPP Technologies
  • Generic Access Network
  • Supports handoffs between GSM networks and 802.11
    or Bluetooth networks
  • Packet Switched Handoffs
  • Enables easier handoffs between different 3GPP
    networks
  • Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services
  • Simultaneous broadcast of data streams to
    multiple recipients

53
WCDMA
  • Wideband CDMA UMTS (Universal Mobile
    Telecommunications System)
  • Also known as 3GSM
  • Different from CDMA2000
  • Standard controlled by 3GPP
  • Uses new spectrum
  • Can be complemented by EDGE in less dense areas

54
HSDPA
  • High Speed Downlink Packet Access
  • W-CDMA downlink
  • 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems) over a
  • 5MHz bandwidth
  • Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC),
  • MIMO (Release 6)
  • Hybrid ARQ
  • All IP core network
  • (Release 4)
  • Originally ATM

Table from http//www.umtsworld.com/technology/im
ages/hsdpa.png
55
HSUPA (EUL)
  • High Speed Uplink Packet Access (Enhanced UpLink)
  • Similar technologies to HSDPA
  • Demo by Ericsson May 2005
  • Handsets 2007
  • http//www.mobic.com/news/publisher/view.do?id319
    6
  • T-Mobile planning deployment in Austria in 2007
  • http//www.mobilecomms-technology.com/projects/hsu
    pa/

56
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
  • Targets
  • DL 100 Mbps in 20 MHz (5 bps/Hz)
  • UL 50 Mbps in 20 MHZ (2.5 bps/Hz)
  • Reduced transition time between states (such as
    between idle and active states)
  • Variable bandwidth allocations 1.25 MHz, 1.6
    MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz in
    both the uplink and downlink
  • At least 200 users/cell
  • Load sharing/policy across radio access
    technologies
  • Standard targeted for 2008
  • Products in 2009 (http//www.ericsson.com/technolo
    gy/tech_articles/super_3g.shtml)
  • Downlink Adaptive multilink OFDM (AML-OFDM),
    which means different bandwidths based on demand
  • Variable prefix size
  • 4.7 ms to 16.7 ms
  • Intent to support up to 120 km cells
  • Called High Speed OFDM Packet Access or HSOPA
  • Uplink
  • Single-carrier
  • frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) with
    dynamic bandwidth allocation
  • Unique time-frequency interval to the terminal
    for the transmission of user data (for
    orthogonality)
  • Support for antenna arrays
  • Beamforming, MIMO

57
TD-SCDMA (more later)
  • Time Division Synchronous CDMA
  • Synchronized uplink channels aided by joint
    detection
  • Chinas 3G technology
  • Core network is almost the same as WCDMA
  • Requires mature 2G (GSM) network for
    implementation
  • Part of the 3GPP (3rd Generation Planning
    Partnership Project)
  • Multiple chip rates
  • LCR 1.28 Mcps, 1.6 MHz BW
  • HCR 3.84 Mcps, 5 MHz BW
  • TDD link
  • Does not use paired frequency bands
  • Optimum for symmetric and asymmetric data
    services
  • 1.6 MHz bandwidth allows flexibly spectrum
    allocation
  • Partially motivated by avoiding paying Qualcomm
    royalties
  • Significant deployment delays

TD-SCDMA Multiple Access Options
B. Li, D. Xie, S.Cheng, J. Chen, P. Zhang, W.Zhu,
B. Li Recent advances on TD-SCDMA in China,
IEEE Comm. Mag, vol 43, pp 30-37, Jan 2005
58
cdma2000 1xRTT
  • 1x Radio Transmission Technology
  • Also known as
  • CDMA 1x
  • CDMA 3G1x
  • Packet-switched (always on)
  • Maximum of 144kbps
  • Typical 40-60 kbps
  • Deployments
  • South Korea, US, Canada, Australia, Brazil,
    Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Uganda,
    Ukraine, Thailand, Russia, Pakistan, Indonesia,
    India, China, Chile, Angola

59
cdma2000 1x EV-DO
  • CDMA EVolution Data Only
  • Designed to support only data applications
  • VOIP
  • Also known as
  • CDMA 1x EV-DO
  • CDMA EV-DO
  • Can offer data rates of 384kbps - 2.4Mbps
  • Does not mix voice traffic with data traffic
  • Deployments
  • South Korea 01/25/02 (SK Telecom), 05/01/02
    (KTF)
  • United States 10/29/02 (Monet)
  • Australia (Hutchison)
  • Bermuda (Bermuda Digital)
  • Guatelmala (Movistar Guatelmala)

60
cdma2000 1x EV-DV
  • CDMA2000 EVolution Data and Voice
  • Intended to blend both voice and data traffic
  • Can use existing EV-DO or 1x infrastructure as a
    starting point
  • Data rates up to 4.8 Mbps
  • Dead on arrival
  • http//telephonyonline.com/mag/telecom_evdv_dead/i
    ndex.html
  • Qualcomm halted work on the standard in 2005
  • http//news.com.com/CellphonemakerstoadoptInt
    ernetcalling/2100-7352_3-5618191.html

61
EVDO Rev B
  • Adds Multiple carriers 2xEVDO, 3xEVDO,
  • Up to 15 1.25 MHz carriers within 20 MHz
  • Adds support for 64-QAM modulation
  • DL 73.5 Mbps
  • UL 27 Mbps
  • Dynamic non-contiguous carrier allocation
  • Support for single carrier and multiple carrier
    subscribers
  • Standardized 2006
  • Trial mid-2007
  • Commercial deployments mid-2008

62
EVDO Rev C (UMB)
  • Spec published Sep 24, 2007
  • http//www.cdg.org/news/press/2007/Sep24_07.asp
  • 3GPP2 (UMB) beats 3GPP to market again
  • Commercially available 1H 2009
  • Data rates, mobile with 20 MHz bandwidth
  • DL 288 Mbps
  • UL 75 Mbps
  • Key technologies
  • OFDMA, MIMO, beamforming
  • Flexible spectrum allocation
  • Enhanced QoS
  • Support for multiple access technologies
  • Reduced latency

63
Other Cellular Efforts
  • iDEN
  • CDMA 450
  • OFDM-FLO (Qualcomm)
  • DVB-H (GSM/ETSI)
  • IEEE 802.20

64
iDEN
  • Motorola created Nextel popularized cellular
    technology
  • TDMA 6 channels on 25 MHz
  • PTT, voice, data
  • May expand to 100 MHz (WiDEN) for 96 kbps
  • Other countries implementing iDEN networks
  • South Korea, Japan, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia,
    Philippines, Singapore

65
cdma450
  • cdma2000 in 450 MHz band
  • Permits migration of Nordic Mobile Telephone
    System
  • Deployments in Asia, Europe, South America

66
Media-FLO
  • http//www.qualcomm.com/mediaflo/index.shtml
  • Not 4G itself, but possibly indicative of
    Qualcomms direction (they also own spectrum)
  • Mobile Video Broadcast (Digital TV, Digital Video
    Broadcast-Handheld)
  • OFDM based system
  • 11.2Mbps at 6MHz
  • Run-time optimization of power, frequency, time
  • Chipsets available Nov 2004
  • Possible use in UHF bands (high power)
  • Standard released
  • http//telephonyonline.com/home/news/flo_forum_mul
    timedia_112805/
  • Verizon to offer service in 2006
  • http//telephonyonline.com/wireless/news/verizon_m
    ediaflo_qualcomm_120105/

67
Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld
  • ETSI digital video broadcasting standard
  • Based on DVB-T
  • Forum http//www.dvb-h-online.org/
  • Backed by GSM networks
  • Also OFDM based
  • CrownCastle testing in Pennsylvania
  • Numerous trials in Europe

68
IEEE 802.20
  • Fill performance gap between high data-rate, low
    mobility 802 standards and high mobility
    cellular networks
  • 802.20 Shenanigans
  • Allegations of process abuse brought to a
    screeching halt when standard suspended in
    September
  • Project Launched 2004
  • Looked to be dead in the water
  • Flarion leading proposal
  • Qualcomm leading vote holder
  • Turned around when Qualcomm bought Flarion (Aug
    05)
  • http//www.dailywireless.org/modules.php?nameNews
    filearticlesid4532
  • Went to proposal downselection process
  • Qualcomm (Flarion) TDD, FDD
  • ETRI
  • BEST-WINE (Kyocera)
  • Reapproved in Dec 06
  • First meeting Jan 2007
  • QTDD/QFDD Proposal
  • OFDMA data channel
  • CDMA control channel
  • Bandwidths
  • 5 MHz 20 MHz
  • MIMO
  • Single, multiple code word
  • Pseudo- Eigen beamforming
  • Space Division Multiple Access
  • Separate mode from MIMO
  • Data Rate 260 Mbps
  • MIMO, 20 MHz
  • Turbo coding
  • Time-frequency hopping
  • Supposed to support inter Radio Access Technology
    handoffs

69
Cellular Takeaways
  • Two major approaches to 3G
  • gt10 standards in those two families
  • Legacies continue to be deployed
  • Cheaper than upgrading for voice
  • Multi User Detection (MUD) and MIMO techniques
    that could dramatically increase capacity GSM and
    TDMA systems may extend lifetime of legacy
    systems.
  • http//www.iee.org/oncomms/pn/antennas/mimo/chenu_
    tourniery.pdf
  • Voice remains killer ap for cellular, data likely
    to be supported by other networks
  • Convergence of devices supporting cellular and
    WiFi

70
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
71
802.22
  • Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN)
  • First explicit cognitive radio standard
  • Aimed at bringing broadband access in rural and
    remote areas
  • Takes advantage of better propagation
    characteristics at VHF and low-UHF
  • Takes advantage of unused TV channels that exist
    in these sparsely populated areas
  • Status (IEEE 802.22-06/0251r0)
  • First draft finishing
  • First vote in Mar
  • Published 2009?

72
Features of 802.22
  • Data Rates 5 Mbps 70 Mbps
  • Point-to-multipoint TDD/FDD
  • DFS, TPC
  • Adaptive Modulation
  • QPSK, 16, 64-QAM, Spread QPSK
  • OFDMA on uplink and downlink
  • Use multiple contiguous TV channels when
    available
  • Fractional channels (adapting around microphones)
  • Space Time Block Codes
  • Beam Forming
  • No feedback for TDD (assumes channel reciprocity)
  • 802.16-like ranging
  • 802.16 MAC plus the following
  • Multiple channel support
  • Coexistence
  • Incumbents
  • BS synchronization
  • Dynamic resource sharing
  • Clustering support
  • Signal detection/classification routines
  • Security based on 802.16e security
  • Collaborative sensing
  • Techniques in 802.22 will be extended to other
    standards and to other bands around the world

73
Material
Modified from International Telecommunications
Union, Birth of Broadband, September 2003
74
Globalstar
  • Globalstar I Based on cdmaOne
  • Jan 2006 - FCC granted license to offer ancillary
    terrestrial service
  • http//www.globalstarusa.com/en/about/newsevents/p
    ress_display.php?pressId58
  • Globalstar II
  • Moving to 48 LEOS for global coverage,
    unspecified improved performance
  • http//www.globalstar.com/en/news/pressreleases/pr
    ess_display.php?pressId426
  • Coverage still constrained by ground stations?
  • First launch in 2009?
  • http//www.skyrocket.de/space/index_frame.htm?http
    //www.skyrocket.de/space/doc_sdat/globalstar-2.ht
    m

Green areas not available to North American
subscribers
http//www.globalstarusa.com/en/content.php?cid30
0
75
Inmarsat
  • Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN)
  • 492 kbps peak
  • 256 kbps stream
  • Applications
  • Voice telephony E-mail
  • Internet access
  • Access to corporate networks
  • File transfer
  • Video conferencing
  • Video broadcastVideo store-and-forward
  • Yet to launch Pacific Satellite
  • BGAN supported by I-4 Satellites
  • Based on Astriums Eurostar
  • Geostationary
  • 19 wide beams, 200 narrow spot beams (I-3 7 wide
    beams) Variable QoS, can combine channels,
    variable QoS
  • 16-fold increase in traffic capacity

http//www.inmarsat.com/bgan
76
Summary and Future Trends
  • Relevant Data and a Discussion on 4G

77
Convergence of Approaches
  • WiMAX becoming more like cellular, cellular
    becoming more like WiMAX
  • Cellular like waveforms converging to mix of
    OFDMA MIMO optimized for low speeds with small
    cell sizes

Source http//www.wimaxforum.org/technology/downl
oads/ WiMAX_and_ IMT_2000.pdf
  • Recognition of this convergence is leading to
    WiMAX being treated like a cellular technology
  • Sprints XOhm network
  • Push for WiMAX to be classified as 3G
  • http//www.livemint.com/2007/09/06000634/India-bac
    ks-Wimax-techon-3G-n.html
  • WiMAX cell phones coming
  • Nokia, Motorola, Samsung
  • http//www.reuters.com/article/technology-media-te
    lco-SP-A/idUSSP31345620070904
  • Because 3G took so long to deploy, WiMAX may pass
    it by

78
Breeding Successful Technologies
  • Mobile WiMAX will be a MIMO standard, but so will
    WCDMA
  • Transition of technologies can significantly
    extend useful lifetime of deployments
  • Enhanced EDGE
  • WCDMA MIMO may steal LTEs market
  • 802.11n predates mobile WiMAX
  • 802.22 techniques opening up legacy spectrum for
    other standards
  • White Space Coalition
  • 802.16m
  • Standards can expect to continue to evolve even
    post-deployment
  • Need for SDR
  • May make for smoother transition to 4G

Erik Dahlman, Hannes Ekström, Anders Furuskär,
Ylva Jading, Jonas Karlsson, Magnus Lundevall,
Stefan Parkvall, The 3G Long-Term Evolution
Radio Interface Concepts and Performance
Evaluation, VTC 06
79
4G
  • Wireless community already looking towards 4G
  • Requirements being formalized
  • 1 Gbps fixed
  • 100 Mbps mobile (end-to-end)
  • Support for heterogeneous nets
  • Global roaming
  • Several candidates already emerging
  • Cellular evolution
  • 802.16m
  • NTT DoCoMos 5 Gbps prototype
  • http//www.nttdocomo.com/pr/files/20070209_attachm
    ent02.pdf
  • Chinas home grown standard
  • http//www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2007/09/25
    /afx4151478.html
  • Common techniques
  • OFDMA, MIMO, small cell sizes optimized for low
    speed, but support for high speed, IP backbone

3G Americas, Defining 4G Understanding the ITU
Process for the Next Generation of Wireless
Technology, July 2007 Available online
http//3gamericas.com/PDFs/3G_Americas_Defining_4G
_WP_July2007.pdf
http//www.nttdocomo.com/pr/files/20070209_attachm
ent01.pdf
80
Overview Take-Always 1/2
  • High data rate systems migrating to OFDM MIMO
    PHY
  • OFDM WiMedia, 802.11a,g, 802.16, 802.20,
    802.22, UMB, LTE
  • OFDM MIMO 802.11n, 802.16e, 802.20, UMB, LTE
  • More responsive/adaptive resource management
    (early cognitive radio)
  • Multiple QoS levels 802.11e 802.16e 802.20
    UMB, LTE, EVDO,
  • Dynamic channel selection WiMedia 802.11h,y
    802.16h 802.22
  • Distributed sensing 802.22
  • Coexistence given increasing interest
  • Vertical handoffs 802.21, 802.11u
  • Legacy systems 802.22, 802.11h,y, 802.16h
  • New bands opening up for old techs
  • 802.15.4d, 802.11j,p,y

81
Overview Take-Always 2/2
  • Some spectral harmonization
  • 5 GHz for WiMAX
  • China pushing own standards
  • 802.15.4c, TD-SCDMA, TD-SOFDMA
  • Emergence of Advanced Networking
  • 802.11s, 802.15.5, 802.16j
  • Increasing of technologies
  • Legacy systems not quickly fading and large of
    new ones
  • Convergence on AES for security
  • 802.11i, WiMedia, Mobile WiMAX
  • All IP Backbone
  • Mobile WiMAX, UMB, LTE

82
Useful Websites (News, Promotional, Forums,
Standards)
  • WLAN
  • www.wi-fi.org
  • www.wi-fiplanet.com/
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/
  • 802.15
  • www.bluetooth.com
  • https//www.bluetooth.org/
  • www.wimedia.org
  • http//www.zigbee.org/en/
  • http//www.uwbforum.org/
  • www.wibree.org
  • http//www.multibandofdm.org/
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/
  • 802.16
  • www.wimaxforum.org
  • http//wimaxxed.com
  • http//wimax.com
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/
  • 3GPP Family
  • www.gsmworld.com
  • www.umtsworld.com
  • www.gsacom.com
  • www.3gpp.org
  • http//www.tdscdma-forum.org/
  • 3GPP2 Family
  • www.cdg.org
  • www.3gpp2.org
  • 802.20
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/20/
  • 802.21
  • http//www.ieee802.org/21/
  • www.umatechnology.org
  • 802.22
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/22/
  • E2R Requirements and scenario definition,
    Available online http//e2r.motlabs.com/Deliverab
    les/E2R_WP4_D4.1_040725.pdf
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