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Introduction to Nutrition for Exercise and Health


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Title: Introduction to Nutrition for Exercise and Health

chapter 1
Introduction to Nutrition for Exercise and Health
  • Introduction to Nutrition for Exercise and Health

Prof Jennifer Broxterman, RD, MSc FN3373
Nutrition for Physical Activity Lecture 1
Author name here for Edited books
Sports Nutrition Introduction
  • Proper nutrition can help
  • Improve exercise performance
  • Decrease recovery time from strenuous exercise
  • Prevent exercise-associated injuries due to
  • Provide the fuel required during times of
    high-intensity training
  • Control weight
  • Help reduce the risk of numerous chronic diseases
  • T2DM, CVD, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis,
    some cancers

Role of Nutrition in Exercise and Sport
Role of Nutrition in Exercise Sport
  • Nutrition plays a vital role in exercise
    performance and training
  • Benefits both competitive and recreational
  • Good nutrition is especially important for
    athletes who
  • Compete in sports tournaments
  • Engage in strenuous PA on a daily or more than
    daily basis
  • Examples?

Injury Reduction
  • Risk of injury during exercise
  • Fuel hydration status impacts level of fatigue
    and ability to concentrate
  • Risk of injury post-exercise
  • Proper nutrition can help speed the healing
    process for injured athletes
  • Surgery / Bone Injuries requires extra kcal
    nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and

Weight Control / Body Composition
  • Nutrition plays an important role in weight
    control and body composition
  • Few individuals are happy with their weight, body
    fat levels, or body shape
  • Realistic expectations can improve health and
    quality of life and reduce stress levels
  • Disordered eating tendencies tend to be higher
    in athletes than the general population, esp.

Essential Nutrients Dietary Recommendations
Essential vs. Nonessential Nutrients
  • Discovery
  • Evolved from observations that certain diseases
    occurred in populations that consumed poor diets
  • Able to show that including specific foods in the
    diet could correct or prevent the diseases
  • Essential nutrients food constituents that
    prevent disease or health problems
  • Nonessential nutrients nutrients that could be
    deleted from the diet with no adverse health
    effects (dispensable)
  • E.g. physiologically essential nutrient for the
    body but classified as a nonessential nutrient?

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Conditionally Essential Nutrients
  • Conditionally essential some essential
    nutrients are synthesized by the body from
    precursors, and interactions between nutrients
    could alter requirements
  • Potentially affected by
  • Some disease states
  • Genetic defects
  • Stress
  • Illness
  • Aging

Conditionally Essential Nutrients
  • Criteria to establish the conditional
    essentiality of a nutrient
  • The plasma concentration of the nutrient declines
    into the subnormal range, although the body
    should be able to synthesize the nutrient.
  • Chemical, structural, or functional abnormalities
    appear that are associated with low blood
    concentrations of the nutrient.
  • Dietary supplementation of the nutrient returns
    plasma concentrations to normal and corrects the
    abnormalities seen when blood concentrations are

Desirable Beneficial Nutrients
  • Nonessential nutrients that are important for
    good health and disease prevention
  • New nutrient category desirable or beneficial
    for health (Carpenter and Harper, 2006)
  • Examples fibre, phytochemicals, carotenoids,
    amino acid derivatives
  • Are NOT classified as essential or conditionally
    essential nutrients

Recommended Dietary Allowances Dietary
Reference Intakes
Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs)
  • DRIs

Nutrition Recommendations
  • Yardsticks used as standards for measuring
    healthy peoples energy and nutrient intakes
  • Used to
  • Assess nutrient intakes
  • Make recommendations on amounts to consume
  • Standards in the Canada and U.S. are the Dietary
    Reference Intakes (DRI)
  • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
  • Adequate Intakes (AI)
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

Figure 1.2
Goals of the DRI Committee
  • Setting Recommended Intake Values (RDA, AI)
  • Facilitating Nutrition Research and Policy (EAR)
  • Establishing Safety Guidelines (UL)
  • Preventing Chronic Disease

Goal 1 Setting Recommended Intake Values
  • RDA based on solid experimental evidence and
    reliable observation
  • nutrient intake goals for individuals
  • derived from EAR
  • meets requirement of 97-98 of individuals in a
    life stage and gender group
  • AI also as scientifically based as possible, but
    setting them requires some educated guesses
  • established whenever scientific evidence is
    insufficient to generate an RDA

Goal 2 Facilitating Nutrition Research Policy
  • EAR nutrient requirements for given life stages
    and gender groups that researchers and nutrition
    policymakers use in their work
  • Public health officials may also use them to
    assess nutrient intakes of populations and make
  • EAR values form the scientific basis upon which
    the RDA values are set

Establishment of DRIs
Goal 3Establishing Safety Guidelines
  • UL
  • Identify potentially hazardous levels of nutrient
  • Useful to consumers who take supplements or
    consume foods or beverages to which vitamins or
    minerals have been added
  • Public health officials rely on UL values to set
    safe upper limits for nutrients added to our food
    and water supply

The Naive View vs. Accurate View of Optimal
Nutrient Intakes
Goal 3Establishing Safety Guidelines
  • Peoples tolerances for high doses vary
  • Caution is in order when nutrient intakes
    approach UL values
  • Some nutrients do not have UL values
  • Does not imply that it is safe to consume it in
    any amount
  • Only means that insufficient data exists to
    establish a value

Goal 4Preventing Chronic Disease
  • The DRI committee takes into account chronic
    disease prevention, wherever appropriate
  • healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat,
    and protein
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
  • 45-65 from carbohydrate
  • 20-35 from fat
  • 10-35 from protein

Understanding the DRIs
  • Government funded
  • Based on recent scientific research whenever
  • Optimal intakes NOT minimal requirements
  • Generous margin of safety
  • Meet needs of virtually all healthy people within
    a specific gender and age group
  • Based on specific indicators of nutrient adequacy
  • Normal growth and development
  • Optimal blood nutrient concentrations
  • Reduction of certain chronic diseases and

Understanding the DRIs
  • Daily intakes to be achieved on average, over
  • Assume intakes will vary from day-to-day
  • Set high enough to ensure that nutrient body
    stores will meet nutrient needs (from 1 day to 3
    months based on the nutrient)
  • Apply to healthy persons only
  • Health maintenance and disease prevention
  • Not restoration of health
  • Separate recommendations gender, age, lifecycle
  • Differences between men, women, pregnant and
    breastfeeding women, children and other life
    stage groups

RDA vs. Energy Requirements
Setting Energy Requirements
  • Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
  • The average dietary energy intake predicted to
    maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a
    certain age, gender, weight, and level of
    physical activity with consistent good health
  • Value is not generous
  • Is set at the average of the populations
    estimated energy requirements
  • Enough food energy is critical to support health
    and life
  • Too much energy causes unhealthy weight gain
  • The DRI committee did not set a UL for energy

Dietary Guidelines for Canadians
Eating Well with CFG (2007)
  • To help people achieve goals set forth by
    Canadas Guidelines to Healthy Eating, Health
    Canada provides a food group plan
  • Diet planning tool
  • Sorts foods into groups based on their nutrient
  • Specifies that people should eat a minimum of
    servings of foods from each group

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Vegetables Fruit
Grain Products
Milk Alternatives
Meat Alternatives
Variations of Food Guides
  • Many countries have their own nutrition
    organizations that develop dietary guidelines,
    reference intakes, and food guide pyramids,
    rainbows, circles, etc.
  • Goal is to meet the dietary needs of the
    particular population
  • Must consider
  • cultural aspects related to food
  • eating patterns
  • lifestyle factors

United States My Pyramid
Mediterranean Food Guide Pyramid
Mediterranean Diet for Athletes
  • Endurance athletes
  • Marathon ultra-endurance athletes
  • Higher fat diet (40)
  • Replacement of intra-muscular fat used as a fuel
    source during exercise
  • Best food sources nuts, seeds, olive oil, fish
  • Athletes with lower energy requirements
  • Offers a nutrient-dense diet
  • Reduce total fat from olive oil, cheese, nuts
    but maintain high intake of VF, whole grains,
    lean protein

Food Pyramid for Athletes
  • Swiss Forum for Sport Nutrition
  • Builds on the Basic Food Pyramid used in
    Switzerland, designed for the normally active
  • Covers the extra energy and nutrient requirements
    incurred by the demands of daily exercise
  • Carefully considered the volume and intensity of
    various sports
  • Feasibility of consuming the extra servings for
    each food group was also considered for athletes
    in real-life settings
  • Sport-specific foods, fluids, and recovery
    products were also integrated

Figure 1.6
Figure 1.6 (continued)
Sweets Oils/Fats Protein Grains VF Fluids
Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines
Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines (NEW in
  • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology
  • Children (5-11 y) Youth (12-17 y)
  • Adults (18-64 y) Older Adults (65 y and older)
  • New guidelines should be viewed as a minimal
  • Evidence-based, realistic and achievable
  • To promote healthy active living for the Canadian
  • Levels of PA fitness have dropped dramatically
  • Overweight/obesity in Canadian has been steadily
  • Steady rise in diseases associated with
    overweight obesity

Children (5-11 y) Youth (12-17 y)
  • For health benefits, children aged 5-11 and youth
    aged 12-17 years should accumulate at least 60
    minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA
    daily. This should include
  • Vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per
  • Activities that strengthen muscle and bone at
    least 3 day per week
  • More daily PA provides greater health benefits

Adults (18-64 y)
  • To achieve health benefits, adults aged 18-64
    years should accumulate at least 150 minutes of
    moderate-to-vigorous-intensity aerobic PA per
    week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more
  • Beneficial to add muscle and bone strengthening
    activities using major muscle groups, at least 2
  • More PA provides greater health benefits

Older Adults (65 y)
  • To achieve health benefits and improve functional
    abilities, adults aged 65 years and older should
    accumulate at least 150 minutes of
    moderate-to-vigorous-intensity aerobic PA per
    week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more
  • Muscle and bone strengthening activities using
    major muscle groups at least 2 days/week
  • Those with poor mobility should perform PA to
    enhance balance and prevent falls
  • More PA provides greater health benefits.

Rationale for New PA Guidelines
  • Explosion of new research in recent years
  • Old guidelines were out-of-date
  • Evidence to support more specific recommendations
  • Some age ranges missing with old guidelines
  • More robust guideline development processes now
  • Inactivity crisis deserves up-to-date guidelines

Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for
Children Youth
  • The scientific evidence showed that
  • Being sedentary for more than 2 hours per day was
    associated with
  • Unfavourable body composition
  • Decreased fitness
  • Lowered scores for self esteem and pro-social
  • Decreased academic achievement

Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for
Children Youth
  • For health benefits, children (aged 5-11 y)
    youth (aged 12-17 y) should minimize the time
    they spend being sedentary each day. This may be
    achieved by
  • Limiting recreational screen time to no more than
    2 hours per day lower levels are associated with
    additional health benefits
  • Limiting sedentary (motorized) transport,
    extended sitting and time spent indoors
    throughout the day

For Next Lecture
  • Textbook Readings
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Nutrition for Health
  • Get Ahead for Lectures 2, 3, 4
  • Chapter 2 Carbohydrate as a Fuel for Exercise
  • Chapter 3 Fat as a Fuel for Exercise
  • Chapter 4 Protein and Exercise
  • Case Study Project
  • Self-select your group of 2-3 people. Topic will
    be assigned next class.
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