Effectiveness of Nutrition Education and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Changes in Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress among Overweight and Obese Adults - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Effectiveness of Nutrition Education and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Changes in Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress among Overweight and Obese Adults

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M. G. Wagner1, K. Hert1, L. Myers1, J. Levine2, T. Heck1, Y. Rhee1 1Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effectiveness of Nutrition Education and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Changes in Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress among Overweight and Obese Adults


1
Effectiveness of Nutrition Education and Fruit
and Vegetable Consumption on Changes in
Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
among Overweight and Obese Adults
  • M. G. Wagner1, K. Hert1, L. Myers1, J. Levine2,
    T. Heck1, Y. Rhee1
  • 1Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise
    Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo,
    ND, 2Family Nutrition Sciences, Concordia
    College, Moorhead, MN

2
Abstract
  • Introduction The growing prevalence of
    overweight and obesity among adults is concerning
    because of the numerous health conditions
    associated with excess weight. Underlying
    mechanisms believed to contribute to these
    detrimental health outcomes are oxidative stress
    and inflammation. Fortunately, regulation of
    oxidative stress and inflammation is possible via
    antioxidants consumed through a diet adequate in
    fruits and vegetables. However, adults
    consumption of fruits and vegetables is below
    recommended amounts, which places them at
    increased risk for chronic diseases.
  • Purpose This study was designed to determine the
    effectiveness of a community-based fruit and
    vegetable education program and provision of
    fruits and vegetables on consumption of fruits,
    vegetables, antioxidants, and changes in
    biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress
    among overweight and obese adults.
  • Methods Forty-seven adults (16 men/31 women
    45.9 11.8 y body mass index 32.7 7.3 kg/m2)
    were randomly assigned to one of three
    intervention groups. The control group received
    no intervention the education group attended
    weekly nutrition education sessions and the
    fruit and vegetable group attended weekly
    nutrition education sessions and received one
    serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables
    per day for 10 weeks. Consumption of fruits,
    vegetables, and antioxidants were assessed using
    three-day food records.
  • Results Changes in consumption of fruits,
    vegetables, and antioxidants among participants
    were associated with improvements in biomarkers
    of inflammation and oxidative stress in those
    receiving education but not among control group
    participants.
  • Discussion Adequate and varied consumption of
    fruits and vegetables is recommended to aid in
    the prevention and regulation of inflammation.

3
Introduction
  • Rates of overweight and obesity have reached
    epidemic proportions in the U.S. contributing to
    increased risk of chronic disease1
  • An underlying mechanism believed to contribute to
    these detrimental health outcomes is the
    inflammatory process2

4
Introduction
5
Introduction
  • Antioxidant systems in the body are responsible
    for regulating oxidative stress and subsequent
    inflammation3
  • Because of their high antioxidant content,
    consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is
    widely encouraged4
  • Americans, including overweight and obese adults,
    consume the recommended FV servings5

6
Purpose
  • To determine the effectiveness of a
    community-based fruit and vegetable education
    program and provision of FV on consumption of
    fruits, vegetables, antioxidants, and changes in
    biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress
    among overweight and obese adults

7
Methods
  • Study protocol approved by the North Dakota State
    University Institutional Review Board
  • Participants
  • 47 adults
  • Inclusion
  • Age over 18 years
  • BMI gt 25 kg/m2
  • Exclusion
  • History of bariatric surgery
  • Current smoker
  • Pregnant

8
Methods
  • Study Duration
  • Pre-testing
  • 2 weeks
  • Intervention
  • 10 weeks
  • Post-testing
  • 2 weeks
  • Data Collection
  • Demographics
  • Dietary Intake
  • 3-day Food Record
  • Laboratory Assessments
  • Fasting Blood Draw
  • Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
  • C-reactive protein

9
Methods
10
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11
Methods
  • Statistical Analysis
  • PASW version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL)
  • Alpha level lt .05
  • Descriptive statistics
  • T tests
  • Pearson correlation
  • Analysis of variance

12
Demographics
Control Education FV Gender
Female 5 6 5 Male
3 9 19 Age (y)
42.1 14.2 47.7 10.7
46.0 11.9 BMI (kg/m2) 33.0 11.1
32.5 6.0 32.7 7.1
13
Fruit Consumption


Significant difference in mean servings consumed
per day from pre-test to post-test
14
Vegetable Consumption
15
Beta Carotene Consumption

Trend toward a significant difference in
consumption from pre-test to post-test
16
Vitamin C Consumption
17
Vitamin E Consumption
18
Selenium Consumption
19
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances

Trend toward a significant difference in
consumption from pre-test to post-test
20
C-Reactive Protein

Trend toward a significant difference in
consumption from pre-test to post-test
21
Discussion
  • Supplementation was effective at increasing FV
    consumption. This is the first study to examine
    effects of FV supplementation on consumption
    patterns of overweight and obese adults.
  • Decreases in oxidative stress and inflammatory
    biomarkers were greatest among participants in
    the FV group, which suggests a possible benefit
    of FV supplementation on decreased inflammation.3

22
Conclusions
  • A limitation was that a convenience sample was
    used, thereby limiting the generalizability of
    the results.
  • Efforts to increase consumption should focus on
    encouraging intake of a variety of FV,
    particularly those with the highest antioxidant
    content.
  • It is also necessary to emphasize management of
    overall energy intake, including decreased
    consumption of high-energy, nutrient poor foods.

23
References
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Obesity and overweight. U.S. Department of Health
    and Human Services. Available at
    http//www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm.
    Accessed November 17, 2011.
  2. Dowd JB, Zajacova A, Aiello AE. Predictors of
    inflammation in U.S. children aged 3-16 years. Am
    J Prev Med. 201039(4)314-320.
  3. Jones DP, DeLong MJ. Detoxification and
    protective functions of nutrients. In M. H.
    Stipanuk, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects
    of Human Nutrition (pp. 901-916). Philadelphia,
    PA W.B. Saunders Company 2000.
  4. Hansen L, Dragsted LO, Olsen A, Christensen J,
    Tjønneland A, Schmidt E B, Overvad K. Fruit and
    vegetable intake and risk of acute coronary
    syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2010104248-255.
  5. Andreyeva T, Long MW, Henderson KE, Grode GM.
    Trying to lose weight Diet strategies among
    Americans with overweight or obesity in 1996 and
    2003. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010110(4) 535-542.
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