Physical Fitness Defined - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 28
About This Presentation

Physical Fitness Defined


Training Principles and Methods Components of Fitness Strength Training Flexibility and Stretching – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:280
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: kzw2


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Physical Fitness Defined

Training Principles and Methods
Components of Fitness Strength Training Flexibilit
y and Stretching
What is Training?
In it simplest definition, training is the
vehicle by which the human body is made more
efficient making the body better able to run,
jump, lift, throw, kick, etc.
Training needs vary greatly depending on both the
objectives and the physical attributes of the
individual. ?
preparing for competition
? improving appearance
? reducing fat or weight reduction
Physical Fitness Defined
A person can generally measure physical fitness
by determining how much energy they have for
doing what is enjoyable in life.
The Center for Disease Control (Atlanta) defines
fitness as "a set of attributes that people
have or achieve that relates to their
ability to perform physical activity. The
World Health Organization has defined fitness as
"the ability to perform muscular work
satisfactorily". The Canadian College of
Sports Medicine has proposed that "fitness
is the ability to perform moderate to vigorous
levels activity without undue fatigue".
The Components of Fitness
The components of physical fitness fall into two
  • Activities such as soccer, team handball,
    basketball and
  • and hockey require high levels of both

The Skill-Related Components of Fitness
The ability to change directions
Reaction Time The ability to respond quickly to
a stimulus
Speed The ability to cover a short distance
The Health-RelatedComponents of Fitness
Body Composition
ratio of body fat to lean tissue
The ability
of the heart, lung, and blood
vessels to send oxygen to the
bodys tissues
during long periods of vigorous activity.
Cardiovascular Endurance
Designing Training Programs
The components of fitness can be developed by
using the principles of
Training Principles
  • Specificity (Specific Adaptation To Imposed
    Demand - S.A.I.D)
  • In order develop a specific muscle or muscle
    group training must be specific to those
  • Muscle adaptations will occur if training
  • is specific
  • Training must reflect an athletes
  • situation needs

Training Principles
Overload To get stronger, the body must perform
tasks that are more challenging than those to
which it is accustomed (stress the muscle).
Over time the body will adapt to the overload and
new demands will be needed.
Training Principles
  • Progression
  • In order to constantly improve, an athlete must
    progressively increase the overload over time
  • The athlete must be aware that loads and
    demands on body must
  • occur over time to increase performance and
    decrease injury
  • Start slowly and increase exercise gradually

Repetitions (Reps) The number of times the
activity is repeated
i.e. 20
biceps curls Sets A group of repetitions
performed together without rest
i.e. 3 sets of 20 reps
F.I.T.T. Principle
  • Frequency (More often)
  • the amount of time per week spent training
  • general guideline is 3-5 times/week
  • determination of frequency depends greatly on
    the athletes
  • level of fitness, athletic aspirations,
  • Intensity (More difficult)
  • how hard the individual must work
  • taken as a percentage of the individuals
    maximal aerobic and
  • anaerobic power
  • general guideline is 50-100 of athletes
    maximal intensity

F.I.T.T. Principle
  • Time (longer)
  • amount of time spent in a single training
  • general guideline is 3-6 times/week
  • depends on the athletes level of fitness,
    athletic aspirations,
  • and type of training
  • Type
  • either aerobic or anaerobic training programs,
    or a combination
  • of both
  • depends on the athletes level of fitness,
    athletic aspirations,
  • and sport or activity for which he or she is

Individual Differences
  • Every athlete has a different physical and
    psychological makeup
  • Pre-training fitness levels
  • Requirements within their sport
  • Age and gender
  • Ability to recover from workouts
  • Ability to recover from injury

Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Concentric Contraction
  • occurs when the muscle shortens while producing
  • (i.e. lifting a weight climbing stairs
    climbing rope)

Eccentric Contraction occurs when the muscle
lengthens while producing tension (i.e.
lowering a weight - bending forward)
Isometric Contraction performed against
resistance while the load remains constant
Isotonic Contraction a contraction performed
against an immovable resistance muscle tension
is developed but there is no change in the length
of the muscle or the angle of the joint
Isokinetic Contraction occurs when a muscle
contracts maximally at a constant speed over a
full range or the joint movement. (The stronger
the effort the stronger the resistance)
Sensible Strength Training
  • A common mistake that lifters make is completing
    a high number of exercises in a workout
  • Adolescence should perform no more than 30-36
    sets per workout. 12 exercises of 3 sets should
    be the absolute maximum
  • 3 sets of 10 reps at 60 max is a good starting
  • In the early stages train twice a week ( Monday
  • When the law of diminishing returns occurs, more
    frequent workout will be needed
  • Never lift on back to back days (36 hours)
  • High intensity workouts should only used by
    advanced lifters with at least 1-2 years of
    weight training experience

Sensible Strength Training
The following chart highlights the relationship
between the number of reps, the percentage of
max and training objective.
Reps of Max Objective Reps of Max Objective
1 100 Maximum Strength Zone Powerlifting 11 74 Strength and Endurance
2 95 Maximum Strength Zone Powerlifting 12 73 Strength and Endurance
3 91 Maximum Strength Zone Powerlifting 13 72 Strength and Endurance
4 88 Maximum Strength Zone Powerlifting 14 70 Strength and Endurance
5 85 Maximum Strength Zone Powerlifting 15 69 Strength and Endurance
6 80 Bodybuilding 16 68 Strength and Endurance
7 79 Bodybuilding 17 66 Strength and Endurance
8 77 Bodybuilding 18 64 Strength and Endurance
9 76 Bodybuilding 19 62 Strength and Endurance
10 75 Bodybuilding 20 60 Strength and Endurance
Sensible Strength Training
  • Research shows that the number of sets should be
  • inversely proportional to the number of reps

Reps Sets of Maximum Rest Interval
2 - 3 6 -10 90 - 95 5-8 minutes
4 - 7 5 -10 80-89 3-6 minutes
8 -10 4 - 6 75-79 2-5 minutes
11 - 12 3 - 5 less than 75 1-3 minutes
Research shows that 3-10 sets are usually needed
for optimal loading. However, the first weeks
should include 1-2 sets with a gradual increase.
The Principle of Diminishing Returns
  • A persons training gains will reflect that
    persons prior level of training.
  • Beginners make larger gains in their fitness
    levels over a
  • relatively short period of time
  • When an athletes training experience
    accumulates they
  • reach their performance plateau where
    performance levels
  • off and improvements may be non-existent.

Must change exercise prescription Ethical vs.
unethical training methods
The Principle of Reversibility
The principle of reversibility occurs when the
body undergoes training and then the training
effect is removed. The muscles lose the benefits
of training.
Atrophy when muscles undergo a period of
inactivity they will lose
strength and size Detraining occurs when
someone who has undergone a significant
amount of training and then reduces or
removes the effects of
training. Reasons include injury, lack of
overtraining, and burnout
Improving Flexibility
Most athletes follow a routine of stretching
exercises to increase muscle flexibility.
Flexibility is crucial for athletes participating
in sport that involves muscled that are put
through a wide range of motion.
Contrary to popular belief, stretching before a
workout does not decrease the occurrence of
injury. The warm-up, not stretching, performed
before the activity is the important deterrent
for injury. Stretching offers more long term
benefits by maintaining flexibility. Flexibility
at the joint decreases the risk of injury
Flexibility Physiology
Muscle spindles, located within muscle cells,
protect the muscle from injury. They respond to
changes in muscle or tendon tension by sensing
how far and fast a muscle is being stretched and,
when activated, produce a stretch reflex. This
reflexive action causes the muscle to contract to
prevent overstretching the joint.
Factors That Limit Flexibility
  • A number of factors can affect flexibility
  • condition of joint ligaments (loose-tight)
  • body composition fat may act as a wedge
  • girls are more flexible than boys
  • age flexibility decreases with age
  • inactivity
  • scar tissue on skin/muscle may limit stretching
    at the joint

Guidelines to Improve Flexibility
  • Warm-up with a slow jog before stretching
  • Work flexibility gradually
  • Stretch until you feel tightness not pain
  • Hold stretch for 15-20 seconds
  • Repeat stretch at least three times
  • Perform daily for maximum benefit

Stretching Terminology
Active Stretching A range of motion generated by
individual effort voluntary muscular contraction
Stretching Techniques
There are four basic stretch techniques
Ballistic The oldest technique is the ballistic
stretch which makes use of repetitive bouncing
movements. It has been virtually abandoned by
almost all experts in the field due to safety
Stretching Techniques
Dynamic Dynamic stretching uses movements that
mimic a specific sport or exercise in an
exaggerated yet controlled manner.
Stretching Techniques
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation PNF
stretching is an effective stretching method for
increasing range of motion. It is considered to
be the most effective way to increase static
flexibility and is a combination of static
passive stretching and isometric stretching
  • PNF stretching is
  • excellent for targeting specific muscle groups
  • increasing flexibility
  • range of movement
  • improves muscular strength.

PNF Stretching
PNF stretching combines muscle contraction and
relaxation with passive and partner-assisted
stretching in three phases
Hold Relax The athlete and partner assume the
position for the stretch, and then the partner
extends the body limb until the muscle is
stretched and tension is felt. Position is held
for 10 seconds.
Contract Relax The athlete then contracts the
stretched muscle for 5 - 6 seconds and the
partner must resist all movement.
Hold Relax with Opposing muscle Contraction The
muscle group is relaxed, then immediately and
cautiously pushed past its normal range of
movement for about 30 seconds. Allow 30 seconds
recovery before repeating the procedure 2 - 4
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)