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After the Battle of Granicus

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Title: After the Battle of Granicus


1
After the Battle of Granicus
  • What happened

2
Alexander had shown superior tactics
  • He showed many attributes of a good army leader
    during this battle
  • These were (list what good qualities as a
    commander he showed before and during the battle)
  • The Persians were beaten and many fled
  • After the battle, Alexander did something
    unusual.
  • He disbanded his fleet (his navy/boats). The
    reasons Arrian gives for this are
  • - He had no money
  • - His fleet were too weak to fight the Persians
  • - He was in control of all the ports in Asia
    Minor and thought he could keep the Persian fleet
    out.

3
Disbanding the fleet
  • Alexander took a considerable gamble by sending
    his fleet away, which was a decision that could
    have backfired. But he was very lucky.
  • He knew his strength lay in his army and that he
    was weak in ships. Where as the Persians had a
    very strong naval fleet and a weak ______. He
    couldnt beat the Persians at sea so he wanted to
    fight them on __________, this would be done by
    preventing the Persian fleet from ever being able
    to dock anywhere for supplies. He could do this
    by capturing all the ports in the east
    Mediterranean.
  • p. 46, Paul Artus book. Read the information
    under the heading Miletus and Disbanding the
    fleet
  • Take notes on key info from this page

4
Homework, very important to complete.
  • Answer questions on The Greek Mercenaries
    Issue. p.36
  • Read and highlight The Gordian Knot p. 38 39
  • Answer questions on The Gordium knot p. 40
  • Answer questions on The battle of Granicus p.
    41 42
  • Read and Highlight Ionian cities of Asia Minor
    p. 43
  • Answer questions on Disbanding the fleet p. 44

5
Halicarnassus
  • Read highlight p. 45 (in your workbooks) about
    Alexander in Caria Halicarnassas, Autumn 334BC
  • Answer questions on Halicarnassus (Hamilton
    worksheet) p. 46

6
Order of events so far.
  1. Arrived in Asia M____
  2. Visits T___
  3. Battle at Granicus R_____
  4. Battles at Miletus (Athenian fleet block entrance
    to harbour, preventing Persian fleet from
    entering. This makes the city fall to Alexanders
    control. Greek mercenaries who lve in Miletus
    escape to a near island, Alexander employs them
    instead of punishing them.)
  5. Alexander disbands his f____

334 BC
7
  • 6) Battle at Halicarnassus (Memnon mercenaries
    surrounded Halicarnassus with a moat. Alexander
    filled the moat broke through the walls. Memnon
    fled to a near island. Orontopates escaped to
    harbour. Alexander retreated left an army
    behind who eventually won 3 years later. This
    battle proves that disbanding the fleet was a
    m_________. Because the Persian fleet controlled
    the sea now)
  • Alexander sends recently married troops back home
    to Macedonia for a break.
  • Arrian No act of Alexanders ever made him
    better loved by his Macdonians
  • 8) Alexander rebuilds the fleet
  • 9) Gordium knot (propaganda)
  • 10) Alexander gets sick at Tarsus
  • 11) Battle of Issus

333 BC
8
Hmmm
  • What did the events at Miletus and Halicarnassus
    show us about Alexander?
  • His military skill and that he does make
    mistakes, and the lengths to which he was
    prepared to go to maintain control

9
The battle of Issus. The facts
  • Date November 333 BC
  • Alexander was at Mallus when he heard Darius III
    was camped east of the Syrian gates.
  • Alexander was excited to finally get to fight him
    travelled non stop to get there.
  • Darius had actually by-passed Alexander and was
    encamped at Issus
  • At Issus, Darius discovered Alexanders sick and
    wounded troops and killed them (what are they
    sick and wounded from?)
  • Darius then moved south to fight Alexander
  • Alexander realised his mistake and turned back
    with great speed to meet Darius. He camped at the
    Pillars of Jonah.

10
  • Darius army outnumbered Alexanders..
  • 5 to 1.
  • note darius travelled with his family wives
    of officers
  • The two armies met On the narrow coastal plain
    near Issus
  • Sea on one side
  • Mountains on the other side
  • River Pinarus between them
  • This location suited Alexanders smaller/bigger
    (you choose the right one) army
  • And there was not enough room for Darius big
    Army to arrange their cavalry.

11
Sothe mistake Alexander had initailly made,
became an advantage.
  • Alexander arranged his army thus
  • Allied greek cavalry on the left (sea) side under
    Parmenios command
  • The phalanx in the centre
  • Macedonian cavalry on the right (mountain side)
    under A_________s command
  • Archers and light infantry at an angle to counter
    the Persians on mountain side.
  • Diagram it.

12
Darius army
  • Arranged his army like this
  • Solid wall of defenders in front line.
  • Mountain side heavy infantry
  • Sea side cavalry under Nabarzanes command
  • Greek mercenaries (hoplites foot soldiers) in
    centre
  • Rest of troops Darius centre back, no room
    for them anywhere else

13
The Persians plan
  • They were up on the north bank of the river
    Pinarus so Alexander had to cross to attack (just
    like at the battle __________). But this time
    there were no muddy river banks. They wanted to
    use their cavalry t to get around behind the
    Macedonians on the sea side.
  • To block this, Alexander put the Thessalian
    cavalry on his left (the sea side) strengthened
    by archers and javelin throwers.
  • He ordered Parmenio (in command of the left, as
    always) not under any circumstances to leave any
    gap between his troops and the sea for the enemy
    to get through. He didnt see any threat coming
    from the Persians on the mountain side.

Alexanders plan
14
The battle of Issus homework
  • Your task for this battle, is to write a detailed
    account of what happened using the following
    resources
  • Paul Artus book, p.47 - 48
  • Your workbooks, p.47, also take note of the
    diagrams
  • Study materials The battle of Issus p.42
  • You will be attempting to answer this previous
    exam question
  • At the end of 333BC Alexander defeated the
    Persian King, Darius III at the battle of Issus
    in the South of Turkey.
  • Discuss
  • - The events leading up to the battle
  • - The tactics used by each of the commanders in
    this battle

15
Tips for the layout/structure to a good answer.
  • List the events that have happened prior to the
    battle his fathers death, the battle at
    granicus, halicarnassus, miletus, disbanding the
    fleet. List what achievements he had and what
    mistakes he had made.
  • Describe Alexanders eagerness to fight King
    Darius III
  • Describe the situation in Darius IIIs camp
  • Describe where the two met to fight
  • List the layout of the armies (what was
    positioned where)
  • Describe Alexanders attack

16
Tips for the layout/structure to a good answer
continued.
  • Describe Darius IIIs action in battle
  • Describe how Darius was defeated
  • List the ways in which Alexander was successful
    in battle
  • Describe how Darius troops would be feeling
    after this
  • Outline what Alexander did after the battle to
    show he was now ruler of Persia
  • List what Alexander and his troops now had on
    their side
  • Discuss whether Alexander deserved the win at
    this battle

17
  • End ?
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