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Western Civilization I HIS-101

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Title: Western Civilization I HIS-101


1
Western Civilization IHIS-101
  • Unit 4 Late Classical and Hellenistic Greece

2
Sparta in Charge
  • After 404 BCE, Sparta was the superior power in
    Greece
  • Took on a policy of what was good for Sparta was
    good for everyone else
  • Very heavy handed to the other Greek poleis
  • They were overextended so endured helot revolts
  • Sparta began planning a war against Persia
  • Hope was to unify Greece again as a way of
    maintaining its position
  • Plan was to recover Ionia which was lost during
    the Peloponnesian War
  • Persians offered economic aid to those who fought
    Sparta
  • Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos all accepted

3
Corinthian War (395-387 BCE)
  • Corinthian War (395-387 BCE)
  • Between the Athenian coalition and Sparta
  • The coalition quickly won key battles because of
    their naval superiority
  • Athens was able to regain old Delian League
    territory
  • Persia did not like this and withdrew its support
    in 392 BCE
  • Persians gave economic aid to Sparta instead
  • Spartan was then able to easily defeated the
    coalition
  • Athens sued for peace in 387 BCE
  • Peace of Antalcidas (387 BCE)
  • Negotiated between Persia, Athens, and Sparta
  • Athens had to give up control of the Aegean
  • Persia got to keep Ionia as well as Cyprus

4
  • Coin of Artaxerxes II of Persia

5
Trouble for Sparta
  • After the, Sparta kept up its harsh policies
  • Dangerous poleis were dismantled into smaller
    units
  • Thebes became a hot spot for Sparta
  • It started as an ally to Sparta but joined the
    Athenian coalition
  • After the war, they allied with Sparta again
  • Seizing Thebes (382 BCE)
  • Spartan general, Phoebidas, was travelling by
    Thebes
  • He placed troops in Thebes citing civil unrest
  • Seized the acropolis and forced out any
    anti-Spartan factions
  • Exiled Thebans turned to Athens for help
  • Inside of Thebes, resistance formed under
    Epaminondas, politician and military leader

6
  • Epaminondas
  • (c. 404-362 BCE)

7
Theban Dominance
  • In 379 BCE, the Thebans led a coup against the
    Spartans
  • Drove out the Spartan troops
  • Executed the pro-Spartan politicians
  • Sparta tried to retake the city three times over
    the next seven years but failed
  • The Sacred Band of Thebes
  • This was a fighting force organized of 150
    homosexual couples
  • The logic behind it was that lovers would fight
    side by side more fiercely
  • The inspiration came from Plato who argued that
    lovers would not surrender He would be ready to
    die a thousand deaths rather than endure this
    embarrassment. Or who would desert his beloved
    or fail him in the hour of danger?

8
Theban Dominance
  • Battle of Leuctra (371 BCE)
  • Key battle between Thebes and Sparta
  • Thebans cleanly defeated Spartans
  • Theban troops then traveled to Messenia
  • There they set the helots free
  • These were people who had been enslaved for over
    200 years
  • Thebes became the dominant power until 362 BCE
  • This was when Epaminondas was killed in the
    Battle of Mantinea

9
  • Extent of Theban Power (c. 362 BCE)

10
Economic Crisis
  • All the wars led to economic crises in all the
    poleis
  • Many lost their wealth and their homes
  • Crops and orchards had been destroyed
  • Damage to the olive trees and grapevines
  • Standard of living dropped dramatically
  • Wages were stagnant but prices increased as much
    as 50
  • Taxes were increased to rebuild the city funds
  • Unemployment was very high
  • Many soldiers were forced to become mercenaries
    while others became bandits

11
  • Plato
  • (429-349 BCE)

12
Philosophy and the Polis
  • In late Classical Period, philosophers changed
    their focus
  • They turned to the discussion of the ideal form
    of government
  • Two major philosophers Plato and Aristotle
  • Knew there was something wrong with 4th century
    BCE polis
  • Both attempted to come up with ways to fix it
  • Plato (429-349 BCE)
  • Was originally a student of Socrates
  • Wanted to prove Socrates innocence after his
    trial and death
  • Set up the Academy in 387 BCE
  • Plato wrote the dialogues the Phaedo, the
    Symposium, and the Republic

13
Plato (429-349 BCE)
  • Doctrine of Ideas
  • Things were relative but that should not be the
    foundation of philosophy
  • Believed in a higher, spiritual realm where there
    are eternal forms, or Ideas, that are unchanging
  • The Ideas are true reality but only our mind can
    grasp the Ideas, not our senses
  • Therefore you cannot trust the material world
  • Ideas include objects but also more complex Ideas
    such as beauty and justice
  • The material world is a shadow of the real world
  • What we see are copies of the Ideas, a shadow of
    them
  • Highest Idea was Good which could be achieved by
    leading a virtuous life

14
Plato (429-349 BCE)
  • In politics social harmony is more important
    than liberty or equality
  • Leadership was based on a meritocracy
  • Believed that society was divided into three
    tiers
  • The Producers These are the ones who are
    responsible for keeping society running
  • The Guardians These are the ones who are
    responsible for protecting society
  • The Philosopher Kings The one(s) responsible
    for ruling the state based on Ideas of virtue and
    goodness

15
  • Aristotle
  • (384-322 BCE)

16
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
  • Aristotle had been a student of Plato
  • Did not ignore the material world
  • He in a compromise between Platonism and pure
    materialism
  • He wrote about teleology
  • The universe is in a constant state of motion
  • Everything is moving towards its ultimate
    perfected form (telos)
  • Had a different view towards politics than Plato
  • Plato saw government as a means to an end (the
    Idea of Good)
  • Aristotle saw it as the end itself, the good
    life

17
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
  • Politics allowed humanity to fully use its
    rational thought
  • Women were not allowed to participate in
    government
  • He also believed barbarians were not fully
    human and should be kept as slaves
  • Best government combination monarchy,
    aristocracy, and democracy
  • Use a checks and balances system
  • Allow men to realize their full rational
    potential
  • Both Plato and Aristotle tried to fix the
    problems of the polis
  • They were not practical for the time
  • Athens and Thebes were too big for the ideal
    polis
  • The best option was to turn poleis into small,
    agricultural states

18
  • Greek World c. 359 BCE

19
Rise of Macedonia
  • To the north Macedonia was rising in power
  • Ignored by the Greeks
  • Macedonians were barbarians
  • Perdiccas I (700-678 BCE)
  • Historians believe he organized the Macedonian
    state
  • Founded Argead dynasty
  • Direct descendants of Hercules according to
    legend
  • Early Macedonia
  • A conglomerate of rural tribes with no
    city-states
  • Archelaus (c. 413-399)
  • Organized into a kingdom
  • Faced numerous threats from outside
  • Constantly on the brink of collapse

20
Rise of Macedonia
  • Alexander II (370-368 BCE)
  • Struggled to keep the throne
  • Forced into an alliance with Thebes
  • Was forced to send a number of hostages to secure
    alliance
  • Philip was one of Alexanders brothers
  • Sent to Thebes between 368 and 365 BCE
  • Thebes was dominant during this time
  • Observed the latest Greek military developments,
    including the Sacred Band
  • Developed a love of Greek culture
  • When Philip returned, discovered Alexander had
    been assassinated

21
Rise of Macedonia
  • Perdiccas III (368-359 BCE)
  • Philips next oldest brother
  • Philip rebuilt the army based on the Greek model
  • In 359 BCE, Perdiccas was killed in battle
    against the Illyrians
  • Amyntas IV (359 BCE)
  • Perdiccas infant son
  • Philip became his regent
  • Soon after, Philip took the throne for himself
  • Macedonia was on the brink of collapse
  • Threats from both Illyria and Thebes
  • Internal struggles
  • Pretenders to the throne

22
  • Philip II
  • (359-336 BCE)

23
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Main focus was reorganizing the military
  • Two parts to the military
  • The Companions Nobility made up this elite
    cavalry
  • The Phalanx Made up of trained peasants and
    shepherds
  • Different from the Greek phalanx
  • Used a sarissa, a spear approximately 18 feet
    long
  • When held vertically by the rear guard, it helped
    to hide the maneuvers taking place behind the
    phalanx from the enemy
  • When held horizontal by the front rows of the
    phalanx, it was an 18 foot long piercing weapon
  • By the spring of 358 BCE, Philip had amassed a
    10,000 man army and 600 man cavalry

24
  • Macedonian Phalanx

25
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Securing power
  • Philip quickly defeated all pretenders to the
    throne
  • Defeated the Illyrians
  • Secured a number of alliances through marriage
  • Had seven wives over the course of his life
  • Once Macedonia was secure, Philip was able to
    focus on his next objective Persia
  • Persia was the biggest threat to Macedonia
  • He needed a clear land path to Persia through
    Thrace
  • This was going to lead to conflict with Greece,
    especially Athens

26
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Philip wanted the city of Amphipolis
  • Would secure his eastern border but gain a route
    to Thrace
  • Very wealthy city as the deposit for the gold and
    silver mines of the region
  • However, Athens was in control of the city at the
    time
  • Social War (357-355 BCE)
  • Between Second Athenian Empire and some of its
    allies
  • Chios, Rhodes, and Cos attempted to break away
    from the Empire
  • This meant that Athens was distracted
  • In 357 BCE, Philip took the city
  • Athens was infuriated but could do nothing

27
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Philip offered to trade Amphipolis for the port
    city of Pydna
  • Athens agreed but Philip decided to keep both of
    the cities
  • In 356 BCE, Philip conquered Crenides
  • This meant he would be a threat to the Thracians
  • Area was rich in precious ore
  • He renamed the city Philippi
  • In 355 BCE, he lay siege to the port city of
    Methone
  • Athens was in no shape to intervene
  • The city fell in 354 BCE

28
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Third Sacred War (356-346 BCE)
  • War between the Theban led Delphic Amphictyonic
    League and Phocis
  • The League imposed a heavy fine on Phocis for
    cultivating sacred land
  • Thebes wanted to invaded Phocis
  • Phocians refused to pay, attacked Delphi, and
    raided the treasury of the Temple of Apollo
  • All of this was considered sacrilege
  • Thebes now had legal and religious reasons to
    attack Phocis
  • All of Greece took one of the two sides in the
    war
  • Athens joined Thebes but could not be very
    effective

29
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Philip was able to use the conflict to secure his
    own interests
  • Larissa and Thebes turned to him for help
  • He was able to take Thessaly in northern Greece
    in 352 BCE
  • By the end of 346 BCE, the major powers of Greece
    were greatly weakened
  • Philip emerged at the dominant leader
  • Greeks reaction to Philip was mixed
  • One side saw him a ruthless barbarian who was
    poised to invade Greece
  • Others saw him as a possible savior

30
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • In 345, Philip went to war with Illyria
  • Was able to secure that border
  • In 342, he turned to Thrace
  • Removed the king there
  • In 340 BCE, he lay siege to Byzantium and
    Perinthos
  • Both of these controlled the straits to the Black
    Sea
  • Philip needed control to get to Persia
  • This angered Athens so they made an alliance with
    the two cities
  • They organized an alliance including Thebes and
    Boetia
  • They declared war on Philip in 339 BCE

31
  • Demosthenes
  • (384-322 BCE)

32
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • Fourth Sacred War (339-338 BCE)
  • Between Philip and the Greek alliance
  • Largest battle took place at Chaeronea
  • Battle of Chaeronea (August 22, 338 BCE)
  • Philip had half his army 30,000 infantry and
    2,000 cavalry
  • Alliance had a combined force of 35,000
  • Philip won
  • 5,000 Athenians were killed compared to the 3,800
    Macedonians
  • Only 46 of the Theban Sacred Band survived

33
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • With the Greeks defeated, Philip focused on peace
  • He wanted friendly neighbors to the south
  • This way, he could focus his attention on Persia
  • Corinthian League
  • Philip was the leader of the league and each
    state remained autonomous
  • States were not allowed to take up arms against
    any other member of the league
  • They were not allowed to break any agreements
    with Philip
  • The main purpose of the league was military
  • Greeks were to provide military forces for the
    invasion of Persia

34
Philip II (359-336 BCE)
  • In 336 BCE, Philip then began planning the
    invasion
  • Sent advance troops out to Asia in the spring
  • Planned on joining them that fall
  • In October 336 BCE, Philip was assassinated
  • Took place at the celebration of his daughters
    wedding
  • The assassin, Pausanias, was a bodyguard of
    Philips and supposedly a disgruntled lover
  • Pausanias was caught soon after tripping over a
    vine while escaping and was subsequently killed
  • This left 20-year old son, Alexander III, with
    the crown

35
  • Macedonia and its Territories (c. 336 BCE)

36
  • Alexander III
  • (336-323 BCE)

37
Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)
  • The Legend
  • He was a legend not only amongst his own people
    but scholars as well
  • This makes it is very difficult to distinguish
    between fact and legend
  • During Alexanders life, he was seen as almost
    god-like and many exaggerated stories were
    attributed to him
  • He viewed himself as a direct descendant of
    Hercules
  • The facts
  • Successfully spread Greek culture and influence
    throughout the Near East all the way to Pakistan
    and Afghanistan
  • Expanded Greek power to never before seen heights

38
Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)
  • Early training
  • Under the tutelage of Aristotle (343-340 BCE)
  • Philip trained him for kingship
  • In 340 BCE, when Philip went away to battle,
    Alexander was left in charge as regent
  • Alexander was also brought along on military
    campaigns
  • At the Battle of Chaeronea, Alexander was given
    control of the cavalry
  • This prepared him for aspects of both ruling a
    kingdom and being a military commander
  • When he ascended to the throne, Alexander needed
    to quickly assert his authority

39
Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)
  • Securing Macedonian borders
  • Subordinated the Thracians along the Danube River
  • This cleared the path to Persia
  • Killed all potential rivals to the throne
  • He defeated the Illyrians who attempted to invade
    Macedonia
  • Trouble in Greece
  • A number of poleis revolted after hearing of
    Philips death
  • They were quickly put down
  • In 335 BCE, Demosthenes lied stating that
    Alexander had died in battle
  • This sparked more revolts in both Athens and
    Thebes

40
Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)
  • Alexander went to Thebes first
  • He made it to the city in less than two weeks
  • He completely destroyed the city
  • Its territories were given to other Boeotian
    cities
  • All of its citizens were either executed (6,000)
    or sold into slavery (30,000)
  • Athens and the other cities submitted to
    Alexander
  • Part of the negotiations included giving ships
    and men to help conquer Persia
  • Borders were secure so now he could move on to
    Persia

41
  • Greek mosaic of Darius III

42
Conquest of Persia
  • Persia was no longer the great power it had been
  • For the past two decades, it had be riddled with
    internal strife
  • Under the control of Darius III, it was not as
    strong as it used to be
  • Alexander still some key issues to deal with
  • Persia was weaker but it was still a strong state
    with a strong military
  • His navy was inferior to the Persian one
  • He did not have enough money to fund such an
    extensive campaign
  • This meant quick victories and living off the
    countryside to get the resources they needed to
    continue

43
Conquest of Persia
  • Invasion began in 334 BCE
  • Started in Asia Minor
  • Alexander had over 30,000 infantry troops
  • Half were Macedonian
  • The rest came from the Greek allies or were
    mercenaries
  • He also had 5,000 cavalry
  • His first stop was in Troy
  • At the time it was known as Illum
  • Paid tribute to Homer whom he had idolized
  • Supposedly, he kept a copy of the Illiad along
    with a dagger under his pillow at night

44
Conquest of Persia
  • Battle at Granicus River (May 334 BCE)
  • First battle against the Persians
  • Crossed the river at nighttime
  • Attacked the Persian troops at dawn during their
    morning rituals
  • This was a major victory for him
  • By the spring of 333 BCE, Alexander had
    liberated the Ionian Greeks
  • He had freed them of Persian control, but stepped
    in as their new ruler
  • He also controlled the western half of Asia Minor

45
Conquest of Persia
  • Battle of Issus (November 333 BCE)
  • Persian troops were led by Darius III
  • He had only 40,000 troops while the Persians had
    100,000
  • Alexander used the geography to his advantage a
    narrow field surrounded on three sides by
    mountains
  • This negated the difference in numbers
  • Darius fled the battle early on
  • Alexander captured his family
  • Alexanders field marshal, Parmenio, raided
    Darius treasury in Damascus
  • Seized over 55 tons of gold and of silver
  • He captured numerous servants and all of the
    women who had lived at Darius' court
  • Required over 7,000 pack animals to carry all of
    the loot

46
Conquest of Persia
  • Alexander used the gold and silver to mint new
    coins in his image
  • Darius attempted to negotiate a peace with
    Alexander
  • Alexander would be able to keep western Asia
    Minor in return for Darius family
  • Parmenion supposedly said 'I would accept it, if
    I were Alexander.  
  • So would I, replied Alexander, if I were
    Parmenion.
  • Alexander refused
  • In his reply to Darius, he wrote send to me as
    king of Asia do not write to me as an equal, but
    state your demands to the master of all your
    possessions

47
  • Coin of Alexander the Great

48
Conquest of Persia
  • Alexander next conquered the Levant
  • Including the port cities of Tyre and Gaza
  • Cut off the Persian navy from the Mediterranean
  • Capture of Egypt (November 332 BCE)
  • Took control of Egypt without a fight
  • He took the title of pharaoh
  • He also built his first city to be named after
    him (Alexandria)
  • Darius then offered a new treaty which would give
    Alexander
  • All lands west of the Euphrates River
  • A large ransom for the return of Darius family
  • Darius daughter for a bride

49
Conquest of Persia
  • Alexander refused
  • He believed that he could take the territory
    himself anyways
  • Also, if he accepted, he would have to constantly
    worry about securing his frontiers from the
    Persians
  • After a few months rest, Alexander then moved
    his troops into the Near East
  • Battle at Gaugamela (October 331 BCE)
  • Alexander was outnumber approximately 90,000 to
    40,000
  • Darius had chosen the battlefield a wide, open
    plain, good for the Persian chariots
  • Alexander managed to break the Persian line and
    win the battle
  • Darius once again fled the battle
  • Alexander chased him for three days

50
  • Ivory relief depicting the Battle of Gaugamela

51
Capture of Darius
  • Alexander then went on to take the cities of
    Babylon and Susa
  • The Babylonians gave him the title king of the
    world
  • In January 330 BCE, he took the Persian capital
    at Persepolis
  • Alexander allowed his troops to loot the cities
    for themselves
  • The city was burned to the ground in retaliation
    for the burning of Athens in 480 BCE
  • At this point, he gave himself the title King of
    Asia
  • Darius fled to the satrapy of Bactria (modern
    Afghanistan)

52
Capture of Darius
  • When Darius he arrived in Bactria, he was
    promptly arrested by the satrap Bessus
  • Bessus attempted to negotiate Darius fate with
    Alexander
  • Alexander was in a tough spot
  • If he took Darius from Bessus, he would have to
    grant independence to the satrapy
  • If he had Darius killed, he would never win the
    loyalty of the Persians
  • If he did not kill Darius, he would remain a
    threat
  • Alexander opted to not negotiate with Bessus
  • Instead, he sent his troops further west towards
    Bactria

53
Capture of Darius
  • In July 330 BCE, Bessus had Darius murdered
  • He then crowned himself as Artaxerxes V of Persia
  • Led a resistance movement against Alexander
  • Bessus was captured by Alexander in 329 BCE
  • Alexander had his ears and nose cut off
  • There was Persian precedence for this
  • Then he was given to Darius brother, Oxyathres
  • Bessus was crucified in the summer 329 BCE
  • Oxyathres put in orders to the guards to keep the
    vultures away
  • Tied to Zoroastrianism the dead must be
    devoured by the birds to move on into the
    afterlife
  • Darius was given a state burial by Alexander

54
  • The Punishment of Bessus by Andre Castaigne
    (c.1898)

55
Move into India
  • Capturing the rest of Persia (329-327 BCE)
  • Alexander was focused on capturing what was left
    of Persia
  • Faced intense guerrilla warfare in Bactria and
    Sogdiana
  • By 327 BCE, he had complete control of Persia
  • Alexander next pushed into India
  • Battle of Hydaspes (May 326 BCE)
  • Faced King Porus of India
  • First time Alexander saw elephants in battle
  • Alexander defeated and captured Porus
  • Then made him satrap of his own kingdom
  • Alexander also lost his horse during this battle
    and named a city, Bucephala, after it

56
  • Battle of Hydaspes by Andre Castaigne (c.1911)

57
Return Home
  • Alexander reached the Beas River in July 326 BCE
  • By this point, Alexanders troops refused to go
    any farther
  • They were exhausted from years of fighting
  • There was no real plan after they defeated Persia
  • Alexander did agree to return home grudgingly
  • He claimed he saw some bad omens, including an
    eclipse of the moon
  • Met heavy resistance traveling down the Indus
    River
  • Faced numerous battles with the local populations
  • In one battle, Alexander was pierced through the
    lung with an arrow

58
Return Home
  • His troops traveled through the Gedrosian Desert
  • It was the one time of the year it was passable
  • Took 60 days and suffered heavy losses
  • By May 323 BCE, Alexander returned to Babylon
  • Started making plans for Caspian Sea and
    northern Africa
  • On June 10, 323 BCE, Alexander died
  • He was weak from numerous wounds and had a fever
  • Modern speculation includes malaria, typhoid
    fever, or meningitis
  • Treatment included hellebore, a poisonous herb
  • He consumed large amounts of alcohol over his
    lifetime
  • He was only 32 years old

59
  • Empire of Alexander the Great

60
Alexanders Legacy
  • Alexander ushered in the Hellenistic Era
  • Hellenistic means to imitate Greeks
  • Marked a new era of Greek expansion of land and
    of culture
  • Alexanders ideal was to blend the two cultures
  • Adopted many aspects of Persian culture
  • Hired Persians as administrators
  • Encouraged his men to marry Persian women
  • Trained the Persians in Greek military tactics
  • He did set up new cities throughout his empire
  • Many named after himself (Alexandria)
  • Set up like a Greek polis and became the center
    of Greek culture
  • Supported the blending of the two cultures

61
Alexanders Legacy
  • His conquests also had a huge impact on Greece
    itself
  • Brought large amounts of gold and silver into
    both Macedonia and Greece
  • Helped stimulate the economy and create new jobs
  • Policies set precedents for future rulers
  • A strong monarchy backed by a strong military
  • Showed an international army can be successful
  • Transformed a solely Macedonian army into a truly
    international one
  • This army also showed loyalty only to him

62
  • Philip Arridaeus
  • (c.356-317 BCE)

63
The Diadochi
  • Huge power struggle after Alexanders death
  • Between all of the possible successors (diadochi)
  • Who should inherit the Empire?
  • Alexanders unborn child
  • Roxana was pregnant at the time of Alexanders
    death
  • If the baby was a boy, he would be the legitimate
    heir
  • This was led by Perdiccas, and the cavalry
  • Philip Arridaeus
  • He was Alexanders half-brother
  • He was epileptic and supposedly feeble-minded
  • This side was led by Meleager and the infantry

64
Wars of the Diadochi
  • A compromise was made
  • Philip Arridaeus would become king (Philip III)
  • If Roxana gave birth to a son, he would co-rule
    with Philip
  • Perdiccas would be the Regent
  • Meleager would be his Lieutenant
  • Perdiccas did not want to share power
  • Meleager murdered as well as other leaders of the
    infantry
  • He then went on to take full control of the
    empire
  • His supporters gained key positions throughout
    the empire
  • This included receiving their own satrapies
  • He also had to put down revolts in Greece

65
Wars of the Diadochi
  • Many did not like Perdiccas seizing power for
    himself
  • They united together against him and then against
    each other
  • Wars of the Diadochi (322-301 BCE)
  • Four separate wars
  • Struggles for power in various regions throughout
    the empire
  • Even though In 321 BCE, Perdiccas was murdered in
    321 BCE, the remaining diadochi still fought for
    control
  • Both Philip III and the young Alexander IV were
    killed
  • Why did Alexanders empire fall?
  • No one person strong enough to hold the empire
    together
  • Some wanted to keep the empire together
  • There were others who wanted to regain their
    independence

66
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67
Characteristics of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • The Hellenistic kingdoms were monarchies
  • Relatively new political system to the Greeks
  • Most Greeks associated kingship with barbarians
  • Held power through the use of military force
  • The ruling class was primarily of Greeks and
    Macedonians
  • Only 2.5 of those who held power were non-Greeks
  • Most of those were in the military
  • Those in power prevented natives from being
    promoted
  • The armies consisted mainly of the phalanx and
    cavalry
  • Some kings had armies as large as 60,000
  • Began using elephants as the tanks of ancient
    warfare
  • Development of new siege machinery (e.g.,
    ballista)

68
Characteristics of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • There was the development of expansive trade
    routes
  • Due to Alexanders conquests
  • They went from Greece to the Persian Gulf and
    India
  • Traded gold, silver, iron, gems, dyes, salt,
    elephants, and slaves
  • This brought a large amount of money through
    heavy taxation
  • There was the development of a money economy
  • Began with Alexander plundering the treasury at
    Damascus
  • Most of the gold and silver was melted down into
    new Greek coins
  • Led to the development of banksowned by both
    individuals and the stateswhich gave out loans
    and took in deposits

69
Characteristics of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • Kingdoms also had those who were very poor
  • Agriculture was still the primary occupation
  • Many citizens lived and worked on their own
    properties
  • Some even had slaves to assist them
  • They did not reap the benefits of the new trading
    system
  • The poorest farmers suffered under the heavy
    taxation
  • There was a growth in the building of new cities
  • More than 200 new cities were built
  • Became massive centers for Greek politics and
    culture
  • Migration was encouraged by the rulers
  • Greeks artisans and merchants were brought in

70
Characteristics of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • Many Greeks did migrate throughout the kingdoms
  • Between 325-225 BCE, the population of mainland
    Greece declined by half
  • Many left to seek new jobs and fortunes in the
    new cities
  • The Hellenistic polis was quite different than
    the original
  • Did try to recreate the polis, but this did not
    work as well
  • Were not the autonomous city-states found on in
    Greece
  • Depended heavily upon the Hellenistic monarchies
  • Could not conduct their own foreign policy
  • Were forced to pay tribute to the monarchs
  • Were larger and much more cosmopolitan

71
Characteristics of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • There was a sense of Greekness that spread
    throughout the kingdoms
  • The citizens no longer had an intimate connection
    with the politics of the polis
  • Rather they saw themselves as citizens of the
    world
  • Even language was similar with the spread of the
    koiné, which meant common tongue
  • By 275 BCE, three main Hellenistic kingdoms
    emerged
  • Each had a blending of Greek and non-Greek
    culture
  • Each were also very distinct and unique
  • Each faced constant warfare
  • Each struggle between the new Greco-Macedonian
    ruling class and the native populations

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73
Antigonid Macedonia
  • Macedonia suffered from instability in the years
    following Alexanders death
  • Did not enjoy the same type of wealth as the
    other Hellenistic kingdoms had
  • Remained politically unstable until 277 BCE
  • Antigonus II (277-239 BCE)
  • Considered the start of the Hellenistic dynasty
    in Macedonia
  • Saw himself as a stoic leader
  • Secured his borders in Macedonia while the other
    diadochi fought for power
  • Secured control for the Antigonid dynasty

74
Hellenistic Greece
  • There were two powerful leagues in Greece
  • Aetolian League in central Greece
  • Achaean League in Peloponnesus
  • Wanted Greek freedom and war against the
    Macedonian barbarians
  • Not just defensive leagues
  • Sense of unity
  • Each had a unified centralized government
  • Each of the member poleis participated in
    government affairs
  • All members had equal standing inside the league
  • All held joint citizenship
  • First voluntary cooperation
  • Was not forced upon them due to war or an outside
    ruler

75
  • Ptolemy I
  • (305-283 BCE)

76
Ptolemaic Egypt
  • Ptolemy was appointed as satrap of Egypt in 323
    BCE
  • He had been one of Alexanders generals
  • He received the position as one of Perdiccas
    supporters
  • Perdiccas was going to soon regret that decision
  • Ptolemy was in possession of Alexanders corpse
  • Through Macedonian tradition a king asserted his
    right to the throne by burying the body of his
    predecessor
  • Ptolemy preempted Perdiccas from doing so by
    stealing the corpse and moving it to Memphis
  • Ptolemy also aligned himself with the side
    against Perdiccas

77
Ptolemaic Egypt
  • First War of the Diadochi (322-320 BCE)
  • As part of this, Perdiccas tried to take Egypt
    back
  • His troops had a hard time crossing the crocodile
    infested Nile
  • This, plus the harsh conditions under his rule,
    led to a mutiny his troops
  • He was murdered by his officers in 321 BCE
  • Ptolemy I (305-283 BCE)
  • On November 7, 305 BCE, he openly became pharaoh
    of the newly independent Egyptian kingdom
  • The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt until the death
    of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE
  • All of his male descendents took the name Ptolemy

78
Ptolemaic Egypt
  • The first 80 years of the Ptolemaic dynasty were
    very prosperous
  • The Ptolemaic Era is characteristic of the
    Hellenistic era
  • The blend of Greek and non-Greek culture
    (Egyptian)
  • Alexandria became the capital of Egypt
  • Became an important cultural and intellectual
    city
  • Included the Alexandria museum and library
  • It replaced Athens as the center of scholarship
  • Kings embraced Egyptian life and culture
  • They built many temples for the Egyptian gods
  • They also took on the persona of pharaoh in their
    dress and mannerisms

79
Ptolemaic Egypt
  • At the same time, the kings also retained much of
    the Greek life
  • Alexandria was fashioned in the Greek style
  • The kings also held Greek festivals
  • The Egyptian Greeks had special privileges
  • Subject to Greek laws
  • Considered Greek citizens
  • Received a Greek education
  • The Egyptians were not allowed into the Greek
    society
  • From 222 to 30 BCE, the Ptolemaic dynasty went
    into decline because of corruption and inept
    rulers

80
  • Seleucus
  • (358-281 BCE)

81
Seleucid Asia
  • Seleucus (c.358-281 BCE)
  • He was a low ranking officer under Alexander
  • One of the officers who killed Perdiccas in Egypt
  • In 321 BCE, he was appointed satrap of Babylon
  • This was a reward for betraying Perdiccas
  • Unfortunately, he would not hold on to this
  • In 316, he was forced to flee to Egypt during the
    Second War of the Diadochi
  • From 316-312 BCE, he allied with Ptolemy
  • From 311-302 BCE, he worked to reclaim the
    eastern part of the empire for himself

82
Seleucid Asia
  • Seleucus I Nicator (305-385 BCE)
  • In 305 BCE, he named himself king
  • By 281 BCE, he had control of all of Alexanders
    former empire in Asia
  • He found it very difficult to control the eastern
    territories
  • He settled a peace agreement with the Indians
  • He returned their territories east of the Indus
    River for peace and some war elephants
  • He planned to invade Macedonia and Greece
  • He was assassinated by the King of Macedonia
    Ptolemy Keraunos in 281 BCE
  • Seleucids successors had troubles holding the
    empire
  • In 262 BCE, they lost control of the western half
    of Asia Minor
  • In 255 BCE, they lost Bactria

83
Seleucid Asia
  • Still, it continued to be a strong and very
    wealthy kingdom
  • Fusion of Greek and non-Greek cultures (Persian)
  • Antiochus I, Seleucus son, was half-Persian
  • In the west, the population was heavily Greek
  • In the east, it was more Persian
  • Government and new cities were Greek in nature
  • This attracted Greeks to the kingdom
  • Became thriving trade centers which brought
    wealth to the Seleucid dynasty
  • The Seleucid Empire lasted until 63 BCE

84
  • Epicurus
  • (341-270 BCE)

85
Hellenistic Philosophy
  • Hellenistic philosophy began after the death of
    Aristotle
  • Athens remained the center of philosophy
  • Focus was now on more individualistic goals
  • Three main schools dominated
  • Epicureans
  • Stoics
  • Skeptics
  • Both Epicureanism and Stoicism sought ataraxia,
    or peace of mind
  • However the methods were very different

86
Epicureanism
  • Epicurus (341-270 BCE)
  • He founded his school, The Garden, in Athens
  • He allowed women and slaves to attend
  • Work was based on Democritus (c.460c.370 BCE)
  • A pre-Socratic philosopher
  • Theory of atomism - the universe is made up of
    small indestructible, invisible atoms
  • Epicurus believed that every person is a
    fortuitous blending of atoms with no ultimate
    purpose
  • The gods played no role in this whatsoever
  • If there is no ultimate purpose to life, the
    highest good would be the pursuit of pleasure

87
Epicureanism
  • Pleasure included
  • Pleasure in the physical sense, but in moderation
  • Pleasure of the mind, serenity of the soul,
    specifically freedom from anxiety and pain
  • All that is good comes from pleasure, all that is
    bad comes from pain
  • He saw this as the basis of all moral distinction
  • How to be happy?
  • Center our lives around friendship
  • Avoid politics (it tends to lead to pain)
  • Overall, live wisely and enjoy life
  • Included not pursuing power or wealth (it will
    bring pain)

88
  • Zeno of Citium
  • (335-263 BCE)

89
Stoicism
  • Zeno (335-263 BCE)
  • He lectured from the Painted Portico (Stoa
    Poikile) in Athens
  • He believed that the cosmos was ordered
  • Accepting ones fate is the best path to
    happiness
  • Includes the knowledge that order is good
  • With this comes the serenity of the mind
  • Sought to achieve apatheia or absence of passion
  • Use rational judgment to clear their minds of
    passions (emotional problems)
  • Done through concentration, reflection, and the
    study of logic
  • By mastering these methods one could achieve
    inner peace
  • Encouraged participation in government (exercise
    ones mind)

90
Skepticism
  • Carneades (c.214c.129)
  • If our senses are inaccurate, then all of our
    knowledge must be false
  • There are absolute truths but humans do not have
    the capabilities to discover those truths
  • We can give impressions of what something is but
    we cannot know what they really are
  • This means we cannot know what is right or wrong,
    what the supernatural consists of, or what the
    meaning of life is
  • Happiness is found by suspending judgment
  • This includes ending the pursuit of discovering
    what truth is
  • No more arguments about what is right or wrong

91
  • Carneades
  • (c.214c.129)

92
Hellenistic Religion
  • Greeks brought their religion to the Hellenistic
    kingdoms
  • It was based on ritual
  • Over time lost their popularity
  • In its place, there was a rise in religious cults
  • More personal compared to the civic-based Greek
    religion
  • Found mainly in the eastern part of the kingdoms
  • The mystery cults rose in popularity during this
    period
  • They had secret initiations and rites
  • Believed in a path to salvation and eternal life
    based on a union with god or goddess who had died
    and been reborn
  • Usually included highly emotional experiences and
    elaborate rituals

93
  • Dionysus

94
Cults of Isis and Dionysus
  • Cult of Isis was one of the more popular mystery
    cults
  • Isis was the one who brought Osiris back from the
    dead
  • It was also believed she was the one who brought
    law and letters to mankind
  • Very powerful cult in Egypt and became very
    popular in Greek circles
  • Cult of Dionysus
  • Based on the Greek god Dionysus
  • Every year at winter, the Titans would kill
    Dionysus by tearing him to pieces
  • He would then be reborn each spring
  • Cult members would become heavily intoxicated,
    partake in orgies, and supposedly tore at the
    flesh of animals to relive Dionysus death

95
  • Mithras slaying the bull

96
Cult of Mithras
  • Cult of Mithras
  • Based in Zoroastrianism
  • According to tradition, he was born of a virgin
    mother at the winter solstice
  • His birth signifies the rebirth of the sun at the
    winter solstice
  • He was born in a cave where he was attended to by
    shepherds and given gifts
  • He kills a bull and from the bull springs forth
    life by bringing wine and food to mankind
  • In the cult, part of the initiation includes
    killing a bull
  • Membership was limited to men only
  • Very popular during the Roman era as well

97
  • Aristarchus of Samos
  • (c.310-230 BCE)

98
Golden Age of Science
  • During the Hellenistic period, science and
    philosophy began to separate into two schools of
    thought
  • Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-230 BCE)
  • He developed the heliocentric view of the
    universe
  • However, most scientists at this time still
    believed in the geocentric view
  • Argued that the earth rotates on its own axis
  • Eratosthenes (c.275-194 BCE)
  • He stated that the earth was round
  • Calculated the earths circumference within 200
    miles of the actual number using sundials

99
Golden Age of Science
  • Euclid (c. 300 BCE)
  • Mathematician
  • Elements laid out the fundamental elements of
    geometry and became a standard text until modern
    times
  • Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BCE)
  • Known for his geometric work on spheres and
    cylinders
  • Established the mathematical constant Pi
  • Created the science of hydrostatics
  • Discovered specific gravity

100
Golden Age of Medicine
  • Also during this time period considerable strides
    were made in the science of medicine
  • Many physicians began using dissection and
    vivisection to expand their knowledge
  • Most of the medical advances made were done in
    Alexandria where one of the greatest medical
    schools was founded
  • Hippocrates (c. 460- c.370 BCE)
  • The father of medicine
  • He believed that the body consisted of four
    humors (blood, black bile, yellow bile, and
    phlegm)
  • Illness was due to an imbalance in the humors

101
Golden Age of Medicine
  • Herophilus of Chalcedon (c.335-c.280 BCE)
  • One of the first to practice human dissection
  • He had a detailed description of the brain and
    believed it to be the seat of human intelligence
  • Discovered that arteries functioned to move blood
    from the heart to different parts of the body
  • Erasistratus of Ceos (310-250 BCE)
  • Made many of his discoveries using vivisection
  • He is known for his cardiovascular work
  • Stated that the heart was not the center of the
    nervous system but rather acted as a pump
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