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Title: Jonah

  • The prophet that hated his message

Judah Prophets Israel
931 BC Rehoboam Jeroboam
Abijah Nadab
900 BC Asa Baasha
850 BC Jehoshaphat Elijah Zimri, Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah, Joram
800 BC Jehoram, Ahaziah, Queen Athaliah, Joash Elisha Jonah Amos Johoahaz, Johoash, Jeroboam II
750 BC Amaziah, Uzziah, Ahaz Hosea Micah Isaiah Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah
722 BC Hezekiah Isaiah Pekah, Hoshea
  • Prophet to the enemy
  • Go to Nineveh, that great city, and speak out
    against it I am aware of how wicked its people
    are. Jonah, however, set out in the opposite
    direction in order to get away from the LORD.
    (Jonah 12,3)

(No Transcript)
  • But the LORD sent a strong wind on the sea, and
    the storm was so violent that the ship was in
    danger of breaking up. The sailors were terrified
    and cried out for help, each one to his own god.
    Then, in order to lessen the danger, they threw
    the cargo overboard. Meanwhile, Jonah had gone
    below and was lying in the ship's hold, sound
    asleep. The captain found him there and said to
    him, What are you doing asleep? Get up and pray
    to your god for help. Maybe he will feel sorry
    for us and spare our lives. The sailors said to
    each other, Let's draw lots and find out who is
    to blame for getting us into this danger. They
    did so, and Jonah's name was drawn. So they said
    to him, Now, then, tell us! Who is to blame for
    this? What are you doing here? What country do
    you come from? What is your nationality? (Jonah

  • I am a Hebrew, Jonah answered. I worship the
    LORD, the God of heaven, who made land and sea.
    Jonah went on to tell them that he was running
    away from the LORD. The sailors were terrified,
    and said to him, That was an awful thing to do!
    The storm was getting worse all the time, so the
    sailors asked him, What should we do to you to
    stop the storm? Jonah answered, Throw me into
    the sea, and it will calm down. I know it is my
    fault that you are caught in this violent
    storm. (Jonah 19-12)

  • At the LORDs command a large fish swallowed
    Jonah, and he was inside the fish for three days
    and three nights. (Jonah 117)
  • In the same way that Jonah spent three days and
    nights in the big fish, so will the Son of Man
    spend three days and nights in the depths of the
    earth. (Matthew 1240)

Inclusive Reckoning of Time
  • Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah (A.D. 100) "A day and
    a night are an Onah a portion of time and the
    portion of an Onah is as the whole of it."
  • Jesus answered them, Go and tell that fox 'I
    am driving out demons and performing cures today
    and tomorrow, and on the third day I shall finish
    my work. (Luke 1332)

  • Go, gather all the Jews to be found in Susa, and
    hold a fast on my behalf, and neither eat nor
    drink for three days, night or day. I and my
    maids will also fast as you do. Then I will go to
    the King (Esther 416)
  • Esther went before the king "on the third day"
    (Esther 51)

  • What better heralding, as a divinely sent
    messenger to Nineveh, could Jonah have had, than
    to be thrown up out of the mouth of a great fish,
    in the presence of witnesses, and on the coast of
    Phoenicia, where the fish-god was a favorite
    object of worship? (H. Clay Trumbull, Jonah in
    Nineveh. Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 2,
    No. 1, 1892, p. 56)

  • Such an incident would have inevitably aroused
    the mercurial nature of Oriental observers, so
    that a multitude would be ready to follow the
    seemingly new avatar of the fish-god, proclaiming
    the story of his uprising from the sea, as he
    went on his mission to the city where the
    fish-god had its very centre of worship. (H.
    Clay Trumbull, Jonah in Nineveh. Journal of
    Biblical Literature, Vol. 2, No.1, 1892, p. 56)

The Sign of Jonah
  • Then some teachers of the Law and some Pharisees
    spoke up. "Teacher," they said, "we want to see
    you perform a miracle." "How evil and godless are
    the people of this day!" Jesus exclaimed. "You
    ask me for a miracle? No! The only miracle you
    will be given is the miracle of the prophet
    Jonah. In the same way that Jonah spent three
    days and nights in the big fish, so will the Son
    of Man spend three days and nights in the depths
    of the earth. On the Judgment Day the people of
    Nineveh will stand up and accuse you, because
    they turned from their sins when they heard Jonah
    preach and I tell you that there is something
    here greater than Jonah! (Matthew 1238-41)

  • As the people crowded around Jesus, he went on to
    say, "How evil are the people of this day! They
    ask for a miracle, but none will be given them
    except the miracle of Jonah. In the same way that
    the prophet Jonah was a sign for the people of
    Nineveh, so the Son of Man will be a sign for the
    people of this day. (Luke 1129-30 GNB)

Similarities between Jesus and Jonah
  • Voluntarily entered the depths of the sea/grave
    in order to save others
  • 3 days and 3 nights in the sea/grave

Similarities between Jesus and Jonah
  • From deep inside the fish Jonah prayed to the
    LORD his God "In my distress, O LORD, I called
    to you, and you answered me. From deep in the
    world of the dead (the belly of Sheol, hell) I
    cried for help, and you heard me. You threw me
    down into the depths, to the very bottom of the
    sea, where the waters were all around me, and all
    your mighty waves rolled over me. I thought I had
    been banished from your presence and would never
    see your holy Temple again. (Jonah 21-4)

Similarities between Jesus and Jonah
  • Resurrection from the sea/grave led to a great
  • Jonah In forty days, Nineveh will be destroyed
  • Jesus During the forty days after His
    crucifixion, He appeared to the apostles from
    time to time, and He proved to them in many ways
    that He was actually alive. And He talked to them
    about the Kingdom of God. (Acts 13)

  • Then the LORD ordered the fish to spit Jonah up
    on the beach, and it did. (Jonah 210)
  • Once again the LORD spoke to Jonah. He said, Go
    to Nineveh, that great city, and proclaim to the
    people the message I have given you. So Jonah
    obeyed the LORD and went to Nineveh, a city so
    large that it took three days to walk through it.
    Jonah started through the city, and after walking
    a whole day, he proclaimed, In forty days
    Nineveh will be destroyed! The people of Nineveh
    believed Gods message. So they decided that
    everyone should fast, and all the people, from
    the greatest to the least, put on sackcloth to
    show that they had repented. (Jonah 31-4)

  • When the king of Nineveh heard about it, he got
    up from his throne, took off his robe, put on
    sackcloth, and sat down in ashes. He sent out a
    proclamation to the people of Nineveh This is
    an order from the king and his officials No one
    is to eat anything all persons, cattle, and
    sheep are forbidden to eat or drink. All persons
    and animals must wear sackcloth. Everyone must
    pray earnestly to God and must give up their
    wicked behavior and their evil actions. Perhaps
    God will change his mind perhaps he will stop
    being angry, and we will not die! God saw what
    they did he saw that they had given up their
    wicked behavior. So he changed his mind and did
    not punish them as he had said he would. (Jonah

God changes his mind?
  • God is not like people, who lie He is not a
    human who changes his mind. Whatever he promises,
    he does He speaks, and it is done. (Numbers
    2319 GN)
  • Israels majestic God does not lie or change
    his mind. He is not a human being---he does not
    change his mind. (1 Samuel 1529 GN)
  • Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and
    forever (Hebrews 138 GN)
  • All generous giving and every perfect gift is
    from above, coming down from the Father of
    lights, with whom there is no variation or the
    slightest hint of change. (James 117 NET)
  • For I am the LORD, I change not (Malachi 36

God changes his mind?
  • Expressions to be taken literally?
  • Adam and Eve where are you?
  • The rainbow when the rainbow appears, I will
  • Tower of Babel But the LORD came down to look
    at the city and the tower the people were
    building. (Genesis 115)

  • Then the LORD said to Abraham, "There are
    terrible accusations against Sodom and Gomorrah,
    and their sin is very great. I must go down to
    find out whether or not the accusations which I
    have heard are true." (Genesis 1820-21)

  • In Hinnom Valley they have built an altar called
    Topheth, so that they can sacrifice their sons
    and daughters in the fire. I did not command them
    to do this---it did not even enter my mind.
    (Jeremiah 731)

  • He changes his mind?
  • Worship of the golden calf So the LORD changed
    his mind and did not bring on his people the
    disaster he had threatened (Exodus 3214)

  • The Lord replied, Did I not rescue you from the
    Egyptians, the Amorites, the Ammonites, the
    Philistines, the Sidonians, the Amalekites, and
    the Maonites? When they oppressed you, you cried
    out to me, and I rescued you. Yet you have
    abandoned me and served other gods. So I will not
    rescue you anymore. Go and cry out to the gods
    you have chosen! Let them rescue you in your hour
    of distress!
  • But the Israelites pleaded with the Lord and
    said, We have sinned. Punish us as you see fit,
    only rescue us today from our enemies. Then the
    Israelites put aside their foreign gods and
    served the Lord. And he was grieved by their
    misery (Judges 106-16 NLT)

God changes his mind?
  • Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and
    forever (Hebrews 138 GN)
  • All generous giving and every perfect gift is
    from above, coming down from the Father of
    lights, with whom there is no variation or the
    slightest hint of change. (James 117 NET)
  • For I am the LORD, I change not (Malachi 36
  • Gods character is a constant that never changes

God changes his mind?
  • Adam and Eve where are you?
  • The rainbow
  • Sodom and Gomorrah
  • Worship of the golden calf So the LORD changed
    his mind and did not bring on his people the
    disaster he had threatened (Exodus 3214 GN)
  • Child sacrifice it did not even enter my mind
    (Jeremiah 731 GN)
  • Jonah So he changed his mind

  • Jonah was furious. He lost his temper. He yelled
    at God, God! I knew itwhen I was back home, I
    knew this was going to happen! Thats why I ran
    off to Tarshish! I knew you were sheer grace and
    mercy, not easily angered, rich in love, and
    ready at the drop of a hat to turn your plans of
    punishment into a program of forgiveness! So,
    God, if you wont kill them, kill me! Im better
    off dead! (Jonah 41-3 The Message)

  • The LORD answered, What right do you have to be
    angry? Jonah went out east of the city and sat
    down. He made a shelter for himself and sat in
    its shade, waiting to see what would happen to
    Nineveh. Then the LORD God made a plant grow up
    over Jonah to give him some shade, so that he
    would be more comfortable. Jonah was extremely
    pleased with the plant. But at dawn the next day,
    at Gods command, a worm attacked the plant, and
    it died. After the sun had risen, God sent a hot
    east wind, and Jonah was about to faint from the
    heat of the sun beating down on his head. So he
    wished he were dead. I am better off dead than
    alive, he said.

  • But God said to him, What right do you have to
    be angry about the plant? Jonah replied, I have
    every right to be angry---angry enough to die!
    The LORD said to him, This plant grew up in one
    night and disappeared the next you didnt do
    anything for it and you didnt make it grow---yet
    you feel sorry for it! How much more, then,
    should I have pity on Nineveh, that great city.
    After all, it has more than 120,000 innocent
    children in it, as well as many animals! (Jonah
    44-11 GN)

  • So, why can't I likewise change what I feel
    about Nineveh from anger to pleasure, this big
    city of more than a hundred and twenty thousand
    childlike people who don't yet know right from
    wrong, to say nothing of all the innocent
    animals? (Jonah 411 The Message)

  • Large city, 120,000 children, animals
  • had it been destroyed
  • Great happiness for Jonah
  • Small shade plant
  • It was destroyed
  • Great anger and depression for Jonah

Differences between Jonah and Jesus
  • Jonah desired for the destruction of his enemies
  • Jesus desired the redemption of his enemies

  • You are a kind and merciful God, and you are
    very patient. You always show love, and you dont
    like to punish anyone, not even foreigners.
    (Jonah 4.2)

  • "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an
    eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' But now I tell
    you do not take revenge on someone who wrongs
    you. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, let
    him slap your left cheek too. And if someone
    takes you to court to sue you for your shirt, let
    him have your coat as well. And if one of the
    occupation troops forces you to carry his pack
    one mile, carry it two miles. When someone asks
    you for something, give it to him when someone
    wants to borrow something, lend it to him. "You
    have heard that it was said, 'Love your friends,
    hate your enemies.'

  • But now I tell you love your enemies and pray
    for those who persecute you, so that you may
    become the children of your Father in heaven. For
    he makes his sun to shine on bad and good people
    alike, and gives rain to those who do good and to
    those who do evil. Why should God reward you if
    you love only the people who love you? Even the
    tax collectors do that! And if you speak only to
    your friends, have you done anything out of the
    ordinary? Even the pagans do that! You must be
    perfect---just as your Father in heaven is
    perfect. (Matthew 538-48)
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