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Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II 1929-1945


Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II 1929-1945 Section 1: Texas and the Great Depression Section 2: Texans Look for a New Deal – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II 1929-1945

Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal,
and World War II1929-1945
  • Section 1 Texas and the Great Depression
  • Section 2 Texans Look for a New Deal
  • Section 3 World War II Brings Change to Texas
  • Pages 474-493

Section 1Texans Go To War
  • Objectives
  • Identify and describe the Great Depression
  • Analyze the impact of national and international
    events on the production of goods and services in
  • Analyze the effects of physical and human factors
    on Texas during the Great Depression
  • Terms/Names
  • Stock, stockholder, speculate, crash, Black
    Tuesday, Great Depression, Herbert Hoover,
    unemployment rate, Dust Bowl

Section 1 Summary
  • The stock market crashed in 1929.
  • Affected the whole US (including Texas)
  • This time in history is known as the Great
  • During this time, many people were out of work
    and they needed help

Dark Days of October
From Boom to Bust (3 slides)
  • 1920s were good time for US businesses but not
  • Crop prices fell
  • Banks went out of business because farmers could
    not pay debts
  • Other businesses that didnt do well
  • Railroads
  • Coal Mines
  • Textile Industries

From Boom to Bust, cont
  • In 1920s, many people invested in the Stock
  • Companies sell stock (shares in their companies)
    to raise money and grow
  • Stock ownership in a corporation, usually
    divided into shares
  • If the company does well, the stockholders get
    their money back from their investmentsusually
    make more money
  • Stockholder owner of the stock

From Boom to Bust, cont
  • In 1920s, people began to speculate on the stock
    marketthey risked their money hoping that prices
    would rise quicklythen they would sell the stock
    and make a quick profit
  • Speculate to buy or sell stock in hopes of
    making money from changes in the stock market
  • Other people used credit to buy stock they really
    couldnt afford (buying on margin)
  • For a few years, rising prices as companies grew
    made a lot of people rich
  • But, then the Stock Market crashed (October,
  • Crash a sudden decline or failure

The Stock Market Crash of 1929 (2 slides)
  • Thursday, October 24, 1929
  • Stock holders sold a lot of stock (13 million
    shares).Prices fell
  • Friday, October 25-Saturday, October 26, 1929
  • To balance the falling prices, banks bought
    stocksprices fell again
  • Monday, October 28
  • Prices fell again
  • Tuesday, October 29, 1929
  • Stock holders sold more stocktrying to not lose
    any more money (16 million shares)
  • So much money was lost on this daybecame known
    as Black Tuesday

Stock Market Crash, cont
  • After Black Tuesday, stock prices kept falling
    and people/banks lost 26 billion dollars
  • Prices of stock were lower than people bought
    them forno way to make money on them
  • People couldnt pay debts
  • Banks ran out of moneypeople lost all money they
    had in banks
  • Factories, stores, businesses closed
  • People lost jobs

The Great Depression (2 slides)
  • Lasted from 1929-beginning of WWII longest and
    worst economic depression in US history
  • People lost homes and farms
  • About ¼ of US workers didnt have jobs
  • At first, Texas was not as bad off as other parts
    of the country not as many Texans had invested
    in the stock market, still more farmers, etc
  • Unemployment Rate wasnt as high in Texas as in
    the North
  • Unemployment Rate the percentage of people who
    are out of work

The Great Depression, cont
  • But as depression years continued, Texans
    couldnt sell as much cottonprices dropped and
    less demand
  • By 1933, many Texas businesses closed and many
    Texans were out of work

Images of Depression
Cities Try to Help Texans Cope
  • People ran out of money
  • State couldnt help much
  • So, city governments and civic organizations
    stepped in to help
  • In Dallas/Ft. Worthcity chambers of commerce
    sponsored gardening projects to help people grow
  • Some cities had plays/musicals to help raise
  • Some city governments paid Texans to build parks,
    buildings, clean up cities, work on streets and
    sewers, etc
  • Some cities allowed homeless Texans to live in
    public buildings
  • But eventually even money for these type of
    things ran out

Drought and Dust Torment Rural Texans (2 slides)
  • Bad draught hit Great Plains area of US in mid
    1930s (around1935)
  • Since the farmers couldnt grow crops, the fields
    were just dirt
  • Then, the wind began to blow and dust covered
    everything call black blizzards
  • So strong it blast the paint off cars
  • Blocked sunlight for hours
  • Killed animals and damaged peoples eyes and

Drought and Dust, cont
  • Between 1935-1937, things were so bad in Texas
    Panhandle that 1/3 of farm families leftsame
    thing going on in OK, KS, CO, NM
  • This region became known as the Dust Bowl

America Dust and Depression
Dust Bowl Years
The Dust Bowl
Women and Minorities Face Hard Times (2 slides)
  • Depression years were especially hard on women,
    African Americans, and Hispanics
  • Minorities fired to free up job for white person
  • Women teachers were fired if husband had job
  • White men had priority on jobs
  • Many African American men/families were homeless

Women/Minorities, cont
  • So, many African Americans joined the Democratic
    Party and the NAACPthis group worked to end
  • Hispanics were denied monetary help
  • They ended up leaving Texas
  • In 1929, LULAC was formed (League of United Latin
    American Citizens)
  • Helped Hispanics in Texas and helped to end

Minorities During the Depression
Section 2Texans Look for a New Deal
  • Objectives
  • Analyze how New Deal reforms affected Texas
  • Identify the leadership qualities of governors of
    Texas during the 1930s
  • Explain how the Centennial Exposition of 1936
    reflected the wide variety of people who lived in
  • Terms/Names
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt, John Nance Garner, New
    Deal, Sam Rayburn, WPA, NYA, CCC, AAA, Ma
    Ferguson, James Allred, centennial

Section 2Summary
  • After the Great Depression, President Roosevelts
    New Deal provided jobs, etc
  • But, the economy was slow to recover
  • To cheer up the Texans, the state threw a giant
    party to celebrate the Texas centennial

Roosevelt Offers a New Deal (2 slides)
  • In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt (democrat) was
    elected president of US (defeated republican
    Herbert Hoover)
  • VP was John Nance Garner
  • nicknamed Cactus Jack from Texas
  • President Roosevelt promised Americans that
    better days were coming (that Depression would
  • Campaign Song Happy Days are Here Again

New Deal, cont
  • Roosevelt passed new laws and created new
  • To create jobs and improve the economy
  • Program was called the New Deal
  • Famous Texans during these years
  • Sam Rayburn US Congressman
  • Helped pass laws that outlawed the actions that
    led to Great Depression
  • Jesse Jones
  • Directed Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    which gave money to banks and corporations to get
    business started again
  • Created the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance
  • Insures the money that people deposit into
    banksso people wont lose money if banks fail

Programs Put Texans to Work
  • 2 New Deal Programs helped Texans
  • WPA Works Progress Administration
  • PWA Public Works Administration
  • Gave people jobs building buildingsschools, post
    offices, hospitals, etc
  • Gave writers, musicians, and artists jobs
  • Texans worked for these agencies from 1935-1943
  • Built River Walk in San Antonio
  • Built San Jacinto Monument
  • Built dams on lakes
  • Wrote travel guides, performed plays, painted
    murals, etc

Providing Jobs for Youth
  • NYA National Youth Administration
  • Supported by Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Gave jobs to young people aged 16-25
  • Worked in offices, libraries, schools
  • Built playgrounds and roadside parks
  • CCC Civilian Conservation Corps
  • Young people worked from 1933-1942
  • Earned 30.00/month
  • Built dams, state parks, helped to fight floods
    if needed, helped preserve farmland, etc

Helping Farmers
  • New Deal programs helped farmers
  • Programs to help soil conservation programs
  • AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration
  • Paid farmers to plant fewer acres of
    cropsproduced less/prices went up
  • Soil Conservation Service, AAA, CCC
  • Taught farmers how to keep soil from blowing away
  • Helped farmers plant trees
  • Helped create ponds/reservoirs to collect water

Ma Ferguson Returns
  • Regardless of New Deal programs, things were
    still tough in Texas
  • In 1932, Ma Ferguson elected again for governor
    (replaced Governor Ross Sterling)
  • Cut state spending
  • Cut taxes on many things except for oil tax
  • She also did some corrupt things
  • Gave federal relief funds to friends/political
  • Fired some of the Texas Rangersreplaced them
    with some of her friends/supporters

An Era of Lawlessness
  • Crime nationwide increased during Depression
  • In Texaslots of killing and crime
  • George Machine Gun Kelly
  • Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow
  • Texas Rangers tracked them down
  • Killed by lawman Frank Hamer
  • 1934, Texas elected new governor tired of
    corrupt ways of Ma Ferguson
  • James V. Allred
  • Created Department of Public Safety
  • Created Texas Employment Commission

Texas Celebrates Its Centennial
  • 1936 Texas celebrated 100 years (Centennial) of
    freedom from Mexico
  • Centennial one-hundredth anniversary
  • Wanted a big celebration
  • Built Fair Park in Dallas for 25 million
  • Housed 50 buildings
  • Cavalcade of Texas (showed 4 centuries of life in
  • Hall of Negro Life
  • Called Texas Centennial Exposition
  • Site of first Worlds Fair in the Southwest
  • Construction provided jobs for many Texans

Section 3World War II Brings Changes to Texas
  • Objectives
  • Describe the contributions of Texans during World
    War II
  • Analyze the economic impact of World War II on
  • Analyze the social impact of World War II on
  • Terms/Names
  • Doris Miller, Dwight D. Eisenhower, valor,
    Chester W. Nimitz, Oveta Culp Hobby,
    Congressional Medal of Honor, Audie Murphy

Section 3 Summary
  • The end of the Great Depression happened when the
    government started spending more money during
    World War II
  • Many Texans contributed in many ways during the
    waron the battlefield and at home
  • When World War II started, the Great Depression

The World at War Again (3 slides)
  • Great Depression affected other countries as well
    as the US
  • In some countries, dictators rose up and said
    they could make life better
  • Once they were in power, they started attacking
    other countries
  • This started World War II
  • World War II 1939-1945
  • US entered into World War II 1941

The World at War Again, cont
  • Allies
  • Great Britain, France, Soviet Union
  • Axis
  • Germany, Italy, Japan
  • US entered war when Japan dropped bomb on Pearl
    Harbor on December 7,1941
  • US sided with the Allies
  • US declared war on Japan first then added Germany
    and Italy a few days later

The World at War Again, cont
  • 750, 000 Texans served in World War II
  • Including 12, 000 women
  • Demand for goods for the war helped Texas
  • Dallas/Ft. Worth built airplanes
  • Texas Gulf Coast towns launched warships and
    cargo vessels
  • Texas oil helped with fuel

The War Effort in Texas (2 slides)
  • Texas trained many soldiers
  • Had 15 major military bases
  • Had 40 airfields
  • Naval flight training base in Corpus Christi was
    largest in world
  • Texas had prisoner-of-war camps
  • 50, 000 prisoners-of-war
  • Prisoners worked on farms and military bases to
    help Allies

The War Effort in Texas, cont
  • Texans sacrificed with food
  • They planted Victory Gardens
  • They bought war bonds
  • They collected scrap iron and old tires
  • Women worked while men were at war
  • See Women in the Workforce on p. 489

A Bounty of Texas Heroes (3 slides)
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Born in Texas lived most of life in Denison, TX
  • Supreme Allied Commander General
  • Planned D-Day into Normandy, France in 1944
  • Accepted Germanys surrender in 1945
  • Elected presidentmainly due to his valor during
    the war
  • Valor personal bravery

Bounty of Texas Heroes, cont
  • Admiral Chester W. Nimitz
  • Commander of Pacific Fleet
  • Turned back Japanese navy
  • Was present when Japanese surrendered about the
    USS Missouri on September 2, 1945
  • Oveta Culp Hobby
  • Wife of former Texas Governor, William Hobby
  • Colonel of Womens Army Corp (WAC)
  • Joined Navy, Coast Guard, and Marines
  • Served as Womens Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)
  • Provided air support for Allies

Dwight Eisenhower
Chester Nimitz
Oveta Culp Hobby
Bounty of Texas Heroes, cont
  • 22,000 Texans died in World War II
  • Many Texans received medals and commendations for
  • 30 Texans received the Congressional Medal of
    Honor highest award given for bravery beyond
    call of duty
  • Johnnie Hutchins (US Navy)
  • Saved ship from a torpedo
  • Steered ship out of torpedos pathdied holding
    on the wheel of the ship
  • Had a ship named after him

Diverse Groups Unite in the War Effort
  • Minority Texans received honors
  • 5 Medal of Honor recipients were Hispanic
  • An Hispanic doctor, Dr. Hector Garcia, received
    the Bronze Star and 6 battle stars
  • African Americans won medals
  • Doris Miller (a man)
  • Awarded the Navy Cross
  • Manned a machine gun at Pearl Harbor and KIA
  • Navy named a ship after him
  • Cuba Gooding, Jr. played Miller in the 2001
    movie, Pearl Harbor
  • Leonard Harmon
  • Died while protecting a wounded ship mate
  • Awarded the Navy Cross
  • In 1943, was first African American to have a
    ship named after himthe USS Harmon

Congressional Medal of Honor US Army
Doris Miller
Johnnie Hutchins
Audie Murphy
  • Most decorated soldier in war
  • US Army
  • Received 33 awards
  • Received every US medal for valor
  • Received the Medal of Honor
  • During a battle in France, he jumped into a
    burning tanker ship, took control of the ships
    guns, and killed or wounded 50 enemy soldiers,
    stopped an enemy tank
  • From Farmersville, TX
  • 35 miles northeast of Dallas
  • Became an actor

Texas After the War
  • World War II ended in 1945
  • US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Serving his 4th term
  • He died in office
  • VP Harry Truman took over as President
  • Texas made the gradual change from a rural state
    to an urban state
  • More sophisticated
  • More dependent on industry and not as much on
  • African Americans, Hispanics, and women were
    determined to have equal rights

Picture Sources
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