Chp.1: What is HCI? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Chp.1: What is HCI? PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7bb34b-OGE4M


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Chp.1: What is HCI?


study of interaction between humans & computer a methodology for: modeling the human (e.g., perception, behavior) examining usability of computer programs, devices ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:41
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: Andrew1655
Tags: hci | chp | icons


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chp.1: What is HCI?

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • study of interaction between humans computer
  • a methodology for
  • modeling the human (e.g., perception, behavior)
  • examining usability of computer programs,
    devices, techniques (in general doesnt have to
    be just computers, applies to anything man-made
    that humans use, e.g., cars, light switches,
    kettles, etc.)
  • most imporantly HCI leads to DESIGN of interface
  • past contributions physical devices (mouse,
    HMD), code (GUI toolkits, window managers)

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • All about design - in the context of Computer
    Science, design of interface to back-end
  • Interface
  • graphical (GUI)
  • command-line (CLI)
  • web-based
  • VR, etc.
  • Back-end
  • Operating System (O/S)
  • dB
  • web site
  • spreadsheet
  • calculator
  • word processor
  • air traffic control display
  • flight simulator
  • nuclear plant
  • automobile displays
  • etc.

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Computer interaction
  • almost ubiquitous (everywhere) chances are in
    whatever device you use, theres a chip in there
  • e.g., typical day
  • get up, press snooze on alarm clock (whats the
    interface on the clock?)
  • drive to work (car interface)
  • stop by ATM (ATM screen)
  • after work, shopping (scanners at store)
  • at home, eat dinner (microwave, stove)
  • watch TV/DVD/VCR (various ent. devices)
  • Interface design applies to all these computer
    interface is more obvious in some than in other

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Why bother with interface design?
  • increasing productivity
  • e.g., in the workforce employees with a better
    word processor will be more productive
  • safety critical systems with poor interface may
    endanger lives
  • e.g., ATC, operating room, nuclear plant
  • commerce a good interface may sell a product
  • e.g., todays hot items MP3 players, digital
    cameras, DVD players, etc.
  • Key point users shouldnt have to think (much)
    about intricacies of interface to use the tool
  • e.g., ATM walk up to it, withdraw cash (fairly
    easy to use)

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Key principles of interface design
  • visibility controls should be visible (e.g.,
    volume control on an MP3 player)
  • affordance controls should map to their
    function, I.e., it should be obvious what each
    control (button, slider, etc.) does.
  • controls should be intuitive, e.g., volume
    control use a vertical slider (up loud)
  • feedback device should give user indication of
    its state (e.g., phone dial tone ready, busy
    signal, flashing light message or on hold)

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,

Fig.1 salt / pepper shakers which is which?
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,

Fig.2 which knob controls which burner?
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,

Fig.3 can I set the freezer / fridge temperature
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • When designing a computer program
  • think what capabilities program should have
  • how is a user going to access those functions
  • More formally,
  • HCI is a discipline concerned with the design,
    evaluation, and implementation of interactive
    computing systems for human use and with the
    study of major phenomena surrounding them
  • NOT just the creation of user-friendly programs
  • Need to understand human processes (cognition,
    perception) and interaction protocol between
    human and computer

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • HCI challenges
  • continuous technological development, e.g.
  • better / faster machines
  • new languages, applications (web, internet, VR,
    multimedia, imaging, graphics, etc.)
  • two concerns
  • keep abrest of technology (e.g., SIGCHI)
  • marry good HCI with effective use of technology
    (I.e., make sure both are good the back-end
    program works and the interface is good)

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • HCI Goals
  • production of usable, safe, and functional
  • development or improvement of systems (including
    computing systems), with respect to
  • safety
  • utility (functionality, what system does)
  • effectiveness (is it good at what it does)
  • efficiency (in case of programming, speed, memory
    utlization, etc.)
  • usability (key concept in HCI make system easy
    to learn and use)
  • system consider complete environment, not just
    hardware or software, but people

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of not very usable systems
  • complicated telephones
  • do you use all the features (e.g., multi-party
    conf. calls, call forwarding, call-waiting,
  • wristwatch
  • how often do you use its extended features
    (time zone, stopwatch, alarm, countdown timer,
  • Examples of very usable systems
  • scissors
  • intuitive how to use, mainly because it mostly
    has just one application

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Underlying HCI belief people come first a
    computer is just a tool, a means to accomplish
    some task, e.g.,
  • writing a paper
  • communicating with friends
  • designing a landscape
  • preparing income taxes
  • cataloging, organizaing, printing pictures
  • desinging roads, bridges, airplanes, cars, etc.
  • For good design, need knowledge of humans and
  • often need multi-disciplinary teams (e.g., Comp.
    Sci, Psychology, IE, Arts, etc.)

Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Evolution of HCI
  • 70s--80s psychologists interested in
    information-processing aspects of computer as
    analogy to mental processes (e.g., modeling brain
    as a computer, connectionist network, associative
    memory, etc.)
  • various HCI studies testing menus (depth vs.
    breadth), usability of single-user computer
  • 80s--90s examining more powerful PCs,
    workstations, communication (e.g. email),
    multimedia (e.g., imaging, visualization, data
    mining), VR (presence), group work (CSCW)

Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI three
landmark systems
  • Dynabook
  • Alan Kay, Xerox Parc
  • one of first laptops (book-sized PC)
  • Star
  • Xerox Parc
  • desk-sized system
  • high-res display, graphics, icons
  • mouse mapped to 2D desktop on screen
  • Apple Lisa
  • based to some extent on Dynabook Star
  • precursor to Macintosh
  • WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer
  • introduction of desktop metaphor
  • GUI, WYSIWYG word processor

Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI Main
  • All HCI takes place in social organizational
  • Application design is geared towards specific
    purposes, dividing tasks between human and
  • To adapt application to human, need to know
    something about human psychological and
    physiological abilities and limitations
  • human info processing limited attention, memory
  • language linguistics, verbal comm.
  • communication methods of, body language,
    emoticons, etc.
  • interaction human-to-human, e.g., turn-taking
  • ergonomics carple-tunnel syndrome, eye strain,

Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI Main
  • To create successful computer application, need
    to know something about capabilities and
    limitations of computer
  • input devices, e.g., keyboard, mouse, camera,
    microphone, sensors, etc.
  • output displays, graphics, sound, etc.
  • dialogue techniques, genre, style what how to
    communicate to user, e.g., state of system,
    output (visualizations, charts, numbers, etc.),
    what colors to use, animation speed, etc

Chp.1 What is HCI?Discussion
  • Can you think of examples of
  • very usable systems
  • not so usable systems (are there any devices that
    appear to be confusing to people)? How can they
    be improved?
  • Can you think of examples of
  • very usable computer programs
  • not so usable computer applications? How can
    they be improved?
  • ASSIGNMENT 1 collect at least 3 examples
    (pictures) of not so usable systems, e.g.,
    door, whatever, doesnt have to be computer

Chp1 Goals of System Engineering
  • Functionality
  • Reliability, availability, security, data
  • Standardization
  • common UI features (e.g., WIMP)
  • Integration
  • of multiple components/modules (libs)
  • Consistency
  • common action sequences (e.g., File-gtOpen)
  • Portability
  • e.g., Mac OS X, Linux, Windows

Chp.1 Goals of UI Design
  • Human factors central to evaluation
  • Learnability (time to learn)
  • Performance
  • Human error (rate of errors by users)
  • Retention (easy to use?)
  • Satisfaction (subjective)

Chp.1 Human Modeling
  • Human cognitive and perceptual abilities
  • Short-term memory
  • Long-term memory and learning
  • Decision making
  • Attention and set (scope of concern)
  • Search and scanning
  • Time perception
  • Personality differences
  • Cultural diversity
  • Universal accesibilty (users with disabilities)
  • Elderly users