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Chp.1: What is HCI?

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study of interaction between humans & computer a methodology for: modeling the human (e.g., perception, behavior) examining usability of computer programs, devices ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chp.1: What is HCI?


1
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • study of interaction between humans computer
  • a methodology for
  • modeling the human (e.g., perception, behavior)
  • examining usability of computer programs,
    devices, techniques (in general doesnt have to
    be just computers, applies to anything man-made
    that humans use, e.g., cars, light switches,
    kettles, etc.)
  • most imporantly HCI leads to DESIGN of interface
  • past contributions physical devices (mouse,
    HMD), code (GUI toolkits, window managers)

2
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • All about design - in the context of Computer
    Science, design of interface to back-end
    program
  • Interface
  • graphical (GUI)
  • command-line (CLI)
  • web-based
  • VR, etc.
  • Back-end
  • Operating System (O/S)
  • dB
  • web site
  • spreadsheet
  • calculator
  • word processor
  • air traffic control display
  • flight simulator
  • nuclear plant
  • automobile displays
  • etc.

3
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Computer interaction
  • almost ubiquitous (everywhere) chances are in
    whatever device you use, theres a chip in there
  • e.g., typical day
  • get up, press snooze on alarm clock (whats the
    interface on the clock?)
  • drive to work (car interface)
  • stop by ATM (ATM screen)
  • after work, shopping (scanners at store)
  • at home, eat dinner (microwave, stove)
  • watch TV/DVD/VCR (various ent. devices)
  • Interface design applies to all these computer
    interface is more obvious in some than in other
    examples

4
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Why bother with interface design?
  • increasing productivity
  • e.g., in the workforce employees with a better
    word processor will be more productive
  • safety critical systems with poor interface may
    endanger lives
  • e.g., ATC, operating room, nuclear plant
  • commerce a good interface may sell a product
  • e.g., todays hot items MP3 players, digital
    cameras, DVD players, etc.
  • Key point users shouldnt have to think (much)
    about intricacies of interface to use the tool
    (INTUITIVE INTERFACE)
  • e.g., ATM walk up to it, withdraw cash (fairly
    easy to use)

5
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Key principles of interface design
  • visibility controls should be visible (e.g.,
    volume control on an MP3 player)
  • affordance controls should map to their
    function, I.e., it should be obvious what each
    control (button, slider, etc.) does.
  • controls should be intuitive, e.g., volume
    control use a vertical slider (up loud)
  • feedback device should give user indication of
    its state (e.g., phone dial tone ready, busy
    signal, flashing light message or on hold)

6
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,
    feedback

Fig.1 salt / pepper shakers which is which?
7
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,
    feedback

Fig.2 which knob controls which burner?
8
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of design, visibility, affordance,
    feedback

Fig.3 can I set the freezer / fridge temperature
independently?
9
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • When designing a computer program
  • think what capabilities program should have
  • how is a user going to access those functions
  • More formally,
  • HCI is a discipline concerned with the design,
    evaluation, and implementation of interactive
    computing systems for human use and with the
    study of major phenomena surrounding them
  • NOT just the creation of user-friendly programs
  • Need to understand human processes (cognition,
    perception) and interaction protocol between
    human and computer

10
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • HCI challenges
  • continuous technological development, e.g.
  • better / faster machines
  • new languages, applications (web, internet, VR,
    multimedia, imaging, graphics, etc.)
  • two concerns
  • keep abrest of technology (e.g., SIGCHI)
  • marry good HCI with effective use of technology
    (I.e., make sure both are good the back-end
    program works and the interface is good)

11
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • HCI Goals
  • production of usable, safe, and functional
    systems
  • development or improvement of systems (including
    computing systems), with respect to
  • safety
  • utility (functionality, what system does)
  • effectiveness (is it good at what it does)
  • efficiency (in case of programming, speed, memory
    utlization, etc.)
  • usability (key concept in HCI make system easy
    to learn and use)
  • system consider complete environment, not just
    hardware or software, but people

12
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Examples of not very usable systems
  • complicated telephones
  • do you use all the features (e.g., multi-party
    conf. calls, call forwarding, call-waiting,
    etc.)?
  • wristwatch
  • how often do you use its extended features
    (time zone, stopwatch, alarm, countdown timer,
    etc.)
  • Examples of very usable systems
  • scissors
  • intuitive how to use, mainly because it mostly
    has just one application

13
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Underlying HCI belief people come first a
    computer is just a tool, a means to accomplish
    some task, e.g.,
  • writing a paper
  • communicating with friends
  • designing a landscape
  • preparing income taxes
  • cataloging, organizaing, printing pictures
  • desinging roads, bridges, airplanes, cars, etc.
  • For good design, need knowledge of humans and
    technology
  • often need multi-disciplinary teams (e.g., Comp.
    Sci, Psychology, IE, Arts, etc.)

14
Chp.1 What is HCI?
  • Evolution of HCI
  • 70s--80s psychologists interested in
    information-processing aspects of computer as
    analogy to mental processes (e.g., modeling brain
    as a computer, connectionist network, associative
    memory, etc.)
  • various HCI studies testing menus (depth vs.
    breadth), usability of single-user computer
  • 80s--90s examining more powerful PCs,
    workstations, communication (e.g. email),
    multimedia (e.g., imaging, visualization, data
    mining), VR (presence), group work (CSCW)

15
Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI three
landmark systems
  • Dynabook
  • Alan Kay, Xerox Parc
  • one of first laptops (book-sized PC)
  • Star
  • Xerox Parc
  • desk-sized system
  • high-res display, graphics, icons
  • mouse mapped to 2D desktop on screen
  • Apple Lisa
  • based to some extent on Dynabook Star
  • precursor to Macintosh
  • WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer
  • introduction of desktop metaphor
  • GUI, WYSIWYG word processor

16
Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI Main
considerations
  • All HCI takes place in social organizational
    context
  • Application design is geared towards specific
    purposes, dividing tasks between human and
    machine
  • To adapt application to human, need to know
    something about human psychological and
    physiological abilities and limitations
  • human info processing limited attention, memory
  • language linguistics, verbal comm.
  • communication methods of, body language,
    emoticons, etc.
  • interaction human-to-human, e.g., turn-taking
  • ergonomics carple-tunnel syndrome, eye strain,
    fatigue,

17
Chp.1 What is HCI?Evolution of HCI Main
considerations
  • To create successful computer application, need
    to know something about capabilities and
    limitations of computer
  • input devices, e.g., keyboard, mouse, camera,
    microphone, sensors, etc.
  • output displays, graphics, sound, etc.
  • dialogue techniques, genre, style what how to
    communicate to user, e.g., state of system,
    output (visualizations, charts, numbers, etc.),
    what colors to use, animation speed, etc

18
Chp.1 What is HCI?Discussion
  • Can you think of examples of
  • very usable systems
  • not so usable systems (are there any devices that
    appear to be confusing to people)? How can they
    be improved?
  • Can you think of examples of
  • very usable computer programs
  • not so usable computer applications? How can
    they be improved?
  • ASSIGNMENT 1 collect at least 3 examples
    (pictures) of not so usable systems, e.g.,
    door, whatever, doesnt have to be computer
    program

19
Chp1 Goals of System Engineering
  • Functionality
  • Reliability, availability, security, data
    integrity
  • Standardization
  • common UI features (e.g., WIMP)
  • Integration
  • of multiple components/modules (libs)
  • Consistency
  • common action sequences (e.g., File-gtOpen)
  • Portability
  • e.g., Mac OS X, Linux, Windows

20
Chp.1 Goals of UI Design
  • Human factors central to evaluation
  • Learnability (time to learn)
  • Performance
  • Human error (rate of errors by users)
  • Retention (easy to use?)
  • Satisfaction (subjective)

21
Chp.1 Human Modeling
  • Human cognitive and perceptual abilities
  • Short-term memory
  • Long-term memory and learning
  • Decision making
  • Attention and set (scope of concern)
  • Search and scanning
  • Time perception
  • Personality differences
  • Cultural diversity
  • Universal accesibilty (users with disabilities)
  • Elderly users
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