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Title: Chapter 28 World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order


1
Chapter 28World War I and the Crisis of the
European Global Order
  • AP World History

2
M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI (1914-1918)
  • Militarism New industrial technologies after
    Germany began building a navy, all nations began
    creating more weapons.
  • Alliances
  • Triple Alliance (aka Central Powers) Germany
    Austria-Hungary Italy initially Ottoman
    Empire Bulgaria.
  • Triple Entente (aka Allied Powers) Russia
    France Britain Italy in 1915 Japan US
    later.
  • Imperialism Tensions are high between alliance
    systems who are in the midst of imperialist
    rivalries over the few lands still not yet
    colonized
  • Colonists acted as resource-providers and
    combatants hoped to achieve independence after
    the war and were often promised this
  • Nationalism (new Germany Balkan independence)

3
World War I in Europe and Middle East
4
Outbreak of War
  • Ethnic divisions and rivalries in the Balkans
    added tension to Europe.
  • July 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist
    assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian
    Empire, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife in
    Sarajevo, Bosnia.
  • July Crisis of 1914 Austria-Hungary demands
    political and territorial concessions from
    Serbia Serbia refuses Austria-Hungary invades
    Serbia
  • Russia supported Serbia via Pan-Slavic Movement
  • Movement in 19th c., supported by Russia, aimed
    at unification of Slavic peoples who had long
    been ruled by others
  • Germany supported Austria-Hungary
  • Alliances fall into place and there exists no
    more possibility of regional war.

5
War in Europe Western Front
  • Germanys concern fight war on both fronts.
  • Schlieffen Plan plans to attack France first via
    Belgium before turning east to the backward and
    slow Russia
  • Britain protected its ally, Belgium.
  • Japan supports Britain (naval allies)
  • Most Europeans thought war would be quick and
    decisive.
  • Yet, Germany did not have a quick victory in
    France ? Western Front Germans halted by the
    French on the Marne River.
  • Trench warfare ensued along Western Front for
    three years
  • War where new types of technology had been used
    airplanes tanks poison gas radio technology

6
War Outside Europe
  • Only South America does not participate.
  • Troops were recruited from colonies mostly
    fighting for the Triple Entente.
  • Primarily occurs when Europeans realize war will
    not be decisive or quick.
  • Germanys main support was the Ottoman Empire,
    who entered WWI in 1915.
  • Gallipoli Campaign, 1915-1916
  • British and French try to capture Istanbul
    attempt fails with casualties on both sides seen
    as huge success for Ottomans
  • Effective British naval blockades ensured Germany
    could not receive raw materials from its
    colonies, as German ships were destroyed.
  • The British Dominions (Canada, Australia and New
    Zealand) contributed resources to Great Britain.
  • China declared war on Germany in 1917.

7
Quick Review Question
  1. What is the Schlieffen Plan? What problem does it
    try to solve?
  2. How were non-Western regions involved in the war
    effort?
  3. What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk accomplish?

8
War in the East and in Italy
  • Russia focused on Austria-Hungary and eastern
    Germany, but easily defeated by Germany troops.
  • Aristocratic generals commanded millions of
    illiterate and poorly trained peasants
  • 1917 Russia (Lenin) withdraws from WWI early
    signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ceded Russian
    territory to Germans).
  • 1915 Austria-Hungary crushed Serbia, but
    struggled against Russia.
  • Inept generals multiethnic armies with soldiers
    whose loyalties to Austrian emperor was
    inconstant
  • British and French troops were deployed to stop
    Austrian advance east.
  • 1915 Italy switched from the Triple Alliance to
    the Triple Entente.
  • Britain promised territory gains in war at
    Austria-Hungarys expense if Italy switched.
  • Most Entente-Italian assaults against
    Austria-Hungary ended in disaster.
  • Italy frustrated it did not receive additional
    territory at end of war.

9
American Involvement in 1917
  • Americans sold food, weapons, and gave loans to
    the Entente.
  • 1915 German submarine sank British luxury liner,
    Lusitania 100 Americans died.
  • Germans claim Lusitania carrying secret
    shipments Britain denies it later proven true
  • In 1916, Germany attacks U.S. merchant ships en
    route to Britain.
  • Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare
  • 1917 Zimmermann Telegram Great Britain
    intercepts telegram where Germany promised Mexico
    territory it had lost in Mexican-American War in
    exchange for joining Germany.
  • 1917 The United States entered WWI policy
    previously was isolationism.
  • By 1918, millions of American men in training
    makes Germany believe they need to end war
    quickly
  • Will be the turn of the tide US troops are
    freshly ready and newly armed with supplies

10
The Home Fronts
  • 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic
  • Governments developed propaganda to promote
    patriotism and citizen support for the war.
  • Soldiers felt unsupported, and that citizens
    lacked commitment for or understanding of war.
  • British/Americans bombarded with stories of
    German atrocities.
  • Many aspects of industrialization were taken over
    by the governments.
  • People either benefit from industrialization or
    are excluded sparks labor protests.
  • Women participated greatly on the home front.

11
The End of War
  • After Russia withdrew, a confident Germany
    transferred more soldiers to the Western Front
    victory seemed near.
  • Newly-arrived American soldiers stalled German
    advance in northern France.
  • Germany (mounting casualties, sheer fatigue) vs
    America (new enthusiastic)
  • Austro-Hungarian empire abdicated.
  • German commanders agreed to an armistice on
    November 11, 1918.
  • WWI claimed 15 million and wounded 20 million.
  • Young generation of European men nearly wiped
    out.
  • Bombs and troops had destroyed cities, towns, and
    farms.

12
Quick Review Question
  1. What events pushed America to enter WWI?
  2. What did governments try to keep the focus on in
    the Home Front?

13
Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points (1918)
  • Statement declaring that WWI was a just moral
    affair proposal for European peace
  • List of fourteen post-war goals
  • Free trade
  • Diplomatic end to the war
  • International disarmament to lowest point
    consistent with domestic safety
  • Withdrawal of Central Powers from occupied
    territories
  • Creation of Poland
  • Territorial restructuring along ethnic lines
  • League of Nations
  • Return Alsace-Lorraine to France
  • Self-determination right of people in region to
    determine whether to be independent or not
  • Became the basis for terms of German surrender
  • Wilson awarded 1919 Nobel Peace Prize for his
    efforts in WWI

14
Paris Peace Conference of 1919
  • Meeting of Entente leaders to determine peace
    terms for Europe and how to deal with defeated
    empires after the armistice (end of war).
  • Outcome is Treaty of Versailles
  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire was dissolved into
    Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
  • Ottoman Empire reduced to present-day Turkey
    Great Britain control Iraq and Pakistan France
    control Syria and Lebanon.
  • Russia lost territory to Poland and Romania.
  • Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania receive
    independence from Russia.
  • Wartime promises of independence to colonial
    leaders in return for their war support for
    Entente were forgotten.

15
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Germany was given no part in drafting the Treaty
    of Versailles.
  • Goal cripple Germany economically so it could
    never again rise to power and threaten to invade
    other European states.
  • Major players disagreed about how to deal with
    Germany.
  • Outcome for Germany
  • Article 231 Clause included that placed total
    blame for war upon Germany
  • Limit their army to 100,000 soldiers.
  • Alsace and Lorraine (won in Franco-Prussian War)
    returned to France
  • Pay 33 billion in reparations to Entente
    members.
  • Lost all colonies (Tanzania, Rwanda, Cameroon,
    Samoa)
  • League of Nations established (idea of US
    President Woodrow Wilson)

16
League of Nations
  • The League of Nations, proposed by Woodrow
    Wilson, was established after WWI to preserve
    peace and humanitarian goals.
  • Many nations refused to join it
  • England and France hesitant
  • Germany and Russia not allowed
  • U.S. declines
  • League of Nations was a pre-cursor to the United
    Nations.
  • Effective at functions such as providing famine
    relief and dealing with refugee issues, but was
    otherwise weak.

17
Cultural Ramifications
  • Pointlessness of war and cynicism abound.
  • Traditional ideas of wars nobility and heroism
    collapsed.
  • Optimism of La Belle Époque had ended.
  • Art, cinema, poems, literature respond.
  • Writers War soldiers wrote letters to loved
    ones wrote poems in trenches
  • Spread of liberal reforms (education) meant most
    soldiers (and public) were literate.
  • Soldiers experiences preserved
  • Lost Generation
  • Term popularized by Ernest Hemingway
  • Refers to F. Scott Fitzgerald Gertrude Stein
  • Hemingways The Sun Also Rises captures the
    variety of losses in war (masculinity)
  • Artists transfer from Romanticism to Modernism.

18
Lost Generation
  • A generation of innocent young men, their heads
    full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and
    England, went off to war to make the world safe
    for democracy. They were slaughtered in stupid
    battles planned by stupid generals. Those who
    survived were shocked, disillusioned and
    embittered by their war experiences, and saw that
    their real enemies were not the Germans, but the
    old men at home who had lied to them. They
    rejected the values of the society that had sent
    them to war, and in doing so separated their own
    generation from the past and from their cultural
    inheritance
  • - Samuel Hynes, historian

19
Quick Review Question
  1. Describe the relationship between these three
    terms Paris Peace Conference Woodrow Wilsons
    14 Points Treaty of Versailles
  2. Is the League of Nations effective? Why or why
    not?
  3. What does the term Lost Generation indicate
    about a post-WWI West?

20
Weak European Imperialism
  • To win support of Western-educated elites and new
    allies in different regions, French and British
    made many promises regarding postwar colonial
    relationships.
  • Primarily promised independence Created a great
    deal of postwar strain when this did not come to
    pass
  • War cast doubt on white racial supremacy
  • War gave support to anti-colonial movements in
    European colonies which are characterized by
    three themes.
  • Led by charismatic, Western-educated elites who
    support nationalism.
  • Leaders will rally peasant and urban masses.
  • Leaders will often rely on nonviolent forms of
    protest.

21
Indias National Congress Party
  • The National Congress Party led India to
    independence and governed India through its
    postcolonial era.
  • Formed by Indians in 1885 as an educated
    political club, and was supported by many British
    officials.
  • The NCP gave Indians a sense of identity.
  • NCP became concerned over British Raj racism and
    budget, where most money went to the British army
    and administrators.

22
Indian Nationalism
  • India contributed significantly to World War I as
    a colony of Great Britain.
  • Wartime inflation affected all segments of Indian
    population.
  • British leaders promised Indians self-government
    once WWI was over some steps were taken towards
    this
  • Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 provided Indians
    opportunities to vote for and serve on all-Indian
    legislative councils.
  • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 gave Indian
    legislators increased control.
  • Yet, the Rowlatt Act of 1919 restricted Indian
    civil rights (freedom of the press, root out
    conspirators), which fueled local protest and
    caused Indians to doubt British intentions.
  • 1919 Protests led to Amritsar Massacre

23
Emergence of Gandhi (1919)
  • Mahatma (born Mohandas) Gandhi emerged as an
    Indian leader around 1919.
  • He preached non-violent but aggressive protest
    against British colonization.
  • Peaceful protests boycotts strikes
    noncooperation demonstrations
  • Built up a strong following with the middle-class
    and Indian peasants.
  • Combined Western-educated ideas about law with
    Hindu values and asceticism.
  • With Gandhi as leader, nationalist protest surged
    in 1920s and 1930s.

24
Quick Review Question
  1. What are the three themes seen in anti-colonial
    movements?
  2. Describe the Indian National Congress Party
    (NCP).
  3. Who is Gandhi and what was his political goal?

25
Egyptian Demands for Independence
  • The British had occupied Egypt in 1882 since
    Orabis revolt
  • Egyptian dissent began in the early 1900s first
    nationalist parties formed, frustrated by British
    monopolies and corruption.
  • 1906 Dinshaway Incident
  • Revealed British arrogance and superiority in an
    already tense relationship.
  • Led to inflamed Egyptian nationalism.
  • By 1913, British gave in and granted Egypt
    representation in British Parliament.
  • 1914 WWI begins British distracted.

26
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
  • During WWI, the British defended the Suez Canal
    and used critical resources (cotton) from Egypt
    in the war.
  • 1919 Demand Egyptian representatives at Paris
    Peace Conference denied.
  • Egyptian Revolution of 1919 revolt against
    British occupation of Egypt and Sudan
  • 1922 Britain recognized Egyptian independence
    and British withdrawal began.
  • Led by Wafd Party (nationalist liberal political
    party)
  • 1923 New constitution that changes Egypt from
    dynastic rule of khedives to a parliamentary
    monarchy that is nationally-elected.
  • British presence continues until British
    withdrawal of the Suez Canal zone in 1936.
  • Even though Egypt now had independence, later
    Egyptian politicians were more concerned with
    power and wealth than with poverty aide,
    education, health, or labor.

27
Nationalism in the Middle East
  • After WWI, the Ottoman Empire collapsed (1923)
    and an independent Turkish Republic was
    established.
  • In League of Nations, Britain and France divided
    Arab portions of Ottoman Empire, despite European
    promises of Arab independence after WWI.
  • France Syria Lebanon
  • Britain Iraq Palestine and Lebanon
  • Nationalism grows in these locations
  • Palestine and a Jewish Holy Land?
  • 1894 Dreyfus Affair spurred Jewish Zionists
    (movement for a Jewish Middle Eastern holy land).
  • 1917 Balfour Declaration aggravated
    relationships between Palestinian Arabs and
    Englishmen.

28
Quick Review Question
  1. What did the Dinshaway Incident reveal about
    British-Egyptian relations?
  2. Describe the Dreyfus Affair what did it promote?
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