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Title: Escalating Tensions, 1880 - 1914


1
Western CivilizationChapter 24
  • Escalating Tensions, 1880 - 1914

2
  • By 1885, only 1/9 of the worlds land surface had
    been surveyed
  • By 1900, each of the continents had been explored
    and measured
  • Efforts were made to map territories and to
    standardize time
  • However, there were disagreements about the need
    for standardization, especially with time zones
  • Germany had 5 time zones in 1891
  • The U.S. had over 200
  • They couldnt agree on the placement of the prime
    meridian. Countries were too busy expanding
    boundaries to fix them for a map.

3
World Time Zones
4
The New Imperialism
  • Nations had always taken over other territory
  • This was imperialism
  • After 1870, acquisition of territories was on an
    intense scale, helped by all the new inventions
    in transportation, communication, and weapons
  • Europe began concentrating on taking over
    undeveloped lands
  • A competition for colonies developed among
    European nations, especially among England,
    France, and Germany

5
The Technology of Empire
  • Steam, iron, and electricity were all-important
    to Europes imperial expansion in the 19th
    century
  • Steam was used in factories and in transportation
  • They could then transport more people and cargo
    more quickly
  • Iron ships were more durable, lighter,
    water-tight, faster, and more fuel-efficient than
    wooden vessels
  • Iron steamships allowed Europeans to maintain
    closer contact with their colonies
  • Europeans could also go upriver in the new ships
    helping them learn about the terrain, natural
    beauty, and resources

6
  • Technology allowed for the deepening of harbors
    and the creation of canals
  • Two major ones were built the Suez Canal and
    the Panama Canal
  • Suez Canal was built by the French and bought by
    the British and was completed in 1869 opening a
    new trade route
  • Panama Canal was started by the French and
    finished by the U.S., connecting the Atlantic to
    the Pacific
  • Both canals shortened the distance of travel and
    made a shortcut

7
Suez Canal
8
  • The electric telegraph had revolutionized global
    communication by the end of the 19th century
  • This enabled colonizing nations to keep in closer
    contact with their colonies
  • There were new medicines allowing colonizers to
    venture inland in new territories
  • Quinine comes from the cinchona tree bark and
    combats malaria

9
Panama Canal
10
Panama Canal
11
  • New types of firearms helped Europeans take over
    areas defended only by spears and blow guns
  • There were machine guns and new rifles
  • So the new technology allowed for the new
    imperialism and new European control worldwide
  • Example the sun never sets on the British Empire

12
Motives for Empire
  • Economic reasons
  • New raw materials for industry
  • New markets for manufactured goods
  • Fortunes could be made or lost, depending on the
    risk
  • Europeans had the desire to expand investment
    opportunities
  • Not all new territories proved profitable
  • The purpose of colonies was to enrich the Mother
    Country

13
  • Geopolitical reasons
  • Countries were encouraged to expand even into
    territories that probably werent economically
    valuable
  • These areas could be used as fueling bases, a way
    to protect sea routes, or could offer a presence
    to help control an area
  • This caused an increase in naval budgets and the
    size of naval fleets
  • Britain had the largest navy, but were challenged
    by the U.S., Germany, and Japan to some extent by
    1900
  • Each wished to dominate the seas

14
  • Armies also grew to protect the newly acquired
    lands and the people in them traders,
    missionaries, and government officials
  • Between 1890 and 1914, military expenditures of
    Western nations grew greatly
  • There was a buildup of new weapons, armies, and
    navies
  • This also increased the influence of the military
    and naval leaders in foreign policy decisions

15
  • Nationalism
  • National prestige and national pride were at
    stake
  • Keeping up with the other great nations of
    Europe so your nation could be great also
  • A Great Nation is one with an industrialized
    economy and colonies
  • This idea of prestige was helped along,
    popularized by newspapers
  • Newspapers capitalized on national sentiment
  • They used the imperialist passion of their people
    and their governments to sell papers

16
  • Newspapers helped shape new public opinion
  • This, in turn, helped shape foreign policy
  • Newspapers were manipulated by government
    officials to get backing for whatever it was they
    wanted
  • The idea of Jingoism emerged, a term phrased by
    J.A. Hobson
  • It meant inverted patriotism, where the love of
    ones country is transformed into hatred of
    another country, and into a fierce craving to
    destroy the individuals of that other nation
  • Jingoism pressured governments to defend their
    national honor abroad by expanding their
    boundaries to keep up with other nations doing
    the same

17
Jingoism
18
European Search for Territory and Markets
  • Two fundamentally different social structures
    governed life in non-industrialized regions that
    became targets for European imperialism
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, tribal societies
    emphasizing communal rule dominated
  • In Asia, societies were strictly organized
    hierarchically and under the power of distinct
    ruling elites
  • European empire-builders used indirect rule in
    places like India where the ruling elite became
    puppets of the conquerors

19
  • Tribes, Europeans believed, needed to be
    conquered and rules formally and directly
  • All those who were taken over did show some
    resistance but didnt have a chance against the
    new European weapons

20
Scramble for Africa
  • Europeans controlled only 10 of the African
    continent in the early 19th century
  • By 1914, they dominated 90
  • Theyd send in traders and missionaries
  • Christian missionary activity was central to
    European expansion in Africa in the early 19th
    century
  • This increased European knowledge of tribal
    cultures
  • They also acquired land within tribal communities
  • The need to protect these missionaries encouraged
    European governments to formally colonize African
    territories

21
Africa 1900
22
  • This process increased greatly in the last 25
    years of the 19th century creating that Scramble
    for Africa
  • Traders also aided in the colonization process
  • They established posts in African regions
  • They learned the languages and customs
  • They built up a relationship with the people
  • The British dominated world trade in the 1800s
    through their world markets, and they were
    expanding into Africa.
  • Not to be left out, the Germans established
    market areas in Africa. By 1880s, they had
    annexed Togo, Cameroon, S.W. Africa, and German
    East Africa

23
  • The formal taking of territories accelerated in
    the early 1880s because one nation wished to get
    a territory before another nation did
  • Germany, France, and Britain vied for new
    territories in Central and West Africa
  • Conflict arose when all 3 were trying to take the
    Congo
  • This resulted in the calling of the Berlin
    Conference in 1884, resulting in the Berlin Act,
    1885
  • They set up the game rules for colonizing no
    guns for Africans
  • A nation had to occupy territory before it could
    be annexed
  • This only seemed to intensify rivalries.

24
  • There was fierce rivalry concerning the
    headwaters of the Nile River
  • This conflict brought French and British forces
    to the brink of war in 1898-1899 at Fashoda with
    French Captain Marchand vs. the British General
    Kitchener
  • While they waited for orders about whether to
    fight each other or not, they would meet for
    evening cocktails
  • There was talk of war in England and France, but
    problems back home in France made the French
    unwilling to get involved in a war and Marchand
    withdrew

25
  • When the scramble for territory was over around
    1914, the French claimed to have the most
    extensive African territories
  • However, Britain and Germany werent far behind

26
Imperialism in Asia
  • India was the heart, the center, the jewel in
    the crown for Britain
  • It was of great importance because of its many
    riches
  • Queen Victoria had herself crowned the Empress of
    India and appointed a viceroy to represent her
    there
  • India was the center of Britains foreign policy
  • British trading in Indias markets began in the
    17th century
  • Formal British rule dated only from 1861 after
    the Sepoy Mutiny
  • British East Africa Company proved ineffective at
    ruling for the British government, so Britain
    began its formal rule of India

27
  • Britain used, utilized much of the existing
    hierarchy already established in India indirect
    rule
  • They exported Indias goods cotton, salt, opium
  • In China, Britain first exchanged Indian cotton
    for tea, but Chinese demand for cotton waned
  • So the British began trading Indias opium for
    tea which made a lot of money for the British as
    more Chinese became addicted
  • This angered Chinese officials
  • In 1729, 200 chests of opium were sold to the
    Chinese
  • In 1838, that rose to 40,000 chests

28
  • Opium became Britains most important crop
  • In 1839, the Chinese government destroyed British
    opium in the port of Canton and touched off the
    Opium War, 1839-1842
  • The British blocked Chinese ports, took over the
    port of Canton, and occupied Shanghai - all to
    protect their trade in opium
  • The war ended with the Treaty of Nanking
  • Unequal treaty system set up
  • Extraterritoriality
  • Resumption of opium trade
  • Special privileges for the British
  • China had to pay for the war

29
Opium War
30
  • This treaty showed British arrogance toward the
    Chinese culture and their belief in white
    superiority
  • Extraterritoriality meant the British in China
    did not have to follow Chinese laws they only
    had to follow British laws in China
  • Other European nations made incursions Germans,
    French, and Japanese
  • All had spheres of influence their own chunks of
    China
  • By 1912, over 50 major Chinese ports were in the
    hands of foreigners

31
  • In 1900 the Chinese resentment of foreigners and
    Christian missionaries resulted in the Boxer
    Rebellion
  • Named for a martial arts group
  • They killed foreigners
  • They took over consulates
  • 16,000 well-armed Japanese, British, Russian, and
    American forces fought back to save their
    privileges in China
  • They showed no mercy towards the Chinese
  • They sacked Beijing
  • Europeans then resumed operating through their
    spheres of influence

32
Boxer Rebellion Boxer Prisoners
33
  • Europeans had interests in other parts of Asia
  • British took Hong Kong in 1842, Burma in 1886,
    and Kowloon in 1898
  • Russians took the Maritime Provinces in 1858
  • French moved in on Indochina in 1884 taking Annam
    (Vietnam), Tonkin, Cambodia, and Laos
  • European culture was spread through the
    establishment of colonies.
  • Many from colonies like India went to England for
    schooling and some stayed.

34
  • And Europeans moved to other places as well
  • Between 16th and 18th centuries, 6 million left
    Europe
  • Between 1870 and 1914, 55 million Europeans left
    for the Americas, Australia,, and New Zealand
  • Emigration scattered people and spread cultures
    overseas, putting a European stamp on people and
    societies abroad influencing their economies,
    art, architecture, philosophy, and politics

35
19th Century Philosophies
  • 1850 the idea of Liberalism was strong in
    Europe
  • By 1900 there were other isms to challenge
    liberalism
  • Liberalism
  • generally for the expansion of civil rights
  • for free trade
  • upheld the right to private property
  • for power in the hand of men
  • wanted to ensure worker safety
  • for public welfare

36
  • Socialism
  • Marxist and non-Marxist wanted to gain support of
    workers by supporting their causes
  • Some were in favor of reaching objectives
    gradually and peacefully
  • Others wanted the violent overthrow of capitalist
    systems
  • Different countries started their own Socialist
    parties
  • Britain Independent Labour Party (1893)
  • More popular was the Fabian Society (1884) that
    criticized Capitalism and believed factories
    should be owned by the state for the good of all.

37
  • Germany began a Socialist Party in 1875
  • One German Socialist leader was Edward Bernstein
    who believed that through gradual democratic
    means, socialism could come about
  • Another German Socialist leader was Karl Kautsky
    who believed only revolution would bring about
    socialism

38
  • Anarchism
  • Said humans could be free only when the state had
    been abolished
  • People of a stateless society would automatically
    join together in communes and share what they had
  • Some felt they could educate people about their
    goal and, it would naturally be achieved
  • Others were for a more violent approach like
    attacking existing authority Example- Michael
    Bakunin of Russia fought against the Tsar and
    other authoritarian governments in Europe in
    1848, feeling all governments were oppressive

39
  • From 1894 1901, anarchists killed the president
    of France, the prime minister of Spain, the
    empress of Austria, the king of Italy, and the
    president of the U.S., William McKinley
  • These assassinations made people view anarchism
    as violent and not improving peoples lives
  • Many workers were more for unionization and
    direct action
  • This was called Syndicalism
  • Workers should join unions
  • Workers should call general strikes
  • This would cripple capitalism
  • Popular in Mediterranean area

40
  • Opponents to Liberalism and Socialism were the
    Conservatives on the political right
  • They were for
  • keeping the existing order
  • nationalism
  • racist ideologies that were common in the 19th
    century Ethnocentrism
  • They tried to back up their racism with twisted
    science.

41
  • Anti-Semitism was the result of this racist
    thinking
  • Originally, hatred of the Jews was based in
    religion
  • Later, pseudo-scientists said Jewish blood was
    different and inferior
  • They were unworthy of the same rights others
    shared in a democratic society
  • Jobs were restricted
  • Neighborhoods were separate
  • Emancipation of the Jews began with the French
    Revolution and then spread to Germany and Austria
    by the 1860s.

42
  • New opportunities came to Jews
  • Some did not like this new equal standing in
    society
  • Resentment followed saying Jews were dangerous
    and wicked
  • All misfortunes were blamed on them
  • Those professing anti-Semitism were elected to
    political offices
  • Russia organized pogroms or massacres and those
    who werent killed left Russia in 1905
  • 2 million left mostly for the U.S.

43
Pogrom
44
  • Many Jews started to believe they would only be
    safe in their own nation
  • Zionist Movement was started by an Austrian
    Jewish journalist, Theodor Herzl
  • advocated establishing a Jewish state in Israel
  • Israel was finally created in 1948

45
  • 1880s was characterized by irrationality and
    uncertainty with the spotlight on instinct and
    emotion rather than on rational thinking
  • Friedrich Nietzsche
  • said reason could not solve human problems
  • said God is dead
  • without a God, we are free to live as we please

46
  • Sigmund Freud
  • founded psychoanalysis as a way to treat psychic
    disorders
  • explored the unconscious
  • felt people are guided by unconscious feelings
    and emotions
  • there are unresolved inner conflicts
  • said irrational forces play a significant role in
    human behavior

47
  • Gaetano Mosca
  • political scientist
  • said an elite minority rules over the majority
  • desire to dominate is part of human nature
  • surface appearances are deceptive
  • elite minority manipulates the people

48
The Arts
  • Avante Garde
  • French for forefront
  • broke societys taboos and conventions
  • created new forms of expression
  • the art of this era did not have a clear message
  • they wanted to show mood, nightmares, violence,
    and horror

49
Questioning
  • There was a decline in church attendance and in
    the practice of Christian rituals
  • Some became attracted to Buddhism and Hinduism
  • Scientists questioned long-held beliefs
  • 1905, Albert Einstein proposed his theory of
    relativity that changed fundamental ideas about
    time and space

50
End of 19th Century
  • By the end of the 19th century, political systems
    of Europe were shaky
  • In democracies, more were voting and that changed
    who was in power
  • Traditional members of Parliament had to be
    responsive to the new electorate or get booted
    out
  • Ireland
  • was a problem for England
  • wanted British out
  • finally got Home Rule in 1914 but World War I
    broke out and it was up in the air again

51
  • England
  • 1906 brought in a Liberal government that worked
    toward social reform
  • had old-age pension funded by a tax on landed
    wealth
  • liberal government had some difficulties
  • brawling in Parliament

52
Womens Suffrage Movement
  • At end of 19th century, women began organizing to
    get the right to vote
  • Had little success at first
  • In 1906 they became more militant
  • Led by Emmeline Pankhurst and her 2 daughters

53
  • They would disturb Parliament
  • They threatened to kill the Prime Minister and
    the King
  • They went on hunger strikes and were force fed
  • They were attacked by male thugs
  • There was widespread force shown in many areas of
    life

54
  • France
  • 1870, had their Third Republic that was unstable
  • There was a series of crises and scandals
  • They had no strong leadership
  • Example The Dreyfus Affair
  • Alfred Dreyfus was a captain in the French army
    in 1894 and was accused of giving French secrets
    to Germany
  • There was no proof, but he was a Jew and an
    officer, hence untrustworthy
  • They forged evidence against him
  • He was sentenced to life in prison on Devils
    Island off the coast of South America

55
  • 1896, the French found that Major Esterhazy was
    the real spy, but they would not reopen the case
    because that would mean the French army was
    mistaken
  • 1897, the French public found out and the affair
    became controversial
  • 1899, there was a retrial and Dreyfus was still
    found guilty, but he could be pardoned
  • 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated, and he ended his
    days as a general
  • People were angry at the Catholic Church for
    having backed the courts against Dreyfus
  • Some stormed the churches

56
  • There were labor strikes
  • Traditional life in France seemed to be breaking
    down

57
  • Italy
  • Had parliamentary system
  • Unification came in 1860, but true unity was
    elusive
  • The vote was given to those who owned property,
    about 3 of the population
  • Government tried to bring reforms to improve the
    general standard of living, but they werent
    successful
  • There was rapid population growth, from 25 to 35
    million 1870-1890
  • Country had limited moneys
  • There were wealthy landowners who owned
    latifundia or plantations

58
  • Most people were poor and landless
  • Industry paid low wages
  • There were protests
  • Protests were put down brutally by the government
  • Autocracies in Europe were in crisis. Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire
    faced grave problems by the end of the 19th
    century.
  • Demands for democracy were growing and the
    opponents used any means they could, including
    violence, to put down protests. Violence was met
    with violence

59
  • Germany
  • Had a parliament that answered to the Kaiser, not
    the people
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II (r. 1888-1918) wanted to rule
    as well as reign but wasnt fit to govern
  • Wilhelm II had a crippled hand but
    overcompensated for his deformity by being
    forceful and brutal
  • He had a poor self-image
  • He wanted Germany to be a world power with
    colonies, a navy, and world influence
    (Weltpolitik world politics)
  • Other European countries saw Germany as
    aggressive
  • Weltpolitik was supported at home because it
    created jobs

60
Kaiser Wilhelm II
61
  • There was also opposition to the Kaisers
    autocratic way of governing, and he was seen as
    irresponsible
  • 1912, 1/3 of Germans voted for a socialist
    candidate dedicated to the downfall of capitalism
    and autocracy
  • 1912, 1 million workers went on strike, and more
    and more Germans pressed for Parliamentary
    government
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II couldnt take criticism and
    wanted the army to crush any opposition to him
  • Things were coming to a head

62
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Plagued by crises
  • Was a multi-national empire with many ethnic
    groups
  • Ruled by Franz Joseph (r. 1848-1916)
  • Hard to control the empire, with Hungarian and
    Austrian sides

63
  • Habsburg government introduced universal male
    suffrage in 1907
  • This seemed to make the empire more difficult to
    govern
  • There were 30 ethnically based political parties
    in Parliament
  • Debates became explosive
  • 1914, the emperor dissolved the Parliament
  • The empire was falling apart

64
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Seen as the bridge between Europe and Asia
  • Was also falling apart by 1914
  • Had been on a downward slide since 1700
  • There were secessionist movements from within
  • There was European aggression from without
  • Empire ruled by Sultan Abdul Hamid II (r.
    1876-1908)
  • He was a dictator called the Great Assassin
  • He brutally put down any uprisings
  • Social unrest continued
  • They were nearing bankruptcy

65
  • There were different ethnic, linguistic, and
    religious groups within that wanted self-rule,
    independence
  • Abdul Hamid was overthrown in a coup in July 1908
    by young, Western-educated Turks who despised
    one-man rule

66
  • They set up representative government that tried
    to stop the loss of territory through strong
    central government
  • Those in outlying areas like Macedonia, Albania,
    and Armenia did not like this Turkification
    and rebelled
  • Many were killed like the Armenians
  • Other nations felt this was good time to take
    down this weakened empire
  • Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia formed the Balkan
    League and attacked the Ottomans successfully in
    1912
  • The empire lost, as a result, most of its
    European possessions

67
  • Russia
  • Attempts were made to industrialize the country
    in the 1860s
  • Serfs were freed and given land they later
    discovered they had to pay for
  • By giving them land, the Tsar hoped the
    peasants would produce more and he could make
    more money to use for industry
  • Universities increased in number as did the
    number of students
  • This intelligentsia then worked to bring down the
    Tsar
  • Repression increased
  • Tsar Alexander II was assassinated in March 1881
    as he was about to sign a decree that might have
    given them a parliament

68
Alexander II, Tsar of Russia
69
  • Alexander III took over for his father

70
  • Alexander III thought his father had been too
    lenient and upheld his autocracy
  • There would be no self rule and no parliament
  • He died in 1894 and his son Nicholas II took over
    as Tsar
  • He, too, was an autocrat but was not forceful
  • Nicholas wanted his people to like him
  • He did not know how to delegate duties
  • Instability followed
  • Life was restricted
  • There was not enough food for an increasing
    population
  • There was some industry but with bad conditions
    and unrest

71
Nicholas II
72
  • 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Party formed
  • 1903, it split into Menshevik and Bolshevik
    factions
  • Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin

73
  • 1904-1905, Russia vs. Japan over control of North
    Korea Japan won
  • January 1905- there were demonstrations at one of
    the Tsars palaces where people were asking for
    bread and an 8-hour day the military opened
    fire and massacred the demonstrators
  • This was known as Bloody Sunday
  • Demonstrations spread
  • Tsar Nicholas II promised the people a Duma, a
    parliament, freedom of religion, speech,
    assembly, and association to get his country back
    under his control

74
  • The Duma never had any power although it met
  • There was increased population and famine
  • There was a workers strike in 1912 where 725,000
    took part that numbered doubled by 1914
  • The authoritarian states in Europe and the
    democratic ones were being challenged by a
    restive public by the start of 1914
  • Even though no European nation wanted a war,
    their policies said otherwise

75
  • By 1914 there were 2 major alliances in Europe
  • The Triple Alliance Italy, Germany,
    Austria-Hungary
  • The Triple Entente - Great Britain, France,
    Russia
  • There were international rivalries, military
    build-up with weapons and ships, imperialism,
    alliances, and nationalism that led to World War
    I
  • 4 Main Causes of World War I
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

76
  • The Trigger
  • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and
    his wife Sophia by Gavrilo Princep of the Black
    Hand on 28 June 1914
  • It was an ideal pretext for war against Serbia
    that protected nationalist student groups from
    Austria-Hungary

77
The Arrest
78
The Great War, The War to End All Wars, World War
I
  • 28 June 1914 assassination of Austria-Hungarys
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophia, in
    Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip of the Black
    Hand
  • 23 July 1914 ultimatum sent from
    Austria-Hungary to Serbia (unreasonable demands
    and a time limit for retribution)
  • 28 July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on
    Serbia ( only with German backing)
  • 30 July 1914 Russia declared war on both
    Austria-Hungary and Germany

79
  • By 4 August 1914 Germany declared war on Russia
    and France and marched through neutral Belgium to
    surprise France
  • France declared war on Germany
  • Britain declared war on Germany after it had
    violated Belgian neutrality
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