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LIGO-India An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal IndIGO Consortium (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations) Version: pII_v2 Jun 20, 2011 : TS – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LIGO-India

  • An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal

IndIGO Consortium (Indian
Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)
Version pII_v2 Jun 20, 2011 TS
LIGO-India Salient points of the megaproject
  • On Indian Soil will draw and retain science
    tech. manpower
  • International Cooperation, not competition
    LIGO-India success critical to the success of
    the global GW science effort. Complete Intl
  • Shared science risk with International community
    ? Shared historical, major science discovery
    credit !!!
  • AdvLIGO setup initial challenge/risks primarily
    rests with USA.
  • AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by gt 2 years.
  • India sign up for technically demonstrated/establ
    ished part (gt10 yr of operation in initial LIGO )
    ? 2/3 vacuum enclosure 1/3 detector assembly
    split (US costing manpower and h/ware costs)
  • However, allows Indian scientist to collaborate
    on highly interesting science technical
    challenges of Advanced LIGO-USA ( opportunity
    without primary responsibility)
  • Expenditure almost completely in Indian labs
    Industry huge potential for landmark technical
    upgrade in all related Indian Industry
  • Well defined training plan core Indian technical
    team thru Indian postdoc in related exptal areas
    participation in advLIGO-USA installation and
    commissioning phase, cascade to training at
    Indian expt. centers
  • Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO
    network with huge potential for widespread
    University sector engagement.
  • US hardware contribution funded ready advLIGO
    largest NSF project, LIGO-India needs NSF
    approval but not additional funds

Advanced LIGO
  • Take advantage of new technologies and
    on-going RD
  • gtgt Active anti-seismic system operating to lower
  • (Stanford, LIGO)
  • gtgt Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics
  • (GEO )
  • gtgt Higher laser power 10 W ? 180 W
  • (Hannover group, Germany)
  • gtgt More sensitive and more flexible optical
  • Signal recycling
  • Design 1999 2010 10 years of high end R
    D internationally.
  • Construction Start 2008 Installation 2011
    Completion 2015

Schematic Optical Design of Advanced LIGO
Reflects International cooperation Basic nature
of GW Astronomy
LASER AEI, Hannover Germany
Suspension GEO, UK
LIGO-India unique once-in-a-generation
LIGO labs ?LIGO-India
  • 180 W pre-stabilized NdYAG laser
  • 10 interferometer core optics (test masses,
    folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling
  • Input condition optics, including electro-optic
    modulators, Faraday isolators, a suspended
    mode-cleaner (12-m long mode-defining cavity),
    and suspended mode-matching telescope optics.
  • 5 "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two
    stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation
    stages capable of 200 kg payloads)
  • 6 "HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one
    stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation
    stages capable of 200 kg payloads)
  • 11 Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems
  • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions
  • Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended
  • Baffles and beam dumps for controlling
    scattering and stray radiation
  • Optical distortion monitors and thermal
    control/compensation system for large optics
  • Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics,
    actuation electronics and conditioning
  • Data conditioning and acquisition system,
    software for data acquisition
  • Supervisory control and monitoring system,
    software for all control systems
  • Installation tooling and fixturing

Advanced LIGO Laser
  • Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein
    Institute, Germany
  • Much higher power (to beat down photon shot
  • 10W ? 180W
  • Better stability
  • 10x improvement in intensity and frequency

Advanced LIGO Mirrors
  • Larger size
  • 11 kg -gt 40 kg
  • Smaller figure error
  • 0.7 nm -gt 0.35 nm
  • Lower absorption
  • 2 ppm -gt 0.5 ppm
  • Lower coating thermal noise
  • All substrates delivered
  • Polishing underway
  • Reflective Coating process starting up

Advanced LIGO Seismic Isolation
  • Two-stage six-degree-of-freedom active isolation
  • Low noise sensors, Low noise actuators
  • Digital control system to blend outputs of
    multiple sensors, tailor loop for maximum
  • Low frequency cut-off 40 Hz -gt 10 Hz

Advanced LIGO Suspensions
  • UK designed and contributed test mass suspensions
  • Silicate bonds create quasi-monolithic pendulums
    using ultra-low loss fused silica fibres to
    suspend interferometer optics
  • Pendulum
  • Q 105 ? 108
  • Suppression at 10 Hz ?
  • at 1 Hz ?

LIGO-India unique once-in-a-generation
  • Quantum measurements
  • to improve further via squeezed light
  • New ground for optical technologists in India
  • High Potential to draw the best Indian UG
    students typically interested in theoretical
    physics into experimental science !!!

LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ?
  • Primary advantage LIGO-India Provides cutting
    edge instrumentation technology to jump start
    GW detection and astronomy.
  • Would require at least a decade of focused
    sustained technology developments in Indian
    laboratories and industry
  • 180 W NdYAG 5 years
  • Operation and maintenance should benefit further
    development in narrow line width lasers.
  • Applications in high resolution spectroscopy,
  • precision interferometry and metrology.
  • Input conditioning optics..Expensive..No Indian
    manufacturer with such specs
  • Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years
    of expt and RD.
  • Experience in setting up and maintaining these
    systems ? know how forisolation in critical
    experiments such as in optical metrology,AFM/Micr
    oscopy, gravity experiments etc.
  • 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing
    optics of this quality and develop required
    metrology facility At least 5 to 7 years
    ofdedicated RD work in optical polishing,
    figuring and metrology.
  • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions
    systems.. 3-4 years of development.. Not trivial
    to implement.
  • Benefit other physics experiments working at the
    quantum limit of noise.

  • LIGO-India Expected Indian Contribution
  • Indian contribution in infrastructure
  • Ultra-high Vacuum enclosure on large scale (1.)
  • Site (L-configuration Each 50-100 m x 4.2 km)
  • HPC -Data centre (5.)
  • Indian contribution in human resources
  • Trained Scientific engineering manpower for
    detector assembly, installation and
    commissioning (2.)
  • Trained SE manpower for LIGO-India sustained
    operations for next 10 years (3.)
  • Major enhancement of Data Analysis team. Seek
    Consolidated IndIGO participation in LIGO Science
    Collab. (Sept 2011)
  • Expand theory and create numerical relativity
    simulation. Expect hiring in premier institutions

1. Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure S.K.
Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT), S.
Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)
  • To be fabricated by IndIGO with designs from
    LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3 (10Mega-litres),
    evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of 10-9 torr
    (pico-m Hg).
  • Spiral welded beam tubes 1.2m in diameter and
    20m length.
  • Butt welding of 20m tubes together to 200m
  • Butt welding of expansion bellows between 200m
  • Gate valves of 1m aperture at the 4km tube ends
    and the middle.
  • Optics tanks, to house the end mirrors and beam
    splitter/power and signal recycling optics
    vacuum pumps.
  • Gate valves and peripheral vacuum components.
  • Baking and leak checking

LIGO Beam Tube
  • LIGO beam tube under construction in January 1998
  • 16 m spiral welded sections
  • girth welded in portable clean room in the field

1.2 m diameter - 3mm stainless 50 km of weld
Beam Tube Construction
girth welding
LIGO beam tube enclosure
  • minimal enclosure
  • reinforced concrete
  • no services

LIGO Vacuum Equipment
Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
  • Fabricated and installed by Indian Industry under
    close monitoring by science technology team
  • 5 Engineers and 5 technicians
  • Oversee the procurement fabrication of the
    vacuum system components and its installation.
  • If the project is taken up by DAE then
    participation of RRCAT IPR is more intense
  • All vacuum components such as flanges,
    gate-valves, pumps, residual gas analyzers and
    leak detectors will be bought. Companies LT,
    Fullinger, HindHiVac, Godrej with support from
    RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab.
  • Preliminary detailed discussions with Industry
    in Feb 2011 Companies like HHV, Fullinger in
    consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair
    (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO
    deliverable to LIGO-Australia.
  • Preliminary Costing for LIGO-India vacuum
    component is 400 cr.
  • (S K Shukla)

Detector Installation using Cleanrooms
  • Chamber access through large doors

HAM Chamber
Optics Installation Under Cleanroom Conditions
2. Detector assembly, installation
  • No manpower required for design and development
    activity !!!
  • For installation and commissioning phase
  • Identify 10-15 core scientists (postdoctoral)
    who spend a year, or more, at Advanced LIGO-USA
    during its install. comm.
  • LIGO proposal doc
  • Already 1 IndIGO postdoc at LIGO Caltech, another
    under considerstion in LIGO and EGO
  • 6 full time engineers and scientists in India.
  • If project sanctioned, manpower sanctioned,
    LIGO-India project hiring required at
    institutions like RRCAT, TIFR, IUCAA,.
  • Present expertimental expertise within IndIGO
  • Laser ITF Unnikrishnan (TIFR), Sendhil Raja
    (RRCAT), Anil Prabhaker.
  • (IITM), Pradeep kumar (IIT K) . Can scale to 10
    Post-doc/Ph.D students. Over 2-3 years. Train on
    3-m prototype too.
  • UH Vacuum S.K. Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex
    RRCAT), S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)

LIGO-India the challenges
3. Manpower generation for sustenance of
LIGO-India Preliminary Plans exploration
  • Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time,
    participants will be identified who will be
    deputed to take part in the commissioning of
    Advanced LIGO and later bring in the experience
    to LIGO-India. They will start building groups
    with associated training program.
  • Successful IndIGO Summer internships in
    International labs underway
  • High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT,
  • 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at
  • Plan to extend to participating National labs to
    generate more experimenters
  • IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose
    students to emerging opportunity in GW science
  • 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ.
    (thru IUCAA)
  • Post graduate school specialization courses , or
  • Jayant Narlikar Since sophisticated technology
    is involved IndIGO should like ISRO or BARC
    training school set up a program where after
    successful completion of the training, jobs are

Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and
APPROVED for funding (Dec 2010)
  • Centre of the Indo-US Science and Technology
    Forum (IUSSTF)
  • Exchange program to fund mutual visits and
    facilitate interaction.
  • Nodal centres IUCAA , India Caltech, US.
  • Institutions
    Tarun Souradeep, IUCAA
  • US Caltech, WSU
    - PI Rana Adhikari, Caltech

LIGO-India the challenges
Indian Site
  • Requirements
  • Low seismicity
  • Low human generated noise
  • Air connectivity,
  • Proximity to Academic institutions, labs,
  • Preliminary exploration
  • IISc new campus adjoining campuses near Chitra
  • low seismicity
  • 1hr from Intl airport
  • Bangalore science tech hub
  • National science facilities complex plans ?
    power and infrastructure availablity

IndIGO Data Centre_at_IUCAA
Anand Sengupta, DU, IndIGO
  • Primary Science Online Coherent search for GW
    signal from binary mergers using data from global
    detector network
  • Coherent ? 4 x event rate (40-gt 160 /yr for
  • Role of IndIGO data centre
  • Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of
    GWdata and analysis
  • Bring together data-analysts within the Indian
    gravity wave community.
  • Puts IndIGO on the global map for international
    collaboration with LIGO Science Collab. wide
    facility. Part of LSC participation from IndIGO
  • Large University sector participation via IUCAA
  • 200 Tflops peak capability (by 2014)
  • Storage 4x100TB per year per interferometer.
  • Network gigabit backbone, National Knowledge
  • Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech
  • 20 Tf 200 Tb funded IUCAA ready Mid 2012

  • LIGO-India the challenges
  • Organizational
  • National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship
  • Identify a lead institution and agency
  • Project leader
  • Construction Substantial Engg project building
    Indian capability in large vacuum system engg,
    welding techniques and technology
  • Complex Project must be well-coordinated and
    effectively carried out
  • in time and meeting the almost
    zero-tolerance specs
  • Train manpower for installation commissioning
  • Generate sustain manpower running for 10
  • Site
  • short lead time
  • International competition (LIGO-Argentina ??)
  • Technical
  • vacuum enclosure (tubes end station)
  • Detector assembly and commissioning
  • Data centre

LIGO-India the challenges
LIGO-India Project team requirements
LIGO-India Director Project manager Project
engineering staff Civil engineer(s) Vacuum
engineer(s) Systems engineer(s), Mechanical
engineers Electronics engineers Software
engineers Detector leader Project system
engineer Detector subsystem leaders 10-15
talented scientists or research engineers with
interest and knowledge collectively
spanning Lasers and optical devices, Optical
metrology, handling and cleaning, Precision
mechanical structures, Low noise electronics,
Digital control systems and electro-mechanical
servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling)

LIGO-India Action points
  • If accepted as a National Flagship Mega Project
    under the 12th plan then
  • Seed Money
  • Identification of 3-6 project leaders
  • Detailed Project Proposal
  • Site identification
  • 1st Staffing Requirement meeting Aug 1-15
  • 2nd Joint Staffing Meeting with LIGO-Lab
  • Vacuum Task related team and plans

Concluding remarks on LIGO India
  • Home ground advantage !!! Once in a generation
  • Threshold of discovery and launch of a new
    observational window in human history!!
    Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean
    global effort
  • Cooperative, not competitive science
  • India at the forefront of GW science with 2nd
    generation of detectors Intl. shared science
    risks and credit
  • Low project risk commit to established tech. yet
    are able to take on challenges of advLIGO
    (opportunity without primary responsibility)
  • Attain high technology gains for Indian labs
  • India pays true tribute to fulfilling
    Chandrasekhars legacy
  • Astronomy is the natural home of general
  • An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for
    India. India could play a key role in Intl.
    Science by hosting LIGO-India.
  • Deserves a National mega-science initiative

Thank you !!!
Every single technology theyre touching theyre
pushing, and theres a lot of different
technologies theyre touching. (Beverly
Berger, National Science Foundation Program
director for gravitational physics. )
Logistics and Preliminary Plan
  • Assumption Project taken up by DAE as a
    National Mega Flagship Project.
  • All the persons mentioned who are currently
    working in their centers would be mainly in a
    supervisory role of working on the project during
    the installation phase and training manpower
    recruited under the project who would then
    transition into the operating staff.
  • Instrument Engineering No manpower required for
    design and development activity. For installation
    and commissioning phase and subsequent operation
  • Laser ITF Unnikrishnan, Sendhil Raja, Anil
  • TIFR, RRCAT, IITM. 10 Post-doc/Ph.D students.
    Over 2-3 years.
  • Spend a year at Advanced LIGO. 6 full time
    engineers and scientists. If project sanctioned,
    manpower sanctioned, LIGO-India project hiring at
    RRCAT, TIFR, other insitututions/Labs.

Logistics and Preliminary Plans
  • 42 persons (10 PhD/postdocs, 22
    scientists/engineers and 10 technicians)
  • Mobile Clean rooms
  • Movable tent type clean rooms during welding of
    the beam tubes and assembly of the system. Final
    building a clean room with AC and pressurization
    modules. SAC, ISRO. 1 engineer and 2 technicians
    to draw specs for the clean room equipments
  • Vibration isolation system 2 engineers
    (precision mechanical)
  • install and maintain the system. Sourced from
    BARC. RED (Reactor Engineering Division of BARC)
    has a group that works on vibration measurement,
    analysis and control in reactors and turbo
  • Electronic Control System 4 Engineers
  • install and maintain the electronics control and
    data acquisition system. Electronics
    Instrumentation Group at BARC (G. P.
    Shrivastavas group) and RRCAT.
  • Preliminary trainingsix months at LIGO. Primary
    responsibility (installing and running the
    electronics control and data acquisition system)
    RRCAT BARC. Additional activity for LIGO-India
    can be factored in XII plan if the approvals
    come in early.

Logistics and Preliminary Plans
  • Teams at Electronics Instrumentation Groups at
    BARC may be interested in large instrumentation
    projects in XII plan.
  • Control software Interface 2 Engineers
  • install and maintain the computer software
    interface, distributed networking and control
    system). RRCAT and BARC. Computer software
    interface (part of the data acquisition system)
    and is the Human-machine-interface for the
    interferometer. For seamless implementation man
    power to be sourced from teams implementing
    Electronic Control System.
  • Site Selection Civil Construction
  • BARC Seismology Division Data reg. seismic noise
    at various DAE sites to do initial selection of
    sites and shortlist based on other considerations
    such as accessibility and remoteness from road
    traffic etc. DAE Directorate of Construction,
    services and Estate Management (DCSEM)
    Co-ordinate design and construction of the
    required civil structures required for the ITF.
    2 engineers 3 technicians (design supervision
    of constructions at site). Construction
    contracted to private construction firm under
    supervision of DCSEM.