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Politics

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Politics 1868 to 1896 Election of 1868 Radical Republicans chose U.S. Grant as their candidate. They were champions of a vigorous Southern reconstruction policy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics


1
Politics 1868 to 1896
2
Election of 1868
  • Radical Republicans chose U.S. Grant as their
    candidate. They were champions of a vigorous
    Southern reconstruction policy, defenders of
    Northern financial and business interests
    against Western agrarians and payment of public
    debt in gold. The Democrats chose Horatio
    Seymour who drafted a platform that
    Reconstruction was unconstitutional and favored
    the Ohio Ideathat proposed government bonds
    should be paid in greenbacks rather than gold.
    Grant won 214 to 80 electoral votes but the white
    voters did not endorse the Radical Republicans.

3
Grants Presidency 1868 -1872
  • Low standard of public morality
  • Business leaders sought and received favors from
    the government for a price
  • Government officials betrayed the interests of
    their constituents
  • Politicians used public office as a source of
    private profit

4
Problems under Grant
  1. Advisors personal friends and relatives
  2. Gold conspiracy Gould and Fisk attempted to
    corner the gold supply. Even though Grant at the
    last moment prevented the plot, it brought
    financial ruin to many on Black Friday, September
    24, 1869.
  3. Tweed Ring William Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall
    and his friends committed against New York City,
    Thomsa Nasts political cartoons will help bring
    Tweed and his gang down in 1871.

4. Credit Mobilier Scandal graft and
political connection with the building of the
Union Pacific RR surfaced in 1872. Shares of
stock were purchased by government officials in
order to influence legislation. VP resigns
thoroughly discredited. Dividends ranged up to
350.
5
Election of 1872
  • Democrats and Liberal Republicans nominated
    Horace Greely. LR opposed radical reconstruction,
    wanted civil service, lower tariffs, and against
    Grants corruption
  • Greely carried only six states but liberals
    began to have an influence in policy

6
Grants Presidency 1872 -1876
  • Salary Grab Congress in 1873 voted a 50 salary
    increase for themselves - repealed next Congress
  • Sanborn Contracts In 1874, Sec. Of Treasury had
    to resign. He had permitted J.D. Sanborn to
    retain exorbitant commissions for collecting
    unpaid taxes.
  • District Ring Grant appoints the Governor of
    D.C. despite his known graft and corruption to
    head a commission . Senate refuses to ratify
    appointment.
  • Whiskey Ring Sec. Of Treasury Bristow uncovered
    a conspiracy to defraud the government of taxes
    on whiskey. Grants private secretary , O.E.
    Babcock, was involved.
  • Belknap Scandal Sec. Of War Belknap resigned
    before being impeached as he had accepted bribes
    for several years for trading on Indian
    reservations.
  • Slaughter house cases 1873
  • Panic of 1873 set off a five year depression

7
The Greenback Question
1. Crime of 73 to contract the volume of
paper money greenbacks to be redeemed
only in gold. 2. Congress passes a bill in 1874
to add more Greenbacks into economy. Grant
vetoes. 3. Specie Resumtion Act of 1874
Greenbacks remain in circulation but after
January 1, 1879 , redeemable at face value
in gold. 4. Greenback Party created in 1875. It
will decline due to the increase favoring
of free and unlimited coinage of silver.
8
Election of 1876
Hayes wins disputed elected. Reconstruction ends
with Compromise of 1877
9
Events under Hayes
  • Bland Allison Act 1878 - 2 4 M worth of
    silver to be coined each month into silver
    dollars. Hayes vetoed but passed over his veto.
  • January 1, 1879, greenbacks would be redeemed at
    face value in gold.

10
Election of 1880
  • James Blaine Rep. Ohio wins election as a dark
    horse a halfbreed
  • Republican Party split His vice president Chester
    Arthur was a Stalwart
  • A. Stalwarts led by Roscoe Conkling
    favored civil service reform
  • B. Halfbreeds led by James Blaine
    partially favored civil service reform
  • Solid South after 1876 the Democrats could
    count on the South to vote Democratic. This will
    hold true for the next 100 years
  • Waving the bloody shirt Congressional members
    will place a bloody shirt from the Civil War and
    wave it on the floor to remind members of
    Congress about the Civil War.
  • GOP the Republican Party becomes known as the
    Grand Old Party
  • Garfield is assassinated September 1881

11
Arthurs Presidency
  • Pendleton Act 1883 Civil service Reform
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Burlingame Treaty
    1868 granted Chinese subjects unrestricted rights
    of immigration and equality of treatment with
    other immigrants. Due to threat of Chinese
    competing with American labor, Chinese labor was
    excluded for 10 years.
  • Pork Barrel Appropriations- Surplus in government
    treasury from 1870 1880 allowed pork barrel
    projects to double. Congress approved
    improvements and public works in their respective
    districts.

12
Election of 1884
  • Grover Cleveland (NY) wins over James Blaine
    (Maine)
  • Reasons for Cleveland winning
  • A. Mulligan Letters
  • B. Mugwumps
  • C. Prohibitionists in upstate NY normally
    Republican voted Democrat
  • D. Rum, Romanism, Rebellion speech

13
Clevelands Presidency
  • Repeal of Tenure of Office Act
  • Presidential Succession Act
  • Dawes Act
  • Interstate Commerce Act
  • Pension controversy
  • Tariff Controversy

14
Election of 1888
  • Cleveland opposed the tariff
  • Harrison favored the higher tariff to protect
    American industry
  • Cleveland won the popular vote by 100,000 but
    lost the electoral vote 233 -168

15
Harrisons Presidency
  • Thomas Czar Reed is Speaker of the House . His
    power is enforced by defeating the Democrats at
    their attempt to take over Congressional power.
  • Billion Dollar Congress the surplus of money
    was dissipated through increased expenditures.
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890 government
    to purchase 4.5 M of silver each month
    treasury notes redeemable in gold or silver
  • McKinley Tariff woolen and cotton goods, and
    steel products were increased
  • Sugar subsidy raw sugar on free duty list and
    granted a bounty of 2 a pound to domestic
    producers of raw sugar. Benefited American Sugar
    Refining Co.
  • Sherman Anti Trust Act 1890

16
Election of 1892

James B. Weaver Populist 22 electoral votes
Benjamin Harrison Republican
Grover Cleveland - Democrat
17
Clevelands Presidency
  • Panic of 1893
  • a. speculation
  • b. government expenditures caused deficit
  • c. hoarding of gold
  • d. decline in confidence of government to
    meet its gold obligations
  • e. gold reserve fell to below 100M
  • Coxeys Army 1893
  • Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1893
  • Wilson Gorman Tariff 1893
  • Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust 1894
  • U.S. E.C. Knight Co. 1895
  • Morgan contract 1895
  • Pullman Strike 1894

18
Election of 1896

William McKinley Republican gold William
Jennings Bryan Democrat silver
Republican victory meant 1. Dominace of
Eastern business interests in government 2.
Triumph of conservative financiersin fiscal
ploicy 3. Defeat of farmers and laborers
against industrialists
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